Bound to Cooperate - Europe and the Middle East II -  - ebook

Bound to Cooperate - Europe and the Middle East II ebook

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Opis

The Middle East is a region of crises, conflicts and wars as much as it is a region of great potential and opportunity. However, the European Union and its member states have not yet found a viable strategic approach to meet both the challenges and opportunities in their immediate neighbourhood. The Europeans have not yet developed sufficient foreign and security policy mechanisms to pursue their interests effectively. How the European Union can support economic and political transformation processes throughout the region and thus contribute to a more stable, more prosperous and more democratic Middle East remains the subject of intense debate. The objective of this book is to provide a platform for this debate about the European Union's future role as a player in the Middle East, at a crucial moment in EU-U.S.-Middle East relations. As the European Union re-organizes its Mediterranean policies and the United States vote a new president into office, the authors of this book discuss a wide range of topics related to European foreign policy in the Middle East, the Mediterranean and the Gulf region, Europe's role in the Arab-Israeli conflict and the state of transformation processes in the region.

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Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.
© 2010 E-Book-Ausgabe (EPUB)
© 2008 Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, Gütersloh
Responsible: Christian-Peter Hanelt
Editors: Kurt Klotzle, Sibylle Reiter
Production editor: Christiane Raffel
Cover design: Nadine Humann
Cover illustration: PhotoDisc
Typesetting: pagina GmbH, Tübingen
Printing: Hans Kock Buch- und Offsetdruck GmbH, Bielefeld
ISBN : 978-3-86793-239-4
www.bertelsmann-stiftung.org/publications

