The Student's Companion to Social Policy -  - ebook

The Student's Companion to Social Policy ebook

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This fully updated and expanded edition of the bestselling Student's Companion to Social Policy charts the latest developments, research, challenges, and controversies in the field in a concise, authoritative format. * Provides students with the analytical base from which to investigate and evaluate key concepts, perspectives, policies, and outcomes at national and international levels * Features a new section on devolution and social policy in the UK; enhanced discussion of international and comparative issues; and new coverage of 'nudge'-based policies, austerity politics, sustainable welfare, working age conditionality, social movements, policy learning and transfer, and social policy in the BRIC countries * Offers essential information for anyone studying social policy, from undergraduates on introductory courses to those pursuing postgraduate or professional programmes * Accompanied by updated online resources to support independent learning and skill development with chapter overviews, study questions, guides to key sources and career opportunities, a key term glossary, and more * Written by a team of experts working at the forefront of social policy

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Contents

Cover

Title Page

Copyright

Notes on Contributors

Introduction

Part I: Concepts and Approaches

Chapter 1: What is Social Policy?

The Subject of Social Policy

The Development of Social Policy

The Welfare State and the Welfare Consensus

Theoretical Pluralism

Emerging Issues: the Future of Social Policy

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 2: Researching Social Policy

Why We Need Research

Approaches, Methods and Designs

Evidence-based Policy and Evaluation

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 3: Social Needs, Social Problems, Social Welfare and Well-being

What is Social Welfare?

What are Social Needs?

What is a Social Problem?

Conclusion

Emerging Issues: from Needs to Well-being

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 4: Equality, Rights and Social Justice

Meanings and Definitions

Equality, Rights and Justice as Ideology

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 5: Human Rights and Equality

Historical Context

Conceptualising Human Rights and Equalities

Human Rights and Equalities: Making Links

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 6: Efficiency, Equity and Choice

Introduction

Scarcity and Choice

Efficiency

Efficiency versus Other Goals

The Means of Delivering Efficiency and Choice

Issues for Public Service Delivery

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 7: Citizenship

Defining Citizenship: Three Common Elements

Rights, Responsibilities and Competing Visions of Citizenship

The Importance of Social Rights for Citizenship

Conditional and Constrained: Twenty-first-Century Social Citizenship

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 8: Changing Behaviour

Introduction

Changing Understandings of Behaviour

Experimenting with Behaviour Change

A Global Policy Movement

Challenging Behavioural Government

Conclusion

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Part II: Key Perspectives

Chapter 9: Neo-Liberalism

The Neo-Liberal Challenge

From Classical Liberalism to Neo-Liberalism

Late-Twentieth-Century Neo-Liberalism

Neo-Liberalism and Welfare

Neo-Liberalism and Welfare: A Critique

Neo-Liberalism in the Twenty-first Century

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 10: The Conservative Tradition

Conservatism

The Development of Conservative Ideas and Politics

Conservatism and Social Reform

Conservatism and Neo-Liberalism

Searching for Direction

Conservatism under David Cameron

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 11: Social Democracy

Historic Roots

What is Social Democracy?

Social Democracy: The British Context

Social Democratic Welfare States

Emerging Issues: An Uncertain Future?

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 12: The Socialist Perspective

Socialism as Critique

Socialism as Practice

The Death of Socialism?

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 13: Feminist Perspectives

Feminist Questions

Women Workers and Carers

Gender Relations and Masculinities

Feminist Intersections

Feminists in Public Policy and Activism

Emerging Issues: Post-Feminism, Human Rights and the Impact of Austerity

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 14: Social Movements

What is a Social Movement?

Social Movements and the Definition of Groups in Society

Social Movements and the Emergence of Social Policy

Analysing Social Movements and the Policy Process

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 15: Post-Modernist Perspectives

Theories of the Post-Modern

Post-Modernism and Social Policy

Post-Structuralism

Risk Society

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Part III: Historical Context

Chapter 16: Nineteenth-Century Beginnings

Poor Relief

Public Services

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 17: The Liberal Era and the Growth of State Welfare

Changing Socio-political Contexts

The ‘Social Question’ and the Threat of Economic Decline

The Social Question: Diagnostics and Analysis

The Social Question: Politics and Reform

Aftermath

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 18: The Modern Welfare State, 1940–74

The Second World War: The Catalyst for Change?

The Labour Governments and the Creation of the Welfare State, 1945–51

Modern ‘One Nation’ Conservatism and the Welfare State, 1951–64

Revisionist Labour and the Welfare State, 1964–70

The Conservatives and the Welfare State, 1970–4

A Post-war Welfare Consensus or Settlement?

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 19: Crisis, Retrenchment and the Impact of Neo-Liberalism,1976–97

Neo-Liberal Theory and Economic Crisis

Neo-Liberal Programme

What was Wrong with the Neo-Liberal Diagnosis?

