Community-Based Participatory Research for Health -  - ebook

Community-Based Participatory Research for Health ebook

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The definitive guide to CBPR concepts and practice, updated and expanded Community-Based Participatory Research for Health: Advancing Health and Social Equity provides a comprehensive reference for this rapidly growing field in participatory and community-engaged research. Hailed as effective by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CBPR and CEnR represent the link between researchers and community and lead to improved public health outcomes. This book provides practitioner-focused guidance on CBPR and CEnR to help public health professionals, students, and practitioners from multiple other clinical, planning, education, social work, and social science fields to successfully work towards social and health equity. With a majority of new chapters, the book provides a thorough overview of CBPR history, theories of action and participatory research, emerging trends of knowledge democracy, and promising practices. Drawn from a ten-year research effort, this new material is organized around the CBPR Conceptual Model, illustrating the importance of social context, promising partnering practices, and the added value of community and other stakeholder engagement for intervention development and research design. Partnership evaluation, measures, and outcomes are highlighted, with a revised section on policy outcomes, including global health case studies. For the first time, this updated edition also includes access to the companion website, featuring lecture slides of conceptual and partnership evaluation-focused chapters, with resources from appendices to help bring CBPR concepts and practices directly into the classroom. Proven effective year after year, CBPR has become a critically important framework for public health, and this book provides clear reference for all aspects of the practice. Readers will: * Examine the latest research on CPBR, and incorporate new insights into practice * Understand the history and theoretical basis of CPBR, and why it has been so effective * Reflect on critical issues of racism, power, and privilege; trust development; ethical practice within and beyond IRBs; and cultural humility * Learn new partnership evaluation and collective reflection strategies, including measures and metrics, to enhance their own practice for improved health and social equity outcomes

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Table of Contents

COVER

TITLE PAGE

THE EDITORS

THE CONTRIBUTORS

PREFACE

REFERENCE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

PART 1: INTRODUCTION: HISTORY AND PRINCIPLES

CHAPTER 1: ON COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH

NEW AND CONTINUING CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

AGENDA FOR THE NEW EDITION

CORE PRINCIPLES OF CBPR WITHIN A CONTINUUM OF COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT

EFFECTIVENESS OF CBPR AND COMMUNITY-ENGAGED RESEARCH

ORGANIZATION OF THIS BOOK

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

NOTE

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL, HISTORICAL, AND PRACTICE ROOTS OF CBPR

TWO HISTORICAL TRADITIONS

PARTICIPATION

KNOWLEDGE DEMOCRACY

POWER RELATIONS

FEMINISM, POST-STRUCTURALISM, AND POSTCOLONIALISM

PAULO FREIRE AND PRAXIS

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

NOTE

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 3: CRITICAL ISSUES IN DEVELOPING AND FOLLOWING CBPR PRINCIPLES

CBPR DEFINITION AND KEY PRINCIPLES

ISSUES IN DEVELOPING AND FOLLOWING CBPR PRINCIPLES

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

NOTES

REFERENCES

PART 2: POWER, TRUST, AND DIALOGUE: WORKING WITH DIVERSE COMMUNITIES

CHAPTER 4: UNDERSTANDING CONTEMPORARY RACISM, POWER, AND PRIVILEGE AND THEIR IMPACTS ON CBPR

CBPR AND THE EXPLORATION OF RACISM

UNDERSTANDING RACISM AND ANTIRACISM FRAMEWORKS

BEYOND (AND WITHIN) RACISM: POWER AND PRIVILEGE IN CBPR

CBPR STRATEGIES TO COMBAT RACISM

CBPR CASE STUDIES: PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

DISRUPTING THE POTENTIAL FOR REINSCRIPTION OF RACISM IN CBPR

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 5: TRUST DEVELOPMENT IN CBPR PARTNERSHIPS

STUDY BACKGROUND

TRUST TYPOLOGY: SUPPORT FOR A DEVELOPMENTAL FRAMEWORK

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

PART 3: CBPR CONCEPTUAL MODEL: CONTEXT AND PROMISING RELATIONSHIP PRACTICES

CHAPTER 6: SOCIO-ECOLOGIC FRAMEWORK FOR CBPR: DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A MODEL

STAGE ONE: CREATING THE MODEL

STAGE TWO: RESEARCH FOR IMPROVED HEALTH: TESTING AND STRENGTHENING THE MODEL

STAGE THREE: CONTINUING TO ADAPT AND EXPAND THE MODEL: DISCOVERING NEW USES

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

NOTES

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 7: YOUTH-LED PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH (YPAR): PRINCIPLES APPLIED TO THE US AND DIVERSE GLOBAL SETTINGS

KEY YPAR PRINCIPLES

YPAR PHASES AND SUPPORT RESOURCES

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 8: PARTNERSHIP, TRANSPARENCY, AND ACCOUNTABILITY: CHANGING SYSTEMS TO ENHANCE RACIAL EQUITY IN CANCER CARE AND OUTCOMES

HISTORY OF THE INTERSECTION OF CBPR AND ANTIRACISM TRAINING IN GREENSBORO

ENGAGING CANCER CENTERS AS EQUAL PARTNERS IN SYSTEM CHANGE RESEARCH FOR HEALTH EQUITY

THE SYSTEM CHANGE STUDY: ACCOUNTABILITY FOR CANCER CARE THROUGH UNDOING RACISM AND EQUITY (ACCURE)

