Food Authentication -  - ebook

Food Authentication ebook

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Opis

The determination of food authenticity is a vital component of quality control. Its importance has been highlighted in recent years by high-profile cases in the global supply chain such as the European horsemeat scandal and the Chinese melamine scandal which led to six fatalities and the hospitalisation of thousands of infants. As well as being a safety concern, authenticity is also a quality criterion for food and food ingredients. Consumers and retailers demand that the products they purchase and sell are what they purport to be. This book covers the most advanced techniques used for the authentication of a vast number of products around the world. The reader will be informed about the latest pertinent analytical techniques. Chapters focus on the novel techniques & markers that have emerged in recent years. An introductory section presents the concepts of Food Authentication while the second section examines in detail the analytical techniques for the detection of fraud relating to geographical, botanical, species and processing origin and production methods of food materials and ingredients. Finally, the third section looks at consumer attitudes towards food authenticity, the application of bioinformatics to this field, and the Editor's conclusions and future outlook. Beyond being a reference to researchers working in Food Authentication it will serve as an essential source to analytical scientists interested in the field and food scientists to appreciate analytical approaches. This book will be a companion to under- and postgraduate students in their wander in Food Authentication and aims to be useful to researchers in universities and research institutions.

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Table of Contents

Cover

Title Page

Copyright

List of Contributors

Preface

Part A: Introduction and Status

Chapter 1: Introduction, Definitions and Legislation

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Definitions

1.3 Geographical Indications

1.4 Organics

1.5 Conclusion

References

Legislation Acts

Chapter 2: Food Authentication by Numbers

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Research Trends

2.3 Analytical Techniques

2.4 Countries

2.5 Journals

References

Part B: Consumer Attitudes Towards Authentic Food and Market Analysis

Chapter 3: The Concept of Authenticity and its Relevance to Consumers: Country and Place Branding in the Context of Food Authenticity

3.1 Introduction: The Challenge of Authenticity

3.2 Countries as Brands: The Country-of-Origin (COO) Effect on Product Choices

3.3 Place Branding: Geographic Indication Labels and their Effect on Food Choice

3.4 Conclusion: Towards a Definiton of Authenticity in a Business Context

Acknowledgements

References

Part C: Geographical, Botanical, and Species Origin, Method of Production and Food Frauds Detection

Chapter 4: Elemental Fingerprinting

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Elemental Techniques

4.3 Sample Preparation: Pretreatment

4.4 Applications

4.5 Conclusions and Outlook

References

Chapter 5: Isotopic Fingerprinting

5.1 Light Isotopes

5.1.1 Introduction

5.1.2 Application of Stable Isotope Ratios in Food Control

References

5.2 Heavy Isotopes

5.2.1 Introduction

5.2.2 Quality vs. Geographical Traceability

5.2.3 The Isotopic Approach to Food Traceability

5.2.4 Bioavailability

References

Legislation

Chapter 6: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance – Metabolomics

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Olive Oils

6.3 NMR for Investigating Fruit Metabolomics

6.4 NMR Metabolomics of Transgenic Vegetable Food

References

Chapter 7: Chromatography

7.1 Introduction to Chromatography – Techniques

7.1.1 Introduction

7.1.2 Chromatography

Acknowledgements

References

7.2 Chromatography – Applications

7.2.1 Introduction

7.2.2 Carbohydrates

7.2.3 Food Proteins and Peptides

7.2.4 Fatty Acids and Triacylglicerols

7.2.5 Volatile Compounds

7.2.6 Phenolic Compounds

7.2.7 Organic Acids

7.2.8 Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 8: Vibrational and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

