Health Policy Developments 11 -  - ebook

Health Policy Developments 11 ebook

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The spotlight of Health Policy Developments 11 is on primary care. Thirty years after Alma-Ata, the WHO's declaration on primary care has lost none of its relevance. Hopes are high, realization a real challenge: Ideally, primary care overcomes the divide between the outpatient and inpatient sectors and crosses the line to other medical specialties by integrating services and providers. Its structured coordination with care support systems inside and outside the health sector and a clear focus on prevention and support for self-management are already key components of primary care in a number of developed countries. In this publication, we present the latest developments in this highly dynamic area as well as innovations in quality assessment and transparency, patient information and health technology assessment. The International Network Health Policy and Reform aims to narrow the gap between health services research and health policy. Network partners are research institutions and health policy experts from 20 industrialized countries.

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Bibliographic information published by Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic information is available online at http://dnb.d-nb.de
© 2010 E-Book-Ausgabe (EPUB)
© 2009 Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, Gütersloh
Responsible: Sophia SchletteCopy editor: Celia BohannonProduction editor: Sabine ReimannCover design: Nadine HumannCover illustration: © Aperto AG, BerlinTypesetting and printing:Hans Kock Buch- und Offsetdruck GmbH, Bielefeld
ISBN : 978-3-86793-268-4
www.bertelsmann-stiftung.org/publications