RESULTS AND LESSONS LEARNED

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 9: SOUTH VALLEY PARTNERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE: A STORY OF ALIGNMENT AND MISALIGNMENT

ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE IN THE UNITED STATES

SOCIOCULTURAL RELATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVISM IN THE SOUTH VALLEY

METHODS

DISCUSSION: TENSIONS AND FRACTURES

LESSONS LEARNED

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

PART 4: PROMISING PRACTICES: INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH DESIGN

CHAPTER 10: CBPR IN HEALTH CARE SETTINGS

USING CBPR PRINCIPLES TO ADVANCE HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH

IMPLEMENTING CBPR IN HEALTH CARE SETTINGS: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

SHARED ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION, AND DISSEMINATION OF RESULTS

VIGNETTES

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 11: NATIONAL CENTER FOR DEAF HEALTH RESEARCH: CBPR WITH DEAF COMMUNITIES

INTRODUCTION TO DEAF COMMUNITIES

CBPR FOR HEALTH WITH ROCHESTER DEAF COMMUNITIES

CBPR, INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT, AND RESEARCH DESIGN

RPRC/NCDHR CAPACITY BUILDING

CULTURE-CENTEREDNESS APPROACH

LESSONS LEARNED

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 12: CBPR IN ASIAN AMERICAN COMMUNITIES

CBPR'S RELEVANCE FOR AA COMMUNITIES

CBPR CASE STUDIES

CONCLUSION: OPPORTUNITIES AND FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS FOR CONDUCTING CBPR IN ASIAN COMMUNITIES

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 13: ENGAGED FOR CHANGE: AN INNOVATIVE CBPR STRATEGY TO INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT

OUR CBPR PARTNERSHIP'S EXPERIENCE WITH INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT

STEPS IN INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT THROUGH CBPR

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

PART 5: PROMISING PRACTICES: ETHICAL ISSUES

CHAPTER 14: CBPR PRINCIPLES AND RESEARCH ETHICS IN INDIAN COUNTRY

INCORPORATING CULTURAL ELEMENTS THROUGH CBPR PRINCIPLES

ENSURING ETHICS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF CBPR PRINCIPLES

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 15: DEMOCRATIZING ETHICAL OVERSIGHT OF RESEARCH THROUGH CBPR

OVERSIGHT OF PROTECTION OF STUDY PARTICIPANTS IN RESEARCH

UNCERTAINTY OF STUDY RESULTS AND PARTICIPANTS' RIGHT TO KNOW

IRB CHALLENGES RELATED TO INDIGENOUS RESEARCH

DEMOCRATIZING ETHICAL OVERSIGHT OF RESEARCH

WORKING WITH COMMUNITY AND TRIBAL IRBS

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 16: EVERYDAY CHALLENGES IN THE LIFE CYCLE OF CBPR: BROADENING OUR BANDWIDTH ON ETHICS

LAYING THE GROUNDWORK

GETTING “PERMISSION”: GOVERNANCE AS STEWARDSHIP AND HONORING COMMUNITY PROTOCOLS

PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION

SHARING YOUR WORK AND ENDING THE CYCLE

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

PART 6: PROMISING PRACTICES TO OUTCOMES: CBPR CAPACITY AND HEALTH

CHAPTER 17: EVALUATION OF CBPR PARTNERSHIPS AND OUTCOMES: LESSONS AND TOOLS FROM THE RESEARCH FOR IMPROVED HEALTH STUDY

STUDY OF PARTNERSHIP SYNERGY

RIH STUDY METHODS

QUALITATIVE MEASURES AND TOOLS

KEY INFORMANT SURVEY

COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT SURVEY

KEY OUTCOMES

MEASURES AND TOOLS FOR EVALUATION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 18: PARTICIPATORY EVALUATION AS A PROCESS OF EMPOWERMENT: EXPERIENCES WITH COMMUNITY HEALTH WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES AND LATIN AMERICA

WHAT IS EVALUATION?

WHAT IS PARTICIPATORY EVALUATION?

TRANSFORMATIVE PARTICIPATORY EVALUATION

DECOLONIZING PARTICIPATORY EVALUATION

A PROCESS FOR CARRYING OUT TRANSFORMATIVE PARTICIPATORY EVALUATION

CASE STUDY ONE: THE OREGON COMMUNITY EDUCATION WORKER (CEW) PROGRAM

CASE STUDY TWO: AMOS HEALTH AND HOPE, NICARAGUA

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 19: ACADEMIC POSITIONS FOR FACULTY OF COLOR: COMBINING LIFE CALLING, COMMUNITY SERVICE, AND RESEARCH

THE NATIVE AMERICAN RESEARCH CENTERS FOR HEALTH (NARCH)

W.K. KELLOGG COMMUNITY HEALTH SCHOLARS (CHSP) AND KELLOGG HEALTH SCHOLARS PROGRAMS (KHSP)