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 20: Modernisation and the Third Way

Introduction

The Essence of the Third Way

The Third Way in Practice

The New Labour Legacy

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Reading

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 21: Austerity Politics

Global Financial Crisis and ‘Austerity’

The Theory of Austerity

Challenges to the Theoretical Basis of Austerity

From Emergency Keynesianism to the Return of Neo-Liberalism

The Austerity Narrative and the Legitimation of Welfare State Restructuring

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Part IV: Devolution and Social Policy in the United Kingdom

Chapter 22: Social Policy and Devolution

The Pattern of Devolution

The Operation of the Devolved Administrations

Spending Patterns within the United Kingdom

The Pattern of Flexibility at the Devolved Level

Emerging Issues: The Scottish Independence Referendum and Beyond

Guide to Further Reading

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 23: Social Policy in Northern Ireland

Introduction

Funding and Spending on Social Policy in Northern Ireland

Social Policy Priorities in Northern Ireland: Convergence and Divergence

What Underpins Social Policy in Northern Ireland?

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 24: Social Policy in Scotland

The 1998 Devolution Settlement in Scotland

Policy Divergence Since 1998

Social Policy in Scotland: The Settlement under Strain?

The Scottish Independence Referendum: Debates and Outcomes

Towards a New Settlement?

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Resources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 25: Social Policy in Wales

Introduction

Politics and Ideology

Education and Skills

Health and Social Care

Housing and Homelessness

Transport

Equality and Human Rights

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Part V: Contemporary Context and Challenges

Chapter 26: The Demographic Challenge

Population Change

A Century of Population Change in the UK

An Ageing Population

Migration

An Increasingly Diverse Population

Changing Patterns of Partnership and Family Formation

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 27: The Economic Context

The Needs of People and the Needs of the ‘Economy’

The Promises and Pursuit of Economic Growth

Taxation, Spending and Debt

Emerging Issues: Crisis, Austerity and the ‘Burden’ of Public Spending

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 28: The Sustainability Challenge

Understanding Sustainability

Ecological Challenges

Social Challenges

UK Government Policies

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 29: The Role of Religion

Context

Social Welfare in the Five Main World Religions

Religion, Spirituality and the Study of Social Policy

The UK Context

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 30: The Distribution of Welfare

Distribution and Redistribution

Aims of Welfare Services

Conceptual Issues

Some Empirical Results

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 31: Divisions and Difference

Why Do Divisions and Differences Matter?

Understanding Difference and Divisions

Class: A Case Study of Divisions and Difference

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 32: ‘Race’, Minority Ethnic Groups and Social Welfare

‘Race’, Ethnicity and Classification

Social Policy, Social Welfare and Ethnic Minority Groups

Ethnic Minority Groups and Social Welfare

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 33: Poverty and Social Exclusion

Poverty and Social Policy

Defining Poverty

Deprivation and Exclusion

Measuring Poverty and Social Exclusion

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Part VI: Welfare Production and Provision

Chapter 34: State Welfare

Defining the State

State Involvement in Welfare

The Changing Role of the State

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 35: Commercial Welfare

Markets and Businesses in Welfare

Government Policy and Welfare Markets

Equity, Quality and the State

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 36: Occupational Welfare

Context

What is ‘Occupational Welfare’?

A Brief Historical Overview

Recent Developments in Provision

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 37: Voluntary Welfare

Context

Definitional Issues

Theoretical Issues

Emerging issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 38: Informal Welfare

Informal Welfare and Unpaid Care

Characteristics of Unpaid Carers

Key Issues Around Unpaid Care

Social Policy for Unpaid Carers

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 39: Welfare Users and Social Policy

Context

Strivers and Shirkers

Co-producers

Taking Control

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 40: Paying for Welfare

Who Pays Matters

Who Pays?

What Level of Government Is Responsible?

Who Decides How Much?

Required or Encouraged Behaviour

Insured Against Catastrophe

Vouchers and Quasi-vouchers

Giving

Rationing

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 41: Taxation and Welfare

Introduction

The UK Tax System

Key Concepts and Debates

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Part VII: Welfare Governance

Chapter 42: The Policy Process

Context

Perspectives on the Policy Process

Governments and the Policy Process since 1979

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 43: Managing and Delivering Welfare

The Villains of Welfare Services?

From OPA to NPM

Public Management in the 2000s

Markets for Public Services

Crises in Public Delivery

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 44: Accountability for Welfare

What is Accountability for Welfare?

What Kind of Things Should be Accounted For?

Who Should be Held Accountable?

Accountability to Whom?

Mechanisms for Accountability

Issues Arising from Accountability

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 45: Local Governance

The Development of Local Government and Local Governance

Local Government and Governance Structures

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 46: The European Union

The Development of the Union's Social Policy Remit

EU Social Policymaking Processes

EU Social Policy Intervention

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Part VIII: Welfare Domains

Chapter 47: Income Maintenance and Social Security

Introduction

The Importance of Social Security

What is ‘Social Security’?

The Aims of Social Security

An Overview of the Current System

How Social Security is Delivered

Benefit Levels, Poverty and Adequacy

Benefits in Cash and In-Kind

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 48: Employment

The Changing Nature of UK Employment Context: New Opportunities, New Risks

Employment as a Vehicle for Social Policy Goals: A Tool Fit for Purpose?