www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/verlag

Inhaltsverzeichnis
Titel
Impressum
Danksagung
Einleitung
I The European Union as a Player in the Middle East and North Africa Region
The European Union and the Middle East: Coping with Challenges, Seizing Opportunities
Introduction
A New Middle East, a New European Union
The EU: Maturing as a Player in the Middle East
Improving Policy with a New Strategic Concept and a Focused Agenda
Concluding Remarks
References
How Will the Treaty of Lisbon Impact the European Union’s Foreign, Security and ...
Introduction
Defining the Demand: The European Union and Security Policy in 2008
Meeting the Demand: The Treaty of Lisbon and the Reform of CFSP and ESDP
Conclusion: The EU as the Institutionalist’s Dream- and the Strategist’s Nightmare
References
Conceptualizing the Middle East as a Region of Strategic Interest: A Critical ...
Introduction
The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
The European Neighbourhood Policy
The Mediterranean Union/the Union for the Mediterranean
Conclusion
References
The Eastern and Southern Dimensions of the European Neighbourhood Policy: Are ...
Genesis and Overall Goals of the European Neighbourhood Policy
The ENP: Diverse Actors, Priorities and Regions
The Mediterranean versus the Eastern European Agenda: Assessing Reconcilability
ENP and Beyond: Concepts to Reduce the ENP’s East-South Gap
Conclusion
References
The Mediterranean Union as a Project of Differentiated Integration
Introduction
Current State of Play
Lessons from the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership: Policy Recommendations for the Future
Ten Key Aspects of Euro-Mediterranean Geopolitical Dynamics
South-South Interaction
The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership
The European Neighbourhood Policy
Conclusion
References
EU-GCC Economic Relations in the Global Context
Introduction
EU Versus Member State Relations with the GCC
EU-GCC Trade and Investment: The Record
The Saga of the Free Trade Agreement
EU-GCC Energy Relations
EU-GCC Cooperation in Monetary Affairs
EU-GCC Cooperation in the Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan Africa
Conclusion: EU-GCC Cooperation in the Context of Shifting Global Economic Relations
The United States, Europe and the Middle East: Shifting Challenges and Priorities
Introduction
U.S. Interests: Constants and Change
U.S. Agenda for 2008
Impact of U.S. Domestic Politics
Conclusion: Prospects for U.S./European Cooperation
References
II The Arab-Israeli Conflict
Israel-Arab Peace: Israel and the Regional Approach
Israel’s Interaction with the Region in Recent Years
Israel and the Arab Peace Initiative
Systemic Regional and International Weakness
The Annapolis Conference
Conclusion
References
The Arab Peace Initiative as a Vision for Peace with the State of Israel: Steps ...
Background
The Initiative
Renewed Peace Efforts: The Annapolis Conference
Conclusions
References
Syria’s Role in the Middle East: Spoiler or Stabilizer?
Introduction
Background: Syria under Hafez Assad
The Domestic Insecurity Hypothesis
Syria under Bashar Assad
Explaining Syria’s External Action
Syria’s External Action in Motion
Conclusion
References
Iran as a Regional Player in the Arab-Israeli Conflict
Introduction
Looking East
Iran and Israel: A Tangled Relationship
A Default Regional Power
Iran: Different from the Arab World and Israel
No Nuclear Weapons
The Iranian Perspective: U.S. Interference in Regional Affairs
Conclusion
References
After Annapolis: What Is Europe’s Role in Facilitating the Implementation of a ...
The Significance of the Annapolis-Paris Process
The European Union’s Role in Annapolis and Paris
The European Union’s Options in the Annapolis-Paris Process
Evaluating the Role of the European Union in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict ...
References
For Further Reading
III The State of Transformation Processes in the Middle East
Transformation toward Democracy and a Social Market Economy? Political and ...
Introduction
Between Political Opening and the Maintenance of Authoritarianism
For the Best of Society? Between Market Reforms and State Interventionism
Conclusion
References
For Further Reading
The Role of Women in Transforming Middle Eastern and North African Societies
Introduction
The Paradox of Women’s Empowerment in the Middle East and North Africa
Socioeconomic and Political Profile of the Region
Roadblocks on the Way to Women’s Liberation in the Middle East and North Africa
Women’s Role in Processes of Transformation
Conclusion
References
The Crisis in Lebanon: Some Thoughts on How to Overcome It
Scene One: Lebanon between Two Iraqs
Scene Two: Lebanon between America and Iran, and between Israel and Syria
Scene Three: The Death of the “Lebanese Formula”
Building the State and Sovereignty
Political Reforms
Administrative and Judicial Reforms
Sectarianism and the Status of Religion
Conclusion
Scenarios for the Future of Iraq and the Role of Europe: How Will Europe Engage?
Introduction
American Interests and Options in Iraq
European Interests and Options
What If Things Get Better?
What If Things Get Worse?
Conclusions
References
Democracy Revisited: An Arab’s Perspective
Introduction
Development of the Discourse
Western Disinterest
Western Involvement
9/11 and its Aftermath
The Current State of the Discourse
A Shift in the Discourse
Conclusion
References
The Role of Media in the Arab World’s Transformation Process
Introduction
The Emergence of the New Arab Public Sphere
Mass Media and System Change-the Missing Link to Civil Society
The Media and the Transformation of Arab Political Culture
Conclusion
References
The Rise of Political Islam and the Implications for European Foreign Policy
Introduction
The European Union’s Dilemma: Stability versus Democracy
Conceptual Misunderstandings and the Plurality of Islamism
Creating a Representative Civil Society
Islamist Positions on Democracy and Constitutionalism
Cultural Particularism versus Universal Values: The Example of Women’s Rights
What Moderate Islamists Expect from Europe
Conclusions: What Should Europe Do?
References
For Further Reading
About the Authors
Acknowledgements
We wish to thank Kurt Klotzle for his incisive language-editing skills, Sibylle Reiter, who was a great support in all parts of the editing process, and Sabine Reimann of Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung for making this volume possible at a crucial moment of EU-U.S.-Middle East relations.
This book would not have been possible without the support of our colleagues and friends in Europe, the Middle East and the United States-many of whom have contributed to this book-who have continuously inspired our work on Europe and the Middle East in recent years. We enjoy being part of such a vibrant community of Middle Eastern analysts and practitioners, and we would like to take the occasion of the publication of this volume to thank them all for sharing their commitment and dedication with us.
Christian-Peter Hanelt and Almut MöllerGütersloh and Berlin, September 2008
Introduction
Christian-Peter Hanelt and Almut Möller
“Bound to Cooperate-Europe and the Middle East II” builds on the first volume of the same title, which was compiled and edited by Sven Behrendt and Christian-Peter Hanelt and published in 2000 as part of the Bertelsmann Stiftung’s project “Europe and the Middle East.” For more than a decade, this project has been focusing on the wider Middle East region through the lens of the European Union’s foreign, security and neighbourhood policy. The project brings together analysts, policymakers and representatives of the business, culture and media world from Europe, the Middle East and the United States. Using various formats, it examines a wide spectrum of issues related to developments in the Middle East. Through this engagement, the Stiftung aims to trigger debates in the triangle of Europe, the Middle East and the United States, and to strengthen the role of the European Union in its neighbouring Mediterranean, Middle East and Gulf regions.