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

PART 7: PROMISING PRACTICES TO OUTCOMES: HEALTHY PUBLIC POLICY

CHAPTER 20: COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH FOR HEALTH EQUITY POLICY MAKING

THE SOCIAL ECOLOGY OF RESEARCH USE

THE LINK BETWEEN CBPR AND POLICY MAKING

TAKING ACTION TO ADVANCE HEALTH EQUITY: CBPR POLICY PRINCIPLES, GOALS, STRATEGIES, TARGETS, AND TOOLS

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 21: IMPROVING FOOD SECURITY AND TOBACCO CONTROL THROUGH POLICY-FOCUSED CBPR: A CASE STUDY OF HEALTHY RETAIL IN SAN FRANCISCO

OVERVIEW OF THE TENDERLOIN AND ITS HEALTHY CORNER STORE COALITION

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

ROLE OF THE COALITION IN LINKING CBPR AND POLICY MAKING

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 22: CRIMINAL JUSTICE REFORM THROUGH PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH

MASS INCARCERATION AND THE PUBLIC'S HEALTH

MOVING TOWARD A BROADER PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH

THE SAFE RETURN PROJECT

THE MORRIS JUSTICE PROJECT

CONCLUSION

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

REFERENCES

CHAPTER 23: GLOBAL HEALTH POLICY: SLUM SETTLEMENT MAPPING IN NAIROBI AND RIO DE JANEIRO

PLACE AND MAPPING IN A RELATIONAL VIEW

RIO DE JANEIRO CASE STUDY

CASE TWO: NAIROBI, KENYA: SHACK/SLUM DWELLERS INTERNATIONAL (SDI) IN THE MATHARE VALLEY

ONGOING CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

CONCLUSION: COMMUNITY MAPPING FOR HEALTH EQUITY

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION

NOTES

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 1: CHALLENGING OURSELVES: CRITICAL SELF-REFLECTION ON POWER AND PRIVILEGE

ONE APPROACH TO CRITICAL SELF-REFLECTION

CONNECTING TO COMMUNITY PRACTICE

SUMMARY

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 2: GUIDING CBPR PRINCIPLES: FOSTERING EQUITABLE HEALTH CARE FOR LGBTQ+ PEOPLE

DEVELOPING LGBTQ+ GUIDELINES

QUICK TIPS FOR FOSTERING EQUITABLE RESEARCH PARTNERSHIPS WITH LGBTQ+ COMMUNITIES

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

NOTES

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 3: QUALITY CRITERIA OF THE INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION FOR PARTICIPATORY HEALTH RESEARCH (ICPHR)

ENSURING QUALITY: INDICATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPATORY (HEALTH) RESEARCH

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 4: CULTURAL HUMILITY: REFLECTIONS AND RELEVANCE FOR CBPR

TEACHING CBPR WITH CULTURAL HUMILITY

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 5: FUNDING IN CBPR IN US GOVERNMENT AND PHILANTHROPY

GOVERNMENT

PHILANTHROPY

NOTE

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 6: REALIST EVALUATION AND REVIEW FOR COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH: WHAT WORKS, FOR WHOM, UNDER WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES, AND HOW?

WHAT IS REALIST METHODOLOGY AND WHY IS IT ADVANTAGEOUS?

EXEMPLIFYING REALIST METHODOLOGY WITH THE PRAM REVIEW

CHALLENGES TO USING THE REALIST APPROACH

CONCLUSION

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

NOTE

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 7: PARTNERSHIP RIVER OF LIFE: CREATING A HISTORICAL TIME LINE

PARTNERSHIP RIVER OF LIFE HISTORICAL TIME LINE EXERCISE

NOTE

APPENDIX 8: PURPOSING A COMMUNITY-GROUNDED RESEARCH ETHICS TRAINING INITIATIVE

CASE STUDY: ETHICAL TRAINING FOR HEALTH WITH INDIGENOUS COMMUNITIES

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 9: PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENTS: A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO DEVELOPING DATA SHARING, OWNERSHIP, AND PUBLISHING AGREEMENTS

PURPOSE

AGREEMENT INTRODUCTION

DATA-RELATED CHALLENGES

PUBLICATION, WRITING, AND GENERAL DISSEMINATION

RESOLVING GRIEVANCES

TERMINATION

AGREEMENT PERIOD

OTHER SECTIONS TO CONSIDER

EXAMPLE AGREEMENTS

APPENDIX 10: INSTRUMENTS AND MEASURES FOR EVALUATING COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT AND PARTNERSHIPS

NOTE

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 11: PARTICIPATORY MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF COMMUNITY HEALTH INITIATIVES USING THE COMMUNITY CHECK BOX EVALUATION SYSTEM

BACKGROUND AND TECHNICAL SUPPORTS FOR MONITORING AND EVALUATION

PROTOCOL FOR PARTICIPATORY MONITORING AND EVALUATION

PARTICIPATORY SENSEMAKING AND ADJUSTMENTS

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 12: POWER MAPPING: A USEFUL TOOL FOR UNDERSTANDING THE POLICY ENVIRONMENT AND ITS APPLICATION TO A LOCAL SODA TAX INITIATIVE

MAKING AND USING A POWER MAP

ILLUSTRATION OF POLICY MAPPING REGARDING A LOCAL SODA TAX INITIATIVE

MOVING TO VICTORY THE SECOND TIME AROUND

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

APPENDIX 13: CBPR INTERACTIVE ROLE-PLAYS: THREE SCENARIOS

SAMPLE MODULE 1: CONDUCTING CBPR RESEARCH ON INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE IN A HIGH SCHOOL WITH A SIGNIFICANT NEW IMMIGRANT POPULATION