Employment and Social Policy: Adding Ethical Considerations to Headline Economic Figures

Policy Possibilities: Employment as Social Policy?

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 49: Healthcare

The Importance of Health and Healthcare

What is Healthcare?

Funding Health Services

Organisation, Planning and Commissioning

Management and Regulation

Partnerships

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Reading

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 50: Public Health

What is Public Health?

Why is Public Health Important?

Public Health Systems in the UK

Previous Labour Government and Public Health

The Coalition and Public Health

Criticism of the Coalition's Policies

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 51: Education in Schools

Context

Schooling in the UK: Past and Present

Core Issues

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 52: Lifelong Learning and Training

Introduction

What is Lifelong Learning?

Why did Lifelong Learning Come About?

The Ideology of Lifelong Learning

Lifelong Learning, Training and Skills Policies

Improving the Qualifications and Skills of the Future Workforce

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 53: Housing

Context

The Historical Legacy

Tenure Changes

Homelessness and Access to Social Housing

The Contemporary Housing Situation

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 54: Social Care

Context

Social care

The History and Evolution of Social Care

‘Managing Care’

Social Care under the UK Coalition

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 55: Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice and Social Policy

Patterns of Crime

A Brief History of Criminal Justice

The Aims of Punishment

Criminal Justice and Penal Politics

Contemporary Penal Policy

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Part IX: Experiencing Welfare

Chapter 56: Experiences of Out-of-Work Benefit Receipt

Unemployment and State Intervention

The Policy Approach

Experiencing Welfare to Work

‘Strivers and Shirkers’: The Consequences of a Divisive Rhetoric

Navigating the Benefits System

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 57: Family Policy

Family Change and Social Policy

Family Policy in the UK

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 58: Children

Introduction

Twenty-first-Century Childhood

Children's Rights

Children, Family and Social Policy

Children as a ‘Social Investment’

Child Safeguarding

Policy in Action: Ending Child Poverty

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 59: Young People

Perspectives on Youth and Youth Transitions

The Polarisation of Youth Transitions

The Emergence of Youth Policy in the UK, 1997–2001

The Connexions Strategy, 1999–2005

Everybody Matters (But Some More than Others)

Further Dismantling the Edifice: UK Coalition Government, Recession, Austerity and Cuts

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Reading

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 60: Older People

Introduction

Welfare, Population Ageing and the Intergenerational Contract

Pension Policy

Work and ‘Active Ageing’

Social Care Policy

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 61: Disability

Context

The Historical Context: Disability as an Administrative Category

Policy Claims: The Disabled People's Movement

Independent Living: New Modes of Welfare Production

Non-discrimination: Policies for Civil Rights

Globalisation and Governance: UN and EU Influences

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 62: Migrants and Asylum Seekers

Context

Definitions and Categorisations of Migrants

UK Policy: Key Themes Over Time

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Part X: International and Comparative Context

Chapter 63: Comparative Analysis

Context

Approaches to Comparative Analysis

Research Dilemmas

Typologies and Regimes

Convergence and Divergence

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 64: Policy Learning and Transfer

Context

Types of Learning and Transfer

Barriers to Transfer

Degrees of Transfer, Types of Learning

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Reading

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 65: Social Policy in Europe

What is Europe?

European Social Policy?

Typically European and/or Typically British?

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 66: Social Policy in the United States

Health Policy

Education Policy

Income Security Policy

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 67: Social Policy in East Asia

Introduction

What is East Asia? What is Social Policy in East Asia?

Welfare Systems in East Asia

Contemporary Shifts

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 68: Social Policy in the BRICS Countries

Background and Definitions

Varying Challenges and Differing Responses

Why then do BRICS Matter for Social Policy?

Key Trends in Social Protection within Each of the BRICS

The Role of BRICS in Shaping Global Social Policy

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 69: Social Policy in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Introduction

A Historical Overview: Oil, Independence and Lost Opportunities

Theoretical Overview: A New Ethic of Welfare Beyond Rentierism

A Brief Socio-Economic Profile of the MENA Region

Revitalising Social Policy in the MENA: The Contemporary Context

A Residual/Productivist and Corporatist Approach to Social Policy

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 70: Social Policy in Less Developed Societies

Introduction

Concepts and Categories

Social Policy in Context

Policy Issues and Regimes

Development, International Institutions and Social Policy

Extending Social Protection

Emerging Issues: Crisis, Human Security and Sustainable Development

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Chapter 71: Globalisation, International Organisations and Social Policy

