Delivering Citizenship -  - ebook

Delivering Citizenship ebook

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The 21st century promises to be an "Age of Mobility." More people around the globe, from an ever greater variety of backgrounds, are migrating. As Europe and North America absorb larger and more diverse inflows, many policymakers, commentators, and academics are questioning whether their societies can cope with the influx. Citizenship has emerged as one of the key policy battlegrounds for such concerns. Citizenship lies at the nexus of a host of social policy issues because it provides definitions of identity, belonging, and participation in key aspects of society, including the right to vote. Governments recognize the urgent need to understand citizenship better. Once a narrow, somewhat static legal backwater, citizenship has become a dynamic policy vehicle for promoting the political incorporation of immigrants and, by extension, their more complete integration. This book is the first major product of the Transatlantic Council on Migration. It offers insights into key aspects of the citizenship debate from a policy perspective. It is a result of the deliberations and thinking of the Transatlantic Council on Migration, which brings together leading political figures, policymakers and innovative thinkers from the USA and Europe. The Council is a new initiative of the Migration Policy Institute (MPI) in Washington, DC. The Bertelsmann Stiftung and the European Policy Centre (in cooperation with the King Baudouin Foundation) are the Council's policy partners.

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Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.
© 2010 E-Book-Ausgabe (EPUB)
© 2008 Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, GüterslohResponsible: Christal MorehouseProduction editor: Christiane RaffelCover design: Nadine HumannCover illustration: Photo Alto/Frédéric CirouTypesetting: Katrin Berkenkamp, Designwerkstatt 12, BielefeldPrinting: Hans Kock Buch- und Offsetdruck GmbH, Bielefeld
ISBN : 978-3-86793-266-0
www.bertelsmann-stiftung.org/publications