AFTERWORD

REFERENCES

INDEX

END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT

List of Tables

Chapter 5

TABLE 5.1 Trust Typology Model with Characteristics

Chapter 6

TABLE 6.1 Projects and Health and Social Issues

Chapter 8

TABLE 8.1 Breast and Lung Cancer Treatment Outcome Measures

TABLE 8.2 Early Stage Lung Cancer Treatment Rates (Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy and Surgical Resection) by Race and ACCURE Intervention Arm, by Percent

Chapter 10

TABLE 10.1 CBPR Principles, Strategies, and Examples in Health Services Research

TABLE 10.2 Types of Study Designs and Pros and Cons for the Community

Chapter 11

TABLE 11.1 Comparison of Deaf ASL-Using Communities and Some Other Language Minority Groups

TABLE 11.2 Online Resources Related to CBPR for Health with Deaf Communities

TABLE 11.3 Significant Historical Events Relevant to Community-Based Participatory Research for Health with Deaf Communities

Chapter 13

TABLE 13.1 ENGAGED for CHANGE: A Stepped Approach to Intervention Development

TABLE 13.2 An Abbreviated, Sample Logic Model from Our Partnership's HOLA en Grupos Intervention

Chapter 20

TABLE 20.1 The “Know-Do” Gap in Advancing Health Equity

Appendix 1

TABLE A1.1 Cultural Identity Inventory

TABLE A1.2 Assessment: Connecting Cultural Identity to Community Practice

List of Illustrations

Chapter 5

FIGURE 5.1

Means Plot of Social Trust and Trust Types

Chapter 6

FIGURE 6.1

CBPR Conceptual Model

FIGURE 6.2

Teeth Tales Model

Chapter 8

FIGURE 8.1

Cancer Journey Diagram

FIGURE 8.2

Healthcare Equity Education and Training Sessions

Chapter 11

FIGURE 11.1

Examples of RPRC/NCDHR Logos Designed by Deaf Community Partners

Chapter 13

FIGURE 13.1

Latina Transgender Women's Photovoice Project Photograph and Corresponding Quotation, “It Is Important to Go down the Right Path and to Not Just Inject Yourself with Whatever.”

Chapter 14

FIGURE 14.1

Integrate Knowledge and Action for the Mutual Benefit of All Partners

Chapter 15

FIGURE 15.1

The Three Rs of CBPR: Rigor, Relevance, and Reach

Chapter 18

FIGURE 18.1

Key Steps in Participatory Evaluation Process

Chapter 20

FIGURE 20.1

CBPR Policy Model

Chapter 22

PHOTO 22.1

PHOTO 22.2

Chapter 23

PICTURE 23.1

Recycle Project: Young Mapper Using “Voices of Youth Maps” App to Document Garbage Accumulation.

PICTURE 23.2

Recycle Project: João Tuteia Square—From Dump Site to Recreation Place in Two Years of Mobilization and Action.

PICTURE 23.3

Balloon Captured Aerial Image Showing Cooking Pots (Round White Circles Adjacent to Open Drain), Later Found to Contain High Amounts of Human Waste

FIGURE 23.1

Data Map of Potential Displacement of People and Activities

PICTURE 23.4

Mathare Residents Review Maps During Community Planning Forum.

Appendix 11

FIGURE A11.1

Protocol for Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Using the Community Check Box Evaluation System

FIGURE A11.2

Participatory Sensemaking

Appendix 12

FIGURE A12.1

Creating a Power Map

FIGURE A12.2

Power Map for San Francisco Soda Tax 2014

Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

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E1

COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH FOR HEALTH

Advancing Social and Health Equity

third edition

 

 

NINA WALLERSTEIN

BONNIE DURAN

JOHN G. OETZEL

MEREDITH MINKLER

Editors

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Published by Jossey-Bass

A Wiley Brand

One Montgomery Street, Suite 1000, San Francisco, CA 94104-4594—www.josseybass.com

Edition History

John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (2e, 2008; 1e, 2003)

The right of Nina Wallerstein, Bonnie Duran, John Oetzel, and Meredith Minkler to be identified as the authors of the editorial material in this work has been asserted in accordance with law.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Wallerstein, Nina, 1953- editor.

Title: Community-based participatory research for health: advancing social and health equity / edited by Nina Wallerstein, Dr.P.H, Professor of Public Health, College of Population Health Director, Center for Participatory Research, University of New Mexico (UNM), Bonnie Duran, Dr.P.H., Associate Professor, University of Washington School of Social Work, Director of the Center for Indigenous Health Research, Indigenous Wellness Research Institute, John G. Oetzel, Professor, Waikato Management School, University of Waikato, Meredith Minkler, Dr.P.H., MPH, Professor, Graduate School, Community Health Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, Professor Emerita, School of Public Health.

Description: Third edition. | Hoboken, NJ : Jossey-Bass & Pfeiffer Imprints, Wiley, [2017] | Includes bibliographical references. |

Identifiers: LCCN 2017018499 (print) | LCCN 2017021064 (ebook) | ISBN 9781119258865 (epdf) | ISBN 9781119258872 (epub) | ISBN 9781119258858 (paperback)

Subjects: LCSH: Public health—Research—Citizen participation. | Public health—Research—Methodology. | Community health services. | BISAC: MEDICAL / Public Health.