Globalisation and the Study of Social Policy

International Organisations and Global Governance

Impacts of International Organisations on Social Policy

Social Policy Concepts in a Global Context

Efficiency, Equity and Choice

Global Social Reform

Emerging Issues

Guide to Further Sources

Review and Assignment Questions

Appendix: The Social Policy Association

Index

End User License Agreement

List of Tables

Table 7.1

Table 20.1

Table 22.1

Table 23.1

Table 31.1

Table 31.2

Table 32.1

Table 36.1

Table 43.1

Table 43.2

Table 54.1

Table 57.1

Table 60.1

Table 69.1

Table 70.1

Table 70.2

Table 70.3

Table 71.1

Table 71.2

List of Illustrations

Figure 6.1

Figure 6.2

Figure 26.1

Figure 26.2

Figure 26.3

Figure 26.4

Figure 26.5

Figure 27.1

Figure 27.2

Figure 27.3

Figure 30.1

Figure 30.2

Figure 32.1

Figure 32.2

Figure 32.3

Figure 32.4

Figure 38.1

Figure 38.2

Figure 40.1

Figure 41.1

Figure 44.1

Figure 48.1

Figure 52.1

Figure 52.2

Figure 55.1

Figure 55.2

Figure 55.3

Figure 57.1

Figure 60.1

Figure 60.2

Figure 67.1

Figure 68.1

Figure 69.1

Figure 69.2

Figure 69.3

Figure 69.4

Figure 70.1

Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

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The Student's Companion to Social Policy

Fifth Edition

Edited by

Pete Alcock, Tina Haux, Margaret May and Sharon Wright

This edition first published 2016© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Edition history: Blackwell Publishers Ltd (1e, 1998); Blackwell Publishing Ltd (2e, 2003 and 3e, 2008); John Wiley & Sons Ltd (4e, 2012)

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The right of Pete Alcock, Tina Haux, Margaret May and Sharon Wright to be identified as the authors of the editorial material in this work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Alcock, Peter, 1951- editor. | Haux, Tina, editor. | May, Margaret, 1947- editor. | Wright, Sharon (Sharon Elizabeth), editor.

Title: The student's companion to social policy / edited by Pete Alcock, Tina Haux, Margaret May, and Sharon Wright.

Description: Fifth edition. | Chichester, UK ; Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, 2016. | Includes index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2016014402| ISBN 9781118965979 (pbk.) | ISBN 9781118965948 (epub)

Subjects: LCSH: Great Britain--Social policy. | Public welfare--Great Britain. | Social policy--Study and teaching.

Classification: LCC HN390 .S78 2016 | DDC 306.0941--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016014402

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Cover image: Getty/Rogotanie

Notes on Contributors

Stuart Adam is a Senior Research Economist at the Institute for Fiscal Studies. His research and writing focus on analysing the design of the tax and benefit system, including income tax and National Insurance, capital gains tax, property taxation, tax credits, work incentives and redistribution, support for families with children and local government finance.

Pete Alcock is Professor of Social Policy and Administration at the University of Birmingham. He has been teaching and researching in social policy for over thirty years, and has written widely on social policy, the voluntary sector, social security, poverty and social exclusion, and anti-poverty policy.

Rob Baggott is Professor of Public Policy and Director of the Health Policy Research Unit at De Montfort University. His main research interests, on which he has published widely, include public health and preventive medicine, patient and public involvement, the role of business and voluntary organisations in the policy process and global health policy and health systems.

Saul Becker is Pro-Vice-Chancellor and Head of College of Social Sciences at the University of Birmingham and Professor of Social Policy and Social Work. He has been recognised as the world leader in research on children who are informal family carers (‘young carers’).

Derek Birrell is Professor of Social Policy and Administration at Ulster University. His main research and teaching interests include the government of Northern Ireland, social policy and devolution, the governance of welfare, health and social care policy, and cross-border relations.

Catherine Bochel is Reader in Policy Studies at the University of Lincoln. Her main research interests include the policy process, participation and petitions systems, on which she has published widely. She teaches on a range of policy-related courses.

Hugh Bochel is Professor of Public Policy at the University of Lincoln. His wide-ranging teaching and research interests across social policy come together around concerns with the policy process and the politics of social policy.

Edward Brunsdon is an Honorary Research Fellow in Social Policy at the University of Birmingham and has taught a range of Social Policy, Research Methods and Human Resource Management courses. His main areas of research include workplace welfare, pensions policy, executive reward and the mixed economy of welfare.

Claire Callender is Professor of Higher Education Policy both at Birkbeck and University College London, Institute of Education and Deputy Director of the ESRC/HEFCE Centre for Global Higher Education at UCL. Her research focuses on issues about student funding and finances in higher education and related topics which has informed the deliberations of government-commissioned inquiries into student funding.

Eleanor Carter is a PhD student at the University of Sheffield who has worked in policy roles in the voluntary sector. Her research centres on post-2010 welfare-to-work reforms in the UK, and also includes the broader application of outcome-based commissioning and the use of social investment in public services.

Paul Chaney is Professor of Politics and Policy at Cardiff University and Co-Director of Wales Institute of Social, Economic Research and Data. His research and teaching interests include territorial politics, public policy, civil society, and equality and human rights.

Jochen Clasen is Professor of Comparative Social Policy at the University of Edinburgh where his teaching centres on European social policy and the political economy of the welfare state. He has researched and written widely in the areas of social security, labour-market policy and the cross-national analysis of welfare states.