8.1 Vibrational Spectroscopy

8.1.1 Introduction

8.1.2 Instrumentation and Software

8.1.3 Applications of Vibrational Spectroscopy in Food Authenticity

8.1.4 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives

References

8.2 Fluorescence Spectroscopy

8.2.1 Fluorescence

8.2.2 Chemometrics

8.2.3 Applications in Foods and Drinks

8.2.4 Conclusions and Perspectives

References

Chapter 9: Molecular Techniques – Genomics and Proteomics

9.1 Introduction

9.2 DNA-Based Methods

9.3 Proteomics for Species and Geographical Origin Authentication

9.4 Future Trends

References

Chapter 10: Immunological Techniques

10.1

Introduction

10.2

Immunoassays

10.3

Meat Speciation

10.4

Fish and Shellfish Authentication

10.5

Fruit Juices

10.6

Botanical Origin of Honey

10.7

Irradiated and Genetically Modified Foods

10.8

Conclusions

References

Chapter 11: Sensory Analysis

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Organoleptic Evaluation and Food Quality

11.3 Human Sensory Panels: Response and Subjectivity

11.4 Instrumental Sensory Analysis

11.5 Future Trends

References

Chapter 12: MALDI Mass Spectrometry: A Promising Non-Chromatographic Technique

12.1 Introduction

12.2 MALDI MS Principles

12.3 MALDI-TOF-MS for Food Proteins and Peptides Analysis

12.4 MALDI-TOF-MS for Lipids Analysis

12.5 MALDI-TOF-MS for Illegal Mixture Detection

12.6 MALDI-TOF-MS for Microbial Contamination Detection

Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 13: Detection of Food Processing Techniques

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Freezing–Thawing

13.3 Irradiation

13.4 Heating Techniques

13.5 Conclusion

References

Chapter 14: Adulteration Stories

14.1 Introduction

14.2 A Flashback

14.3 Food Fraud Incidents

14.4 Conclusions

References

Chapter 15: Organic Foods

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Biochemical Markers and Analytical Platforms

15.3 Sampling

15.4 Sample Preparation and Extraction

15.5 Instrumental Analysis

15.6 Data Analysis

15.7 Conclusions and Future Trends

References

Chapter 16: Screening and High-Throughput Multi-Contaminants Methods

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Sample Preparation

16.3 Separation and Detection

16.4 Conclusions

References

Chapter 17: Chemometrics – Bioinformatics

17.1 The Role of Chemometrics in Food Authentication

17.2 Methodology

References

Chapter 18: Conclusions and Prospects

References

Index

End User License Agreement

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547

548

Guide

cover

Table of Contents

Preface

Part A: Introduction and Status

Begin Reading

List of Tables

Chapter 3: The Concept of Authenticity and its Relevance to Consumers: Country and Place Branding in the Context of Food Authenticity

Table 3.1 Research areas on COO effect

Table 3.2 Means, standard deviations and statistically significant differences of clusters, CET-SCALE (

n

=274).

Table 3.4 Mediterranean diet (Rockefeller Foundation 1948, adapted from Helsing 1995). Sources of calories consumed (%) in Crete

a

and the US

b

1948

Table 3.5 Conjoint factors and factor levels per country.

Table 3.6 Sample's purchasing frequencies (selection), %,

N

=997

Table 3.7 Cluster's quality food purchasing pattern (%),

N

=997. Bold font: highest value; italics font: lowest value

Table 3.8 Cluster's quality food purchasing profiles (products with statistically significant difference among the clusters), %.

Table 3.9 Product categorisation and observed performance measures.

Table 3.10 DMD (attribute) and BBD (attribute level) polarisation

ϕ

v. market share.

Chapter 4: Elemental Fingerprinting

Table 4.1 Common ICP-MS interferences.

Table 4.2 ICP-MS comparison with other spectroscopic techniques

Table 8.2.1 List of food-fluorophores.

Chapter 9: Molecular Techniques – Genomics and Proteomics

Table 9.1 Summary of the DNA-based methods applied to food authentication.

Table 9.2 Summary of the proteomics-based methods applied to food authentication.

Chapter 10: Immunological Techniques

Table 10.1 Immunoassays for meat species identification.

Chapter 12: MALDI Mass Spectrometry: A Promising Non-Chromatographic Technique

Table 12.1 List of some common used UV-MALDI matrices.

Chapter 13: Detection of Food Processing Techniques

Table 13.1 Standardized EU analytical methods for the detection of irradiated foodstuffs.

Chapter 15: Organic Foods

Table 15.1 Selected examples of analytical platform discriminating between organic and conventional.

Chapter 16: Screening and High-Throughput Multi-Contaminants Methods

Table 16.1 Recent advances in MRMs methods (NA: not available)

Food Authentication

Management, Analysis and Regulation

 

Edited by Constantinos A. Georgiou and Georgios P. Danezis

 

Agricultural University of Athens, Greece

 

 

 

 

 

 

This edition first published 2017 © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

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The right of Constantinos A. Georgiou and Georgios P. Danezis to be identified as the author(s) of the editorial material in this work has been asserted in accordance with law.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

Names: Georgiou, Constantinos A.; Danezis, Georgios P., editors.

Title: Food authentication : management, analysis and regulation / [edited by] Constantinos A. Georgiou.

Description: Chichester, UK ; Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, 2017. | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2016055351| ISBN 9781118810262 (cloth) | ISBN 9781118810255 (epub)

Subjects: LCSH: Food industry and trade-Safety measures. | Food supply-Management. | Food-Quality control.

Classification: LCC TP373.5 .F6635 2017 | DDC 363.19/26-dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016055351

Cover Images: (Background) 97/Gettyimages; (Circles: Top to bottom) Hurst Photo/Shutterstock; nevodka/Shutterstock; Pannonia/Gettyimages

Cover Design: Wiley

List of Contributors

Laura Aceña

Department of Analytical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry

Universitat Rovira i Virgili

Tarragona

Spain

 

Jorge Barros-Velázquez

Department of Analytical Chemistry Nutrition and Food ScienceSchool of Veterinary Sciences/College of Biotechnology

University of Santiago de Compostela

Lugo

Spain

 

Lucia Bertacchini

Department of Chemical and Geological SciencesUniversity of Modena and Reggio Emilia

Modena

Italy

 

Karola Böhme

International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL)

Braga

Portugal

 

Ricard Boqué

Department of Analytical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry

Universitat Rovira i Virgili

Tarragona

Spain

 

Olga Busto

Department of Analytical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry

Universitat Rovira i Virgili

Tarragona

Spain

 

Pilar Calo-Mata

Department of Analytical Chemistry Nutrition and Food ScienceSchool of Veterinary Sciences/College of Biotechnology

University of Santiago de Compostela

Lugo

Spain

 

Cosima D. Calvano

Dipartimento di ChimicaUniversità degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro

Bari

Italy

 

Donatella Capitani

Laboratorio di Risonanza Magnetica “Annalaura Segre”

Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche CNR Area della Ricerca di Roma

Rome

Italy

 

Marina Cocchi

Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences

University of Modena and Reggio Emilia

Modena

Italy

 

Marta Corzo-Martínez

Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación, CIAL (CSIC-UAM)

Madrid

Spain

 

Daniel Cozzolino

Central Queensland UniversitySchool of Medical and Applied Sciences

Central Queensland Innovation and Research Precinct

Rockhampton

Australia

 

Gabriela Cristea

National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies

Cluj-Napoca

Romania

 

Georgios P. Danezis

Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition

Agricultural University of Athens

Athens

Greece

 

Caterina Durante

Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences

University of Modena and Reggio Emilia

Modena

Italy

 

Constantinos A. Georgiou

Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition

Agricultural University of Athens

Athens

Greece

 

Yun-Hwa Peggy Hsieh

Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences

Florida State University

Florida

USA

 

Natasa P. Kalogiouri

Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry Department of Chemistry

National and KapodistrianUniversity of Athens

Athens

Greece

 

Athanasios Krystallis

MAPP Centre

Aarhus University

Aarhus

Denmark

 

Mario Li Vigni

Department of Chemical and Geological Sciences

University of Modena and Reggio Emilia

Modena

Italy

 

Dana Alina Magdas

National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies

Cluj-Napoca

Romania

 

Luisa Mannina

Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco

Sapienza Università di Roma

Rome

Italyand

Laboratorio di Risonanza Magnetica

“Annalaura Segre”Istituto di Metodologie ChimicheCNR Area della Ricerca di Roma

Rome

Italy

 

Andrea Marchetti

Department of Chemical and Geological SciencesUniversity of Modena and Reggio Emilia

Modena

Italy

 

Fotini Mellou

Institute of Theoretical and Physical Chemistry

National Hellenic Research Foundation

Athens

Greece

 

Montserrat Mestres

Department of Analytical Chemistry and Organic Chemistry

Universitat Rovira i Virgili

Tarragona

Spain

 

Antonio Monopoli

Dipartimento di Chimica

Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro

Bari

Italy

 

F. Javier Moreno

Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias de la Alimentación

CIAL (CSIC-UAM)

Madrid

Spain

 

Georgios Mousdis

Institute of Theoretical and Physical Chemistry

National Hellenic Research Foundation

Athens

Greece

 

Jack Appiah Ofori

Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences

Florida State University

Florida

USA

 

M. Beatriz P.P. Oliveira

REQUIMTE, Chemical Sciences Department, Faculty of Pharmacy

University of Porto

Porto

Portugal

 

Ignacio Ortea

Department of Food Chemistry

Institute for Marine Research Spanish National Research Council

Vigo

Spain

and

Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EC-JRC-IRMM)

Geel

Belgium

 

Constantinos A. Papachristidis

Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition

Agricultural University of Athens

Athens

Greece

 

Yolanda Picó

Environmental and Food Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV)Desertification Research Centre (CIDE) UV-GV-CSIC and Department of Medicine PreventiveFaculty of Pharmacy

University of València

València

Spain

 

Ana I. Ruiz-Matute

Instituto de Química Orgánica General (CSIC)

Madrid

Spain

 

Joana Santos

REQUIMTE, Chemical Sciences Department, Faculty of Pharmacy

University of Porto

Porto

Portugal

 

M. Luz Sanz

Instituto de Química Orgánica General (CSIC)

Madrid

Spain

 

Anatoly P. Sobolev

Laboratorio di Risonanza Magnetica “Annalaura Segre”

Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche CNR Area della Ricerca di Roma

Rome

Italy

 

Demetrios G. Sotirchos

Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition

Agricultural University of AthensAthens

Greece

 

Nikolaos S. Thomaidis

Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry Department of ChemistryNational and Kapodistrian

University of Athens

Athens

Greece

 

Aristidis S. Tsagkaris

Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition

Agricultural University of Athens

Athens

Greece

 

Carlo G. Zambonin

Dipartimento di ChimicaUniversità degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro

Bari

Italy

Preface

Food Authentication: Management, Analysis and Regulation has been written by an international group of peers with high academic and research credentials. As well as providing a reference for researchers working in food authentication, it will serve as an essential source of information for analytical and food scientists in the field in who have an interest in analytical approaches. The book is also a companion for under- and postgraduate students in their study of food authentication, and aims to be useful to researchers in universities and research institutions.

We would like to acknowledge the generous contribution of all the chapter authors. The remarkable effort of the contributors that are leading scientists in their field is greatly appreciated. Further, we acknowledge Wiley staff for their helpful assistance through the development of this project. It has been a pleasure to work with all of you. Last, but not least, we thank our families for their support.

To our families,

Constantinos A. Georgiouand Georgios P. DanezisAgricultural University of Athens, GreeceDecember 2016

Part AIntroduction and Status