Classification: LCC RA440.85 (ebook) | LCC RA440.85 .C65 2017 (print) | DDC 362.1072—dc23

LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017018499

Cover design: Wiley

Cover image: © MAGNIFIER/Shutterstock

THIRD EDITION

From Nina: To my late parents, Robert and Judith Wallerstein, who modeled for me values of justice and compassion.

From Bonnie: Gratitude to my parents, siblings, and community members for sharing their values, wisdom, and patience.

From John: To my children, Spencer and Ethan, who inspire me to make a positive contribution in the community.

From Meredith: To Roy and Fran Minkler, who as parents and human beings taught by example the power of deep concern with fairness, caring, keeping a sense of humor, and never giving up.

THE EDITORS

NINA WALLERSTEIN, DrPH, professor of public health, College of Population Health, and director, Center for Participatory Research (cpr.unm.edu), University of New Mexico (UNM), has been developing CBPR and empowerment, Paulo Freire–based interventions for more than thirty years. She has written over 150 articles and chapters and seven books, including the Freirean Problem-Posing at Work: A Popular Educator's Guide. In 2016, she received the inaugural Community Engaged Research Lecture award from UNM. She's had a long-term CBPR research relationship with several New Mexican tribes to support intergenerational culture-centered family prevention programming with children, parents, and elders; and she has worked with the Healthy Native Community Partnership for more than ten years. Since 2006, she has worked to strengthen the science of CBPR and community-engaged research. She is currently principal investigator (PI) of Engage for Equity, an NINR-funded RO1 to assess promising partnering practices associated with outcomes and to develop partnership evaluation and reflection tools and resources. She has collaboratively produced with Latin American colleagues an empowerment, participatory research, and health promotion curriculum available in Spanish, Portuguese, and English (http://cpr.unm.edu/curricula-classes/empowerment-curriculum.html) and cosponsors an annual summer institute in CBPR for health at the University of New Mexico.

BONNIE DURAN, DrPH (mixed-race Opelousas and Coushatta) is professor in the School of Social Work at the University of Washington, and is also Director of the Center for Indigenous Health Research at the Indigenous Wellness Research Institute (www.iwri.org). Using Indigenous theories to guide her work, Bonnie's research includes intervention and prevalence studies of substance abuse and other mental disorders, violence, and treatment seeking in Native communities. Her overall aims are to work with communities to design interventions and descriptive studies that are empowering, culture-centered, sustainable, and that have maximum public health impact.

JOHN G. OETZEL is a professor in the Waikato Management School at the University of Waikato. He uses CBPR to collaboratively work with communities to address various health issues to improve health equity. His current work includes the collaborative development of interventions with two Māori health organizations in New Zealand related to pre-diabetes and positive aging. He is also a member of the Engage for Equity research team investigating promising practices for CBPR in the United States. He contributes expertise in research design and evaluation and believes in the importance of collaborative design to ensure that the research evaluation fits the context and needs of communities as well as to ensure interventions are culturally centered. He is author or coauthor of three books: Managing Intercultural Communication Effectively (with Stella Ting-Toomey, 2001, Sage); Intercultural Communication: A Layered Approach (2009, Pearson); and Theories of Human Communication, 11th ed. (with Stephen Littlejohn and Karen Foss, 2017, Waveland). He is coeditor of two other books: The Sage Handbook of Conflict Communication (with Stella Ting-Toomey, 2006, Sage, and 2nd edition in 2013). In addition, he is also author of more than ninety articles and book chapters.

MEREDITH MINKLER, DrPH, MPH, is professor in the Graduate School, Community Health Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, and professor emerita in the School of Public Health. Founding director of the UC Berkeley Center on Aging, Minkler continues to work with community and other partners to help develop the evidence base for implementing healthy public policy in areas including healthy retail in low-income neighborhoods, environmental exposures, immigrant worker health and safety, criminal justice reform, and HIV/AIDS. A recent Fulbright specialist in South Africa in CBPR, she has offered trainings on community-engaged research in Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia, the United Kingdom, and in numerous states and provinces in the United States and Canada. Minkler has coauthored close to two hundred articles and coauthored or edited nine books, including Community Organizing and Community Building for Health and Welfare (Rutgers, 2012).

THE CONTRIBUTORS

MARGARITA ALEGRÍA, PhD, is the chief of the Disparities Research Unit at Massachusetts General Hospital and professor in the Departments of Medicine and Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. Alegría has served as PI on more than fifteen federally funded research grants and has published more than two hundred professional publications on topics such as the improvement of health care services delivery for diverse racial and ethnic populations, conceptual and methodological issues with multicultural populations, and ways to bring the community's perspective into the design and implementation of health services.

ALEX J. ALLEN, III, MSA, is the president and CEO of the Chandler Park Conservancy. He collaborates with residents, stakeholders, local institutions, business, government, and the philanthropic community to transform Chandler Park into a campus with exceptional educational, recreational, and conservation opportunities for youth and families on Detroit's eastside and the region. He has effectively led organizations, collaborative initiatives, and has improved the quality of life for people who live, work, play, and visit communities in the United States. His experience includes managing grants for compliance and budget integrity, convening stakeholders for planning and project implementation, supervising and monitoring youth programs, fund-raising, reporting and evaluation, and CBPR.