www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/verlag

Foreword
The magnitude, effects and rapidly shifting patterns of international migration have never been more pronounced, widely felt or far-reaching than they are today-shaping the issue into a major element for policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic.
The complexity of the issue has increased exponentially since the Iron Curtain was torn open almost two decades ago. What has emerged is an “Age of Mobility” that is affecting most countries, certainly those in the transatlantic sphere. Diversity in society has become a new status quo in many countries which had not experienced significant immigration previously. Balancing the requirements for economic growth, social justice, cohesion and national security in a context of sweeping economic, demographic and technological change has become a top priority for governments as well as for public and private actors. Against such a backdrop of dynamic and fastmoving change, societies and governments are struggling to respond coherently and to positively manage the consequent social change. It is clear that policy responses to the challenges and opportunities of growing global mobility are running far behind the impact of migration, both real and imagined. And public skepticism about the value of most immigration and about the ability of governments to manage it well appears to be higher than at any time in recent memory-further complicating policymakers’ task.
The Transatlantic Council on Migration has been created to fill gaps that are apparent in the body of knowledge available to policymakers. The expertise that its distinguished members bring to the table is complemented by the broad knowledge and experience of the many transatlantic institutions that have united in supporting its work.
Delivering cutting-edge policy recommendations is a key part of the Council’s work. Therefore, the Migration Policy Institute (MPI) in Washington, DC and its policy partners-the Bertelsmann Stiftung and the European Policy Centre (in cooperation with the King Baudouin Foundation)-are pleased to present you with the first in a series of Council publications. This first book focuses on advancing social cohesion and social justice through more coherent citizenship and integration policies. This volume will inform interested readers about the main policy challenges that European and North American countries face. It proposes a number of enlightened policy options in response to these challenges.
The book is divided into three parts. Part One begins with an introduction, describing the structure, objectives, approach, evolution, work and long-term aims of the Council. This is followed by the Council’s Statement on citizenship. The Statement distills the policy ideas which emerged during the first meeting of the Council on April 24-25, 2008 in Bellagio, Italy. Although it reflects the deliberations of the Council, final responsibility for the content of the book rests with the authors.
Part Two contains five original contributions from leading academics in North America and Europe. These in-depth analyses, commissioned expressly for the Council, provided the necessary context for discussions during the Council’s meeting in April 2008.
The first chapter of Part Two, entitled “Stakeholder Citizenship: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?”, was written by Rainer Bauböck (Professor and Chair of Social and Political Theory at the European University Institute in Florence). The chapter describes the political and social context in which citizenship is being discussed on both sides of the Atlantic.
The second chapter of Part Two, entitled “Dual Citizenship in an Age of Mobility”, is the work of Professor Thomas Faist and Research Assistant Jürgen Gerdes, both at the University of Bielefeld. They describe how, in a globalizing world in which traditional barriers are quickly coming down, more and more people are taking on multiple, overlapping identities. This trend, coupled with the reality of increasing diversity within western societies, sits uneasily with citizenship requirements. The promotion of a single national identity competes with transnational concepts of belonging. Increasing transnationalism is influencing national debates and citizenship policies, especially in Europe. Yet more than ten countries in Europe still maintain formal restrictions on dual nationality.
The third chapter of this section, entitled “Local Voting Rights for Non-Nationals in Europe: What We Know and What We Need to Learn”, was written by Kees Groenendijk, (Professor at the Center for Migration Law at Radboud University, Nijmegen). Professor Groenendijk examines what is essentially a pre-citizenship debate and asks whether the granting of local voting rights increases integration and encourages citizenship acquisition.
The fourth chapter, entitled “A New Citizenship Bargain for the Age of Mobility? Citizenship Requirements in Europe and North America”, was written by Randall Hansen (Associate Professor and Holder of the Canada Research Chair at the Department of Political Science, University of Toronto). He examines the trend, especially in European states, for governments to adopt a range of measures in response to migration that are aimed at revitalizing the sense of national identity and national citizenship. Such moves have often been controversial. Professor Hansen examines evidence to find out which of the various measures work well and which do not, and the reasons why.
The final chapter of Part Two, entitled “The Complexities of Immigration Politics and Policies”, was written by Jennifer Hochschild (Henry LaBarre Jayne Professor of Government, Harvard University) and John Mollenkopf (Distinguished Professor of Political Science and Sociology, CUNY Graduate Center). This chapter considers the debate about migration in a broader perspective of public opinion and the politics of immigration.
Part Three of the book is a summary of the discussion at the Council’s meeting in April 2008. It provides readers with a record of the deliberations of the Council members and experts who took part. It is written in accordance with the Chatham House Rule of not revealing the identities of the various speakers, a rule intended to aid free and uninhibited discussion. Part Three also contains biographies of the Council Members and Staff.
We hope that this book will stimulate increased transatlantic exchange and dialogue on issues of citizenship and inclusion. The Migration Policy Institute in Washington (DC) and its policy partners (the Bertelsmann Stiftung and the European Policy Centre) look forward, in this and future volumes, to making good use of the opportunity to advance thinking about migration policy on both sides of the Atlantic.
Demetrios G. PapademetriouMigration Policy Institute Gunter ThielenBertelsmann Stiftung Hans MartensEuropean Policy Centre
Inhaltsverzeichnis
Titel
Impressum
Vorwort
Part I: The Transatlantic Council on Migration
Introduction: The Aims of the Transatlantic Council on Migration - ...
The Transatlantic Council on Migration
The Council’s Approach
The History of the Transatlantic Council on Migration
The Operation of the Transatlantic Council on Migration
The First Meeting of the Transatlantic Council on Migration
Dissemination
Next Steps and Future Meetings
Council Statement: Delivering Citizenship
Defining Citizenship and Its Purpose
Principles
Actions
Part II: Citizenship and Inclusion
Stakeholder Citizenship: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?
Defining Democratic Citizenship
A Human Right to Citizenship
The Stakeholder Principle of Citizenship
Three Alternatives to the Stakeholder Principle
Why the Stakeholder Principle Makes Sense
Citizenship and Global Justice
Acquiring Citizenship at Birth
The Proliferation of Multiple Citizenship
Testing for Citizenship: Europe’s Problematic Approach to Naturalization
Why Denizenship Cannot Replace Citizenship
Prospects for Stakeholder Citizenship
Further Reading
Local Voting Rights for Non-Nationals in Europe: What We Know and What We Need ...
Local Voting Rights across Europe
Conditions
Key Issues in the Political Debate
The Influence of International Instruments on Future Developments
The Effects of Granting Voting Rights to Non-Nationals
Policy Recommendations
Further Reading
Dual Citizenship in an Age of Mobility
Defining Dual Citizenship
The Benefits of Dual Citizenship
Problems Dual Citizenship Poses
Future Implications of Dual Citizenship
Policy Recommendations
Annex A: Research on Dual Citizenship
Annex B: Country Laws
Further Reading
A New Citizenship Bargain for the Age of Mobility? Citizenship Requirements in ...
Empirical Overview
Recent Changes in Citizenship Policies
The Effects of Policy Changes on Integration
Conclusions and Policy Recommendations
Annex: Future Research
Further Reading
The Complexities of Immigration: Why Western Countries Struggle with ...
The Puzzle of Rising Immigration in Democratic Polities
Ideological Conundrums
Policy Choices
Conclusion
Further Reading
Part III: Summary of the Discussion
Inaugural Meeting of the Transatlantic Council on Migration - Transatlantic ...
The Role of Citizenship in Our Societies Today
Raising the Bar: Emerging Trends in Citizenship Policy
Designing Policies to Encourage Participation
Essential Elements of a Path to Citizenship
Biographies of the Council Members and Staff
Part I: The Transatlantic Council on Migration
Introduction: The Aims of the Transatlantic Council on Migration
Transatlantic Council on Migration
The 21st century promises to be the “Age of Mobility”. More and more people around the globe, from an ever greater number of backgrounds, are migrating. As Europe and North America absorb a larger and more diverse inflow, some policymakers, commentators and academics have begun to question whether their societies can cope with the influx.
Citizenship has emerged as one of the key policy battlegrounds for such concerns. Citizenship lies at an intersection of a host of social policy issues because it provides definitions of identity, belonging and, perhaps above all, participation in key aspects of society, such as voting.

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