Daniel Clegg is Senior Lecturer in Social Policy at the University of Edinburgh. His research and teaching focus on the comparison of social policies across European countries, particularly in the areas of unemployment and working-age poverty.

Bob Coles is an Honorary Fellow at the University of York. He has a long-standing interest in youth policy and helped to establish it as a sub-area within social policy, developing links between policy, research and practice. His research has focused on vulnerable young people.

Guy Daly is Professor and Executive Dean, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences at Coventry University. His research interests are in social care, housing policy, local government and the governance of public services generally, on which he has published widely.

Howard Davis is Professor of Social and Local Policy at Coventry University. His interests include communities and community well-being, and the challenges and opportunities of an ageing society and later life. More widely, he has long been involved in advising on and evaluating the modernisation and improvement of public services in the UK and internationally.

Hartley Dean is Professor of Social Policy at the London School of Economics. Before his academic career he was a welfare rights worker in one of London's most deprived multicultural neighbourhoods. His principal research interests stem from concerns with poverty and social justice.

Peter Dwyer is Professor of Social Policy at the University of York. His teaching and research focus on issues related to social citizenship, inclusion/exclusion, welfare and migration and welfare conditionality.

Nick Ellison is Professor of Social Policy at the University of York. His research and teaching interests are wide ranging and include UK welfare politics in historical and contemporary perspective, citizenship in theory and practice, and global and international social policy.

Jane Falkingham is Professor of Demography and International Social Policy at the University of Southampton, where she is Dean of the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences and Director of the ESRC Centre for Population Change. Her research interests lie at the intersection of demographic change and social policy and span both developed and developing country contexts, with a particular focus on ageing and the changing life course.

Kevin Farnsworth is Senior Lecturer in Comparative, International and Global Social Policy at the University of York. His work focuses on broad questions relating to the political economy of welfare states, including the influence of business on social policy, welfare states and economic crisis and corporate welfare.

Tony Fitzpatrick is a Reader at the University of Nottingham. His main interests lie in the fields of social, ethical and political theories of social policy; the implications of climate change and environmental issues for the welfare state.

Deirdre Flanigan is a trainee solicitor specialising in social welfare law and human rights. She has a background in human rights promotion and protection, working for the Scottish Human Rights Commission and a human rights NGO in Nepal, and has written widely on various aspects of human rights accountability.

Jon Glasby is Professor of Health and Social Care at the University of Birmingham. A qualified social worker and former board member of the Social Care Institute for Excellence, he leads a national programme of research, consultancy and teaching to support more effective inter-agency working between social care and the NHS.

Howard Glennerster is Professor Emeritus of Social Policy at the London School of Economics. His research and teaching have focused on the finance and economics of social policy and its post-war history. He has published widely on these areas and also been an adviser to HM Treasury and the Secretary of State for Health.

Ann Marie Gray is a Senior Lecturer in Social Policy at Ulster University and Policy Director of Access Research Knowledge, a joint Ulster University/Queen's University research organisation. Her teaching and research interests are in the area of adult social care, devolution and social policy, and gender and social policy.

Ian Greener is Professor of Social Policy and Executive Director of the Wolfson Research Institute for Health and Wellbeing at Durham University. His research and teaching cross a range of areas, but focus particularly on health policy and healthcare, public management and governance and organisational change.

Scott L. Greer is Associate Professor of Health Management and Policy at the University of Michigan School of Public Health and a Senior Expert Adviser on Health Governance at the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies. His research focuses primarily on these areas.

Jackie Gulland is Lecturer in Social Work at the University of Edinburgh. Her research and teaching interests include socio-legal studies, citizens' disputes with the state, social security policy, ageing and disability. Before entering academia, she worked in the voluntary and local authority sectors as a welfare rights adviser and trainer.

Kate Hamblin is a Senior Research Fellow at the Oxford Institute of Population Ageing. Her research has included projects exploring how people combine work and care in European countries; older entrepreneurs in the technology sector; the role of museums and galleries in supporting an ageing population; and technology support for older adults living independently with frailty, dementia or dual-sensory impairment.

Linda Hantrais is Emeritus Professor in European Social Policy at Loughborough University. She has served on a number of European committees as expert adviser. Her main research interests are in international comparative research theory, methodology and practice, with particular reference to socio-economic change, social and family policy in Europe, and international perspectives on evidence-based policy.

Bernard Harris is Professor of Social Policy at the University of Strathclyde. In addition to the history of social policy, he has conducted research into different aspects of the history of health, height, morbidity and mortality.

Tina Haux is Lecturer in Social Policy at the University of Kent. Her main research and teaching interests are on families, parenting and welfare to work. Her recent work focuses on the role of fathers in family life before and after separation, as well as the biographies and influence of the second generation of social policy scholars.

John Hills is Richard Titmuss Professor of Social Policy at the London School of Economics, where he is also Director of the Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion and Co-Director of the International Inequalities Institute. His research interests include inequalities of income and wealth, the distributional effects of public policy and the evolution of the welfare state.

Chris Holden is Reader in International Social Policy at the University of York where he teaches on a range of social policy courses. He has published widely on the relationships between the global economy, transnational corporations, and health and social policy.

Alison Hosie has been the Research Officer at the Scottish Human Rights Commission since its creation in 2008. Prior to this she taught and researched in social policy for over fifteen years, with a particular interest in young people's right to healthcare; pregnant and parenting teenagers' right to education and methodological approaches to researching sensitive questions.

John Hudson is Professor of Social Policy and Co-Director of the Centre for Research in Comparative and Global Social Policy at the University of York. His research and teaching interests include the politics of social policy, the policymaking process and the comparative political economy of welfare.

Shona Hunter is Lecturer in Sociology and Social Policy Governance at the University of Leeds. Her research and teaching interests span a range of critical social policy. She is particularly interested in the relationship between subjectivities, emotion, power and politics in welfare

Zoë Irving is Senior Lecturer in Comparative, International and Global Social Policy at the University of York. Her work includes publications on the social politics of economic crisis and austerity, the relationship between population size and social policy development, and the social policy of Iceland and other small island states.

Misa Izuhara is Reader and Head of the Centre for Urban and Public Policy Research at the University of Bristol. Her research centres, both nationally and internationally, in the areas of housing and social change, ageing and intergenerational relations, and comparative policy analysis.

Rana Jawad is Senior Lecturer in Social Policy at the University of Bath where she teaches on social policy and the sociology of religion. Her main research interests, on which she has published widely, are the welfare systems of the MENA region and the role of religion in social policy.

Jeremy Kendall is Senior Lecturer in Social Policy at the University of Kent. His research interests cover theories and models of civil society; voluntary organisations, charities and social enterprises, especially those operating in fields of welfare, nationally and internationally; and the social policy process and the third sector.

Patricia Kennett is Reader in Comparative and International Policy Studies, and Director of Research at the School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol. Her research interests intersect the fields of social policy, urban and transnational studies, with a particular focus on Asia and Europe.

Majella Kilkey is Reader in Social Policy at the University of Sheffield. She researches at the intersections between migration and family and labour market studies with a focus on policies and lived experiences, particularly in Europe. She has undertaken research on intra-EU mobility in the context of enlargement and economic crisis, and also researches the outward migration of British citizens leaving to work abroad.

Stephen McKay is Professor of Social Research at the University of Lincoln. He conducts research on poverty, inequality, family change and the effects of social security policy. He has recently looked at the state of financial inclusion in the UK and conducted research on the system of child maintenance.

Nick Manning is Professor of Sociology at King's College London, following twenty years as Professor of Social Policy and Sociology at the University of Nottingham where he founded the Nottingham Institute of Mental Health and an International Centre for Mental Health in Shanghai. He has written widely on sociological aspects of social policy, health, mental health, Russia and China.

Margaret May is an Honorary Research Fellow in Social Policy at the University of Birmingham and has taught across the span of both Social Policy and Human Resource Management. Her research interests include employment policy and human resource management, occupational welfare, social security and comparative social policy.

David Mullins is Professor of Social Policy at the University of Birmingham where he leads the Housing and Communities Research Group, which undertakes research on community-led housing, social housing and the role of the private rented sector in housing low income groups. He has published widely on UK housing policy.

Catherine Needham is Reader in Public Policy and Public Management at the University of Birmingham. Her research focuses on public services in the UK, explaining why reforms take place and their impacts on front-line staff, citizens and broader notions of publicness. She teaches public policy, with a particular focus on evidence-based policy.

Tim Newburn is Professor of Criminology and Social Policy at the London School of Economics. His major areas of research centre on policing and security, comparative criminology and the history of criminal justice.

Robert M. Page is Reader in Democratic Socialism and Social Policy at the University of Birmingham. He has written on a wide range of social policy topics. His current work focuses on Conservative and Labour approaches to the welfare state since 1940.

Louisa Parks is Lecturer in Politics at the University of Lincoln. Her research and teaching has focused on social movements and their impacts on European Union legislation, anti-austerity protest, European politics and, more recently, local community organisations and environmental governance throughout the world.

Richard Parry is Honorary Fellow in the Centre on Constitutional Change at the University of Edinburgh. His main research interests are in politics and resource allocation in British social policy, especially the role of the Treasury and of the devolved administrations.

Ruth Patrick is a Postgraduate Researcher at the University of Leeds, where she worked with a group of out-of-work benefit claimants to make a short animated film highlighting key findings from her study of their experiences. Her research interests include participatory methods, welfare reform, social citizenship, poverty and disability.

Linda Pickard is an Associate Professorial Research Fellow at the London School of Economics. Her research interests are primarily concerned with unpaid care and long-term care policy on which she has conducted studies for the Royal Commission on Long Term Care and the Audit Commission.

Lucinda Platt is Professor of Social Policy and Sociology at the London School of Economics. She teaches social stratification, social advantage and disadvantage, ethnicity and immigration. She researches and publishes on ethnicity, immigration, child poverty and well-being, child and adult disability, and income and employment inequalities.

Lynne Poole is Lecturer in Social Policy at the University of the West of Scotland. She has researched and written on a range issues, including Scottish social policy and devolution, housing and health policy, the non-profit sector and Roma migration. Her current research interests include asylum-seeker policy and destitution.

Martin Powell is Professor of Health and Social Policy at the University of Birmingham. His main research interests and publications are in the areas of historical and geographical aspects of social and health policy, with specialism in the ‘Third Way’.

Mark Priestley is Professor of Disability Policy at the University of Leeds and Scientific Director of the Academic Network of European Disability experts. He teaches courses in disability and public policy, and has published extensively in the disability policy field. His current research focuses mainly on disability policies in the EU and its member states.

Carol Propper is Professor of Economics at Imperial College London. Her research interests include the use of market and financial incentives to enhance quality, productivity and innovation in healthcare and the determinants of health.

Jessica Pykett is Senior Lecturer in Human Geography at the University of Birmingham. Her research to date has focused on the geographies of citizenship, education, behavioural forms of governance and the influence of applied and popular neuroscience on policy and practice. She teaches on the spatial politics of welfare, work and wealth.

Tess Ridge is Professor of Social Policy at the University of Bath. Her research interests include childhood poverty and social exclusion, and she has developed child-centred research methods which explore the lives and experiences of perspectives of low-income children themselves. She lectures on child and family policy and the sociology of childhood and the family.

Barra Roantree is a Research Economist at the Institute for Fiscal Studies. He researches income taxation, redistribution and the labour market, including the effects of social security contributions on earnings, redistribution across the life cycle, and how women's work choices have responded to incentives over time.

Karen Rowlingson is Professor of Social Policy, Deputy Director of the Centre for Household Assets and Savings Management, and Director of Research and Knowledge Transfer for the College of Social Sciences at the University of Birmingham. Her research interests lie in the financial security of individuals and families, including asset-based welfare, wealth and inequality, social security and financial capability.

Phillip M. Singer is a doctoral student at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. He studies the politics of healthcare and health reform. In particular, his research interests focus on state health policy, the politics of Medicaid waivers, and the implementation of the Affordable Care Act.

Rebecca Surender is Associate Professor in Social Policy at the University of Oxford and a Visiting Professor at Rhodes University in South Africa. Her research and teaching focus on health policy and policy and development, in particular South African social policy.

Peter Taylor-Gooby has been Professor of Social Policy at the University of Kent since 1989. His main research interests lie in social policy theory, attitudes to the welfare state and comparative social policy.

Athina Vlachantoni is Associate Professor in Gerontology at the University of Southampton. Her research interests span the broader areas of ageing and social policy, and she is currently involved in research projects on the topics of pension protection, informal care, social care, and living arrangements across the life course and in later life.

Aniela Wenham is Lecturer in Social Policy at the University of York. Her teaching and research interests include youth transitions, youth policy and qualitative longitudinal methods with ‘hard to reach’ groups.

Anne West is Professor of Education Policy and Director of the Education Research Group at the London School of Economics. Her research and many publications focus on educational policy, in particular market-oriented reforms in schools and their impacts on equity, financing education and accountability.

Noel Whiteside is Professor of Comparative Public Policy at the University of Warwick and Visiting Professor in Social Sciences at the University of Oxford. Her research focuses on systems of governance and public accountability in historical and comparative perspective. She has specific interests in labour markets and constructions of social dependency.

Adam Whitworth is Lecturer in Human Geography at the University of Sheffield. His research focuses on the analysis of activation reforms in the UK, their design, governance and concomitant outcomes for different claimants and geographical areas. More broadly, his interests lie in harnessing quantitative spatial methodologies to address applied policy concerns.

Jay Wiggan is Lecturer in Social Policy at the University of Edinburgh, where he teaches on the politics of public policy and social policy in an international context. His research interests and publications focus on the governance of public employment services and social security administration, lone parents, disabled people and ‘welfare reform’ and the politics of active labour market policy.

Sharon Wright is Senior Lecturer in Public Policy at the University of Glasgow, where she teaches social and public policy, specialising in the policy process, work, welfare and the politics of reform. Her research interests are in the lived experiences of poverty, social security, welfare reform and the implementation of employment services.

Nicola Yeates is Professor of Social Policy at the Open University. She teaches and has researched and published extensively on issues of social policy internationally and globally and has worked for the International Social Security Association, the World Bank, UNICEF, UNRISD and UNESCO.

Introduction

This Student's Companion to Social Policy is a resource book that will be of practical use to students of social policy throughout their undergraduate or postgraduate study of the subject. It aims to acquaint students with the study of social policy by covering all the main themes and issues likely to be included in any curriculum in the UK and, indeed, in many other countries. Readers are introduced to current theoretical and ideological debates, historical developments, service areas, key policy issues and the broader international context in which social policy operates. Each chapter includes a short guide to further sources, which points to some of the literature that pursues the issues addressed in the chapter in more depth and also alerts readers to major web-based sources. The Companion will be of value to students studying social policy on its own, as part of other undergraduate or postgraduate programmes (for instance, sociology, politics, applied social science or management studies) or as part of a professional course in a related field (for instance, social care work, nursing and health studies, public and voluntary sector management or criminology).