JORGE ALONZO, JD, is a research associate at Wake Forest School of Medicine and is part of a team that specializes in HIV-prevention research using CBPR with immigrant Latinos. He has been involved in the design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV-prevention interventions for Latino gay and bisexual men and men who have sex with men (MSM) and Latina transgender women. He has also been involved in projects exploring the impact of immigration enforcement on access to and use of public health services among Latinos.

ANDREA AULT, PhD, MPA, is the senior director of the Mental Health Innovation Lab in the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. She was previously the associate director of the Health Equity Lab at Cambridge Health Alliance, where her research focused on racial-ethnic disparities in mental health care, dissemination and implementation research, and CBPR.

MAGDALENA AVILA, DrPH, MPH, MSW, is associate professor, community health education, Department of Health, Exercise and Sports Science, College of Education, University of New Mexico. She self-identifies as an activist scholar in community health and CBPR, in her partnering with Latino and other Indigenous communities of color, and in her use of a social justice framework. Her areas of research are environmental health, environmental racism, and community health impact assessments in working with rural and urban communities, and she has expanded her research capacity by incorporating digital story making into her CBPR work with Latino communities.

STEPHANIE BAKER, PhD, MS, PT, is assistant professor of public health at Elon University and a member of the Greensboro Health Disparities Collaborative. Her work is focused on social determinants of racial inequities in health, community organizing as a tool for public health change, antiracism pedagogy, and CBPR.

BARBARA BAQUERO, PhD, MPH, is assistant professor of community and behavioral health at the University of Iowa, College of Public Health. She is a founding member of the Healthy Equity Advancement Lab (HEAL), an academic-community research lab dedicated to advancing health equity through research and training. She serves as PI and deputy director of the University of Iowa, Prevention Research Center, funded by the CDC.

STEVEN BARNETT, MD, is associate professor of family medicine and public health sciences at the University of Rochester and director of the Rochester Prevention Research Center: National Center for Deaf Health Research. He is a sign language–skilled family physician researcher with a career focus on health care and collaborative health research with deaf sign language users and people with hearing loss, their families, and communities.

ADAM B. BECKER, PhD, MPH, is associate professor of pediatrics and preventive medicine in the Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University. He is also executive director of the Consortium to Lower Obesity in Chicago Children (CLOCC) at Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago. He has used CBPR to examine and address the impact of stressful community conditions on the health of women raising children, youth violence prevention, and the impact of the social and physical environment on physical activity.

LORENDA BELONE, PhD, MPH, (Diné/Navajo) is assistant professor at the University of New Mexico (UNM) College of Education. She is a senior fellow with the Center for Participatory Research, a center that supports networks of research with community partners in New Mexico addressing health inequities, and a senior fellow with the UNM Center for Health Policy. Since 2000, she has been actively engaged in CBPR research that has involved southwest Native American communities. She currently is co-PI on a NIDA-funded RIO multi-tribal implementation and evaluation study (1R01DA037174-03).

EVAN BISSELL, MPH, MCP, is an artist based in the Bay Area. He teaches art and social change at UC Berkeley and is involved in participatory research and art projects in multiple settings across the country that support equitable systems and liberatory processes. His work has been exhibited in institutions and galleries across the country. He is the creator of knottedline.com and freedoms-ring.org.

KRISTIN BLACK, PhD, MPH, is a postdoctoral fellow in the Cancer Health Disparities Training Program in the Department of Health Behavior at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Her PhD is in maternal and child health, and her career commitment is to use CBPR approaches to understand and address race-specific inequities in cancer survivorship and reproductive health.

JULIA GREEN BRODY, PhD, is executive director and senior scientist at Silent Spring Institute, an independent research group founded in 1994 by breast cancer activists to create a “lab of their own” focused on environmental factors and prevention. Her research, supported by the National Institutes of Health, investigates everyday exposures to carcinogens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals from consumer products, workplaces, and pollution.

PHIL BROWN, PhD, is University Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Health Sciences at Northeastern, where he directs the Social Science Environmental Health Research Institute. His books include No Safe Place: Toxic Waste, Leukemia, and Community Action; Toxic Exposures: Contested Illnesses and the Environmental Health Movement; and Contested Illnesses: Citizens, Science, and Health Social Movements. He directs an NIEHS training program “Transdisciplinary Training at the Intersection of Environmental Health and Social Science.”

LISA CACARI-STONE, PhD, MA, MS, is associate professor in the College of Population Health and assistant director with the RWJF Center for Health Policy at the University of New Mexico. Her scholarly interests focus on upstream determinants of health, including societal and political structures and relationships that differentially affect population health and policy interventions that influence health equity. Her community-engaged research with Latino and US-Mexico border communities encompass macro-level determinants (e.g., immigration policy, health reform); the community level (e.g., impact of neighborhood context and migration on substance use); and the interpersonal level (e.g., the role of promotores de salud in chronic disease management among Latinos). Cacari Stone is widely trusted for her work in translating and disseminating data for policy making with governments, community-based organizations, coalitions, and foundations.

CHARLOTTE YU-TING CHANG, DrPH, MPH, is coordinator of research to practice and evaluation and associate project scientist at the Labor Occupational Health Program, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley. Her work has focused on advancing the movement of research into practice in worker health and safety, with a particular interest in the role and processes of research partnerships with workers and community members. She has worked and written on a range of projects involving immigrant worker populations and communities as well as on research to practice lessons learned in construction health and safety.