www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/verlag

Inhaltsverzeichnis
Titel
Impressum
Preface
Strengthening Primary Care
Organization, competence and levels of care
Denmark: Redefining the role of general practice
Finland: Restructuring municipal health care
United Kingdom: Health and Social Care Act
Estonia: New centers assume responsibility for primary care
Austria: Ambulatory care centers on hold
Professions in primary care
New Zealand: Positive experience with primary care nursing
France: National recommendation for a professional skill mix
Japan: The “general physician” as a new profession?
Caring for the chronically ill
Denmark: Importing the Chronic Care Model
Singapore: Successful DMP for the chronically ill
Appropriateness, Fairness and Transparency
Slovenia: First steps towards Health Technology Assessment
Poland: Major challenge for Health Technology Assessment
Australia: Health Technology Assessment at local level
Finland: More cooperation to assess new medical methods
Australia: More information to reduce number of cesareans
Denmark: Further development of performance measurement
Netherlands: User-based information on health care
South Korea: Database for Drug Utilization Review
France: Electronic pharmaceutical records for patients
National Strategies
Finland: National Development Program for Welfare and Health Care
Switzerland: National e-health strategy launched with e-card
Netherlands: Rise in the number of independent treatment centers
Updates
Estonia: National health information system launched
Austria: Code of reimbursement contains costs of pharmaceuticals
United States: Evaluating pay for performance initiatives
United States: Can the Oregon Health Plan be rescued?
The International Network Health Policy and Reform
Survey preparation and proceedings
Reporting criteria
Policy ratings
Project management
Reform tracker countries
Reform tracker health policy topics
Preface
Dear readers,
In this series, we have been reporting on the latest health policy developments in the 20 partner countries of the International Network for Health Policy and Reform ever since 2003. In order to allow you to express your opinion of our twice-yearly publications, we included a reader questionnaire with issue 10. We would like to thank all those who have already provided us with feedback and would like to invite all others to follow their example.
A bridge between academic study and policymaking
The feedback we have received has been most encouraging. It is especially pleasing to note that Health Policy Developments is considered of interest to and helpful for a very varied readership which includes policy-makers and members of staff from the political arena as well as representatives from the worlds of self-management, journalism and academic disciplines. It is our goal to present health policy developments and approaches in an objective, impartial and comprehensible manner and thereby to build bridges between the worlds of academic study and politics. According to our readers, this series of book publications makes a significant contribution toward this goal. Some of our readers would find compact booklets on individual topic areas useful. We intend to incorporate this idea, together with your suggestions for topics, in our project work in the near future.
Now more than ever
The main focus of Health Policy Developments 11 is on primary care. In this, we are in good company. In its 2008 World Health Report, published 30 years after the declaration of Alma-Ata, the World Health Organization (WHO) has re-examined the concept of primary health care as defined at that time and emphasized that the 1978 declaration has lost none of its relevance in the intervening years. On the contrary, primary care is now more vital than ever before.
A subject area which for so long has been neglected and even disparaged by physicians and politicians alike is therefore becoming more and more important in the current climate of demographic change and the changing needs of older and chronically ill patients. Primary care is much more than general medical care. Ideally, it overcomes the divide between the outpatient and inpatient sectors and crosses the borderline to other medical disciplines by coordinating services and service providers from different sectors. Its integration into the care and service systems operating outside the health service and a clear focus on prevention and support for self-management are already key components of primary care in a number of developed countries.
Primary care reform as a work in progress
The trend today is clearly in favor of strengthening primary care. In many countries, more resources are being allocated to research in this area, new university chairs are being set up and model projects are being promoted. Primary care is currently a highly dynamic area of ongoing reform and is subject to constant development, integration and expansion. In this publication, we present the latest developments from nine countries.
Appropriateness, fairness and transparency
Under the heading “Appropriateness, Fairness and Transparency” we turn our attention to a further topic which is of great concern to health policymakers and experts all over the world. How can the benefits of medicine be evaluated with a view to ensuring that available resources are allocated based on need, effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and appropriate use? How can suitable evaluative procedures be developed that are both transparent and comprehensible to all concerned? How can the quality of health care provision be measured in a way that is both reliable and conducive to transparency? Our examples from nine partner countries show how different healthcare systems are addressing these issues. Part and parcel of this subject is the concept of Health Technology Assessment, which is being applied in an increasing number of countries. This is a process of systematic assessment of medical technologies, procedures and resources, but one which also extends to the organizational structures in which medical services are provided. This involves analyzing a number of criteria ranging from effectiveness, safety and cost factors to social, legal and ethical aspects.
Reporting period autumn 2007 to spring 2008
As always, the sources of information for this book were the expert reports of the International Network for Health Policy and Reform. The current volume presents the results of the eleventh half-yearly survey which covers the period from October 2007 to April 2008. From the 81 reports of reforms received, we have selected 26 for inclusion in this volume.
Our special thanks are due to Susanne Werner, freelance journalist and consultant (of the agency ‘Kommunikation • Gesundheit • Netzwerk’), for her help in compiling the first draft of the German issue of this book, to LinguaServe Language Services for the English translation and to Ines Galla (Bertelsmann Foundation) for her organizational assistance in preparing this publication.
Above all, our thanks also go to all experts from the partner institutions and their external co-authors: Ain Aaviksoo, Tit Albreht, Gerard Anderson, Benjamin Bittschi, Yann Bourgueil, Chantal Cases, Terkel Christiansen, Elena Conis, Luca Crivelli, Stefan Eichwalder, Anne Frølich, Gisselle Gallego, Kees van Gool, Peter Groenewegen, Maria M. Hofmarcher, Minna Kaila, Troels Kristensen, Markus Kraus, Christian Kronborg, Soonman Kwon, Siret Läänelaid, Lim Meng Kin, Philippe Le Fur, Hans Maarse, Ryozo Matsuda, Carol Medlin, Adam Oliver, Gerli Paat, Tanaz Petigara, Michaela L. Schiotz, Martin Strandberg-Larsen, Eva Turk, Lauri Vuorenkoski and Cezary Wlodarczyk.
We are grateful for any comments and suggestions you may have regarding issue 11 of Health Policy Developments and these may be addressed to the editors. We look forward to receiving your suggestions for improvement.
Sophia Schlette, Kerstin Blum, Reinhard Busse
Strengthening Primary Care
Primary care is a key instrument of control for an effective and efficient health service. Countries with a well-structured system of basic health care usually perform better in terms of selected health indicators. Evidence-based studies from England show, for example, that each additional GP per 10,000 inhabitants reduces the mortality rate by six percent (Starfield et al. 2005: 462). The World Health Organization (WHO) has emphasized the importance of primary care in a number of policy statements. The 1978 Declaration of Alma-Ata, which today still holds valid as a guiding principle and which has been confirmed by the WHO as its goal in the organization’s 2008 World Health Report, defines primary care as

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