This fifth edition of the Companion has been much expanded and updated from the previous editions. New sections on Devolution and Social Policy in the UK and Welfare Governance have been included, and new chapters have been added to take account of recent policy developments and debates, and changing political and economic configurations. Existing authors have updated their contributions; and in some cases previous authors have been replaced with others leading in research and teaching in those areas.

As in the last edition, we have asked contributors to provide readers with a short bullet-point summary of key points at the beginning of each chapter and to conclude with some brief speculation on emerging issues. To provide further support for readers, as in the last edition, this fifth edition includes end of chapter review questions and is accompanied by a new dedicated website (www.wiley.com/go/alcocksocialpolicy). This provides a range of supplementary resources designed to facilitate further reading and reflection and to enable students to make the most of the text and their study of social policy. These include:

Internet links to websites referred to in each chapter.

Guides with internet links to key UK governmental, international and other useful resources.

Help sheets

Guidance on managing the main forms of assignments in social policy, including examples from the end of chapter questions.

Careers advice.

A glossary.

The glossary is based on and links to The Blackwell Dictionary of Social Policy. This is a sister volume to the Companion, offering short definitions of all key terms and concepts and longer discussion of major items, and, as with previous editions, we hope that readers will be able to use the two together.

There has been an expansion of the editorial tram for this fifth edition. Tina Haux has joined Pete Alcock, Margaret May and Sharon Wright. We are pleased that Tina has been able to join us, and her role has meant that the editorial process has remained much the same for this latest edition, with a spreading of the load to cover the growing scale of the book.

All the contributors to this book, both old and new, are researchers and teachers in the forefront of social policy studies in the UK. They were selected on the basis that their expertise in their particular areas would provide readers with an authoritative introduction to a range of thinking and scholarship. Because the book has been prepared as a handbook and guide, rather than as a single text that focuses on one or two main themes, not all readers will necessarily want to read it from cover to cover. Indeed, most readers are likely to use it as a source of reference for consultation; hence, the chapters have been written so that they can be read in any order, separately or in groups.

Part I introduces students to the concepts and approaches that underpin the study of social policy. These include a brief history of the scope and development of the subject and the ways in which it is studied and researched, together with discussion of the key concepts that students are likely to encounter in their studies.

Part II provides readers with a guide to the theoretical and ideological context of social policy. Readers are introduced to the central themes and perspectives that provide the intellectual foundations of debates about the focus and aims of the subject.

Part III surveys key themes and issues in the historical development of social policy in the UK, including consideration of nineteenth-century welfare arrangements, the growth of state welfare in the first half of the twentieth century, and the policies of Conservative and Labour administrations over recent decades.

Part IV examines the impact of the devolution of political powers to the separate administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

Part V explores the social, political and economic context in which policies are developed and implemented, and some of the crucial challenges that they face.

Part VI focuses on the organisation and production of social policy. The different providers of welfare are examined by looking at the five main sectors of welfare – state, commercial, occupational, voluntary and informal – setting these in the context of a brief examination of the ways in which welfare is financed and how taxation policy operates.

Part VII considers different dimensions of the governance of welfare, including the role of local government and the European Union.

Part VIII comprises chapters that examine the key domains of welfare service provision, with each providing up-to-date summaries of policy developments, planning and current debates.

Part IX focuses on the provision of services to particular social groups and analyses the extent to which these groups are advantaged or disadvantaged by different aspects of policy provision.

Part X explores the international context of social policy. There are introductory chapters on comparative analysis and policy learning and transfer, followed by a number of chapters summarising the differing policy experiences of different groups of nations across the world.

As editors we are very grateful for the work put into this volume by the contributors. The Companion first set out to produce a collection of chapters written by some of the most distinguished teachers and lecturers in social policy in the UK, and in this fifth edition we have followed this with an expanded range of contributions. We asked all our contributors to write in as accessible a way as possible, while introducing complex issues in a short space. Authors in social policy are no different from other authors, however; some write sharply and clearly, others are more difficult to follow and pack difficult ideas together. This collection reflects the range of styles of writing and the array of ideological and political positions that students of social policy are likely to encounter. All the chapters, of course, also provide only a short summary of a wide range of issues and information in their area. The aim therefore is to encourage readers to investigate further and read more widely.

While we, as editors, made the difficult, and occasionally contentious, decisions about what should be included, what should be left out and who should be asked to write, we were successful in persuading many of our authors to contribute to the Companion because of its long-standing links with the Social Policy Association (SPA) – the professional association for academics in Social Policy (see Appendix). We should also like to thank Justin Vaughan and Ben Thatcher at Wiley-Blackwell for their support in the production of this new edition, and the anonymous reviewers of the proposals for revision who all gave us such helpful advice. We hope that what we have produced is worthy of all this support and will continue to be of value to the social policy community as a whole. Any shortcomings in the collection as a whole are, however, our responsibility.

Pete AlcockTina HauxMargaret MaySharon Wright