VIVIAN CHÁVEZ, DrPH, is associate professor of health education at San Francisco State University. A storyteller by nature, she has collaborated with community-based organizations to disseminate their work. She coedited Prevention Is Primary: Strategies in Community Well-Being, coauthored Drop That Knowledge: Youth Radio Stories, translated Media Advocacy into Spanish, and made a film about cultural humility that is widely accessible. Her work integrates the language of the arts, culture, and the body for health and social change.

BOWEN CHUNG, MD, MSHS, is associate professor–in-residence of psychiatry at the UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, an adjunct scientist at the RAND Corporation, and an attending physician at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center. He has been a PI and co-PI on ten federally funded research grants and is the author of more than thirty scientific publications. He has been working with the same community partners for nearly fifteen years.

VICKI COLLIE-AKERS, PhD, MPH, is associate director of health promotion research at the KU Center for Community Health and Development. She serves as an investigator on several projects promoting health equity and reduction in health disparities in the Kansas City metropolitan area. Additionally, she directs several evaluation projects that support partners who are working to promote health through their comprehensive initiatives. Her research primarily focuses on applying a CBPR orientation to understand how collaborative partnerships and coalitions can improve social determinants of health and equity and reduce disparities in health outcomes.

CHRIS M. COOMBE, PhD, MPH, is assistant research scientist in the Department of Health Behavior/Health Education at the University of Michigan School of Public Health and is affiliated with the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center. She has extensive experience designing, implementing, and evaluating collaborative research and interventions using CBPR. Coombe's work focuses on understanding how urban social and physical environments contribute to racial and socioeconomic inequities and translating that knowledge into policy interventions to promote health and equity.

JASON CORBURN, PhD, MCP, is professor in the Department of City and Regional Planning and the School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley. He directs the Institute of Urban and Regional Development and the Center for Global Healthy Cities. He is the author of a number of award-winning books on community-based action research for health equity, including Street Science (MIT Press, 2005), Toward the Healthy City (MIT Press, 2009), and Slum Health (University of California Press, 2016).

JANA CORDEIERO, MPH, is an independent public health and nonprofit consultant, strategist, and researcher with more than twenty-five years of experience working with universities, foundations, community-based organizations, and health departments to develop and evaluate effective public health policies and programs. She worked with other advocates in the Bay Area to successfully pass public health policies to prevent chronic diseases fueled by sugary drinks, including warning label legislation, sugary drink taxes on distributors, and resisting pouring rights contracts at universities.

JESSICA CUCULICK, PhD, is associate professor, Department of Liberal Studies, at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, Rochester Institute of Technology. Cuculick coordinates the applied liberal arts associate degree program and is the professional development director for the Rochester bridges to the doctorate program (www.deafscientists.com). She is codirector for the Deaf Health Lab and the PI for the deaf health literacy research project. Cuculick has been involved with CBPR with the National Center for Deaf Health Research (NCDHR) at the University of Rochester, such as breastfeeding and cardiovascular health perspectives in the Deaf community.

SAMUEL CYKERT, MD, is a professor of medicine at UNC-CH in the Division of General Internal Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology. He also serves as the director of the UNC School of Medicine program on health and clinical informatics. Combining his research training and interest in health policy, he currently serves as a PI on multiple projects that address health disparities in cancer treatment and chronic care management.

GAIL DANA-SACCO, PhD, MPH, is on the faculty of the Center for American Indian Health at the Johns Hopkins University, where she works with tribal communities to research violence and injury and to develop and implement structural and behavioral strategies to improve health outcomes.

ROBIN DEAN, MPH, MA, is a public health consultant offering health advocacy and qualitative research services to clients working to create healthy, connected communities in which everyone has a voice. In 2014, she advocated through coordinating writers' media submissions for soda tax campaigns in San Francisco and Berkeley, and in 2016 she secured endorsements for Oakland's and San Francisco's winning soda tax measures. Robin has produced case studies and evaluations, including a Berkeley Media Studies Group issue brief on an Oregon affordable housing coalition's media advocacy effort and a case study of girls' education in Mali.

SANETA DEVUONO-POWELL, JD, MCP, is a city planner and attorney who works on community health. She is currently senior planner at Changelab Solutions and has written on incarceration and its impacts on families as well as on community-based participatory action research. Her current work is focused on racial disparities in health and the links between health disparities and housing.

LORI DEWINDT, MA, is health project coordinator, Rochester Prevention Research Center: National Center for Deaf Health Research (RPRC/NCDHR), University of Rochester Medical Center. DeWindt has worked in the field of Deaf community health as a RPRC/NCDHR research coordinator and as a psychotherapist at the Deaf Wellness Center at the University of Rochester.

PAULA DOMINGO DE GARCIA is a resident of the South Valley and one of the main promotoras of the S.V.P.E.J. research team. She is an immigrant from the Indigenous community Nahua de Cuentepec in Temixco, Mexico. Before coming to New Mexico, she worked with the Independent Commission of Human Rights of Morelos to save her native language, Nahuatl, and with the National Council to Promote Education in the rural community of Tlatepetl, Tepoztlan. She currently works as a teaching assistant at Dolores Gonzales Elementary School and as a federal court interpreter translating from Nahuatl to Spanish. She is currently studying for her AA in Early Childhood Multicultural Education.