Developments in the Middle East are of crucial importance to Europe. The Middle East is a region of crises, conflicts and wars, and at the same time a region of great potential and opportunity. However, in our view, the European Union and its member states still have not found a viable strategic approach to meet both the challenges and opportunities in their direct neighbourhood, and they have not yet developed sufficient foreign and security policy mechanisms to pursue their interests effectively. Despite a number of initiatives since the 1990s, it remains a subject of ongoing debate how the European Union can effectively support economic and political transformation processes throughout the region and thus contribute to a more stable, more prosperous and more democratic Middle East.
With this book, it is our objective to give a platform to the debate over the EU’s future role as a player in the Middle East. The chapters cover a wide range of topics representing the fields that the “Europe and the Middle East” project has been engaging in since the turn of the millennium. We are pleased to have gained the support of an impressive list of distinguished authors, some of whom we have been working with for many years.
Since the year 2000, both the European Union and the Middle East have undergone significant developments: the EU’s “XXL” enlargement from 15 to 27 member states; the new Treaty of Lisbon that-if it enters into force-will strengthen, among other things, the Union’s foreign and security policy; the attacks of 9/11; the U.S.-led invasion in Iraq; the economic rise of the oil-rich Gulf monarchies; the Iranian nuclear program; the summer 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah; new efforts to achieve peace between Israel and the Palestinians on the basis of the November 2007 Annapolis conference; and the EU’s recent plans to upgrade the political dimension of its Mediterranean relations through a “Union for the Mediterranean”, to name only a few. And with these key developments, relations between the European Union and the Middle East have undergone significant shifts and gained a new magnitude of importance.
It is against the background of these dynamics that we conceptualized this volume, which consists of three main parts: Part I deals with the past, present and future engagement of the EU as a player in the Middle East and North Africa region. The first two chapters set the stage by providing an overview of the challenges that the EU faces in the Middle East (Almut Möller), and by explaining where the European Union’s foreign, security and defense policies stand with the new Treaty of Lisbon (Thomas Bauer). In light of the EU’s recent initiation to re-organize its Mediterranean and Middle East policies, Geoffrey Edwards assesses the impact and the shortcomings of the EU’s already existing policies-the Barcelona Process and the European Neighbourhood Policy. Iris Kempe adds a nuance to this debate by elaborating on the structural weaknesses of the Union’s Neighbourhood Policy, which seeks to unite a southern and an eastern dimension within a single policy. Stephen Calleya then discusses the plan for a “Union for the Mediterranean” that is intended as a vehicle for reshaping the future of Euro-Mediterranean relations. Giacomo Luciani illustrates that the European Union’s engagement in the region goes beyond the countries of the southern shores of the Mediterranean. The future of the EU’s economic and political relations with the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), the only existing mechanism of regional integration so far, ranks high on the agenda of the French EU presidency in the second half of 2008; and such relations are certain to undergo dynamic development in the future, as the EU pays more and more attention to energy security and sustainability issues. Finally, Michele Dunne adds a transatlantic perspective, as EU-Middle East relations necessarily develop within the wider triangle of EU-Middle East-U.S. relations. The inauguration of a new U.S. president in January 2009 will provide crucial momentum for the development of these relations in the near future.
Since it has been one of the EU’s main fields of engagement and has played a significant role in the work of the Bertelsmann Stiftung in recent years, the Arab-Israeli conflict is the focus of Part II. This volume explores the conflict from different angles. Yossi Alpher represents the Israeli perspective, while Ghassan Khatib takes the perspective of the Palestinians. The roles of Iran and Syria as players in the Arab-Israeli conflict are covered in the chapters by Reza Molavi/Angelo Salting Goode and Murhaf Jouejati. Finally, Christian-Peter Hanelt examines the European Union’s role in the Annapolis and Paris processes launched in late 2007.
Part III focuses on transformation processes in the Arab world. This section explores the central aspects of transformation processes as they unfold in the economic, political, social and cultural realm. Tobias Schumacher provides an overview on the state of political and economic reform in the countries of the Middle East. In their respective contributions, Julia Schmitt-Thiel and Kai Hafez examine the role of women and the media in these transformation processes. Two chapters-the analysis of Iraq by Daniel Serwer and Megan Chabalowski and the discussion of Lebanon by Ziad Majed-take a closer look at the state of play in individual countries where developments currently give cause for concern. Finally, the last two chapters cast an analytical eye on the challenge of democratization from the perspective of an Arab (Walid Kazziha) and the rise of political Islam throughout the region (Ivesa Lübben).
We are well aware that it is nigh on impossible to provide in-depth coverage, within a single volume, of all aspects of EU-Middle East relations as well as internal developments in both regions, while simultaneously situating these developments within a transatlantic perspective. However, we purposely wish to open up this broad spectrum of topics and to raise essential questions as a starting point for more focused debates and further engagement in the future. The volume’s chapters, as diverse as they appear, are bound together insofar as we asked our authors to add a European perspective to their respective topics.
Thus in its own way, this volume offers a reflection of what the European Union, the Middle East and their mutual relations look like at the present moment; they are and will remain “under construction” well into the future. With the chapters of this book, we wish to contribute toward building this future. We hope that the perspectives provided here will be useful and interesting not only for analysts, but also for those engaged in the day-to-day implementation of Middle East policies in European capitals and Washington, and for a broad readership interested in EU-Middle East relations.
Given the rapid pace of change today in the Middle East, we also wish to underscore that most of the papers in this manuscript date from the end of March 2008.
The views expressed by the diverse authors in this volume are not necessarily shared by the editors and by the Bertelsmann Stiftung. However, we appreciate them as proof of a vibrant, open and controversial debate on EU-Middle East relations, and as a source of inspiration for our and your work in the future.
I The European Union as a Player in the Middle East and North Africa Region
The European Union and the Middle East: Coping with Challenges, Seizing Opportunities
Almut Möller