AILEEN ALFONSO DULDULAO, PhD, MSW, is the maternal, child, and family health epidemiologist for the Multnomah County Health Department in Portland, Oregon. She has held research fellowships from the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Minority Health and Health Disparities, and the University of Washington Institute for Translational Health Sciences. Her social work background includes extensive experience in direct social service provision with immigrant and refugee communities experiencing domestic violence, sexual assault, mental illness, poverty, and employment discrimination.

ALEXEI DUNAWAY is the executive director of Ongoza, an accelerator for youth-led social businesses in Nairobi, Kenya. Previously he contributed to several human rights trials in Spain, the United States, and El Salvador; conducted research for Human Rights Watch and the Council on Foreign Relations; and helped coordinate the world pilot of a youth-led community mapping initiative at the Centro de Promoção da Saúde (CEDAPS) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He also served as a Fulbright research scholar in Mozambique.

EUGENIA ENG, MPH, DrPH, is professor of health behavior at the Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She has more than thirty years of CBPR experience, including field studies conducted with rural communities of the US South, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia to address socially stigmatizing health problems such as pesticide poisoning, cancer, and STI-HIV. Her CBPR projects include the NCI-funded Accountability for Cancer Care through Undoing Racism and Equity, the CDC-funded Men As Navigators for Health, the NCI-funded Cancer Care and Racial Equity Study, the NHLBI-funded CVD Black Church: Are We Our Brother's Keeper? In addition to her coedited book, Methods for Community-Based Participatory Research for Health, she has more than 115 publications on the lay health advisor intervention model, the concepts of community competence and natural helping, and community assessment procedures.

JESSICA ESTRADA is a health program coordinator at the San Francisco Department of Public Health Community Health Equity & Promotion Branch, and formerly co-coordinator of the Tenderloin Healthy Corner Store Coalition. She received her bachelor of science from the University of California, Davis, and has worked in public health, youth development, and community organizing, with a passion for health equity, since 2006.

JENNIFER FALBE, ScD, MPH, is an assistant professor of nutrition and human development at the University of California, Davis. Her research focuses on evaluating policies and programs to reduce health disparities and improve diet quality, such as soda taxes, healthy retail programs, and primary care and community interventions.

STEPHEN FAWCETT, PhD, is senior advisor in KU Center for Community Health and Development, and codirector of the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Community Health and Development at the University of Kansas. Author of nearly two hundred publications and cofounder of the Community Tool Box, his research examines how collaborative action affects improvements in population health and equity.

SARAH FLICKER, PhD, is associate professor in the Faculty of Environmental Studies at York University in Toronto, Canada. Her program of research focuses on youth environmental, sexual, and reproductive justice issues. Her research has informed policy at the municipal, provincial, and federal levels. Flicker and her teams have won a number of prestigious awards for youth engagement in health research.

VINCENT FRANCISCO, PhD, is Kansas Health Foundation Professor of Community Leadership and senior scientist with the Schiefelbusch Institute for Life Span Studies. He is codirector of the KU Center for Community Health and Development, a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre at the University of Kansas.

NICHOLAS FREUDENBERG, DrPH, is Distinguished Professor of Public Health at the City University of New York Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, where he also directs the CUNY Urban Food Policy Institute. For the past thirty years, he has developed, implemented, and evaluated community health policies and programs designed to improve the health and reduce health inequalities facing vulnerable urban populations.

CATALINA GARZÓN, PhD, has coordinated CBPR, leadership development, action planning, and curriculum development partnerships with environmental and social justice organizations and coalitions for more than twenty years. Her recent collaborations include a photo-novella on alternatives to the criminalization of youth with Communities United for Restorative Youth Justice and a Health Impact Assessment of freight transport planning with the Ditching Dirty Diesel Collaborative. Garzón is a recipient of the Thomas I. Yamashita Prize honoring outstanding social change activists who serve as a bridge between academia and the community.

LAWRENCE W. GREEN, DrPH ScD (Hon), emeritus professor of epidemiology and biostatistics at the University of California at San Francisco, served as director of the US Office of Health Information and Health Promotion under the Carter Administration and director of the Office of Science and Extramural Research at CDC. He has been on the full-time faculties of UC Berkeley, Johns Hopkins University, Harvard, the University of Texas, and the University of British Columbia. He headed a Canadian team in producing the first study of participatory research in health promotion for the Royal Society of Canada.

DEREK M. GRIFFITH, PhD, is associate professor of medicine, health, and society and founder and director of the Center for Research on Men's Health at Vanderbilt University. In November 2013, Griffith was presented with the Tom Bruce Award by the Community-Based Public Health Caucus of the American Public Health Association in recognition of his leadership in community-based public health and for his research on “eliminating health disparities that vary by race, ethnicity, and gender.”

ADRIAN GUTA, MSW, PhD, is assistant professor at the School of Social Work, University of Windsor, Canada. His research examines the social, cultural, and ethical dimensions of HIV prevention, treatment, and care; related clinical and social service programing; and public health interventions through a combination of critical theoretical work and applied CBPR.

J. RICARDO GUZMAN, MSW, MPH, served as CEO for the Community Health and Social Services Center (CHASS), a federally qualified health center, in Detroit from 1982 through 2016. During his tenure, he increased funding for the uninsured and underinsured residents of Detroit, focusing on African American and Latino communities, and