Introduction

Since the year 2000, when the first volume of “Bound to Cooperate: Europe and the Middle East” was published (Hanelt and Behrendt 2000), both the European Union and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region have experienced dynamic changes. This chapter will explore these changes and their impact on relations between these two neighbouring regions. The core argument laid down here is that the enlarged European Union of 27 member states should reconsider its strategic approach and streamline its policies toward the MENA countries in order to ensure that these policies have a stronger impact.
Within this streamlined approach, the European Union should focus on state-building in the Palestinian territories, strengthen its political and economic reform initiatives by concentrating on a limited agenda and better mutual incentives, engage in a dialogue on regional cooperation and integration with the MENA countries and intensify its dialogue with the new U.S. administration that will enter office in 2009.
This chapter examines the Middle East through the lens of the European Union’s foreign and neighbourhood policy. However, the impact that both U.S.-Middle East policy and transatlantic relations have on the European policy-making process cannot be ignored. Thus, while the analysis is cast primarily through the prism of European foreign policy in the region, its arguments will take into consideration the broader context involving the triangle of Europe, the Middle East and the United States.

A New Middle East, a New European Union

Recent foreign policy analyses have begun to speak of a “new” Middle East-though with different meanings and intentions (see, e.g., Haass 2006; United States Department of State 2006; Gerecht 2008). Since 9/11 there have been significant shifts in the geopolitics of the region in the wake of the U.S. democratization strategy, the attack on Iraq, the Iranian nuclear program, the victory of Hamas in the 2006 Palestinian elections, the division between the autonomous and occupied Palestinian territories and the war between Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon in the summer of 2006 (Möller 2008b).
The growing influence of Islamist movements, sectarian divides, terrorism, proliferation, weak regimes lacking legitimacy, stagnating political transformation processes (Schumacher 2008), the risk of state failure, weak moderate forces, widening gaps between rich and poor and the pressure of globalization are the sources of new instabilities in the region. There is a tendency for sudden eruptions of violence and belligerent escalation which is clearly a cause for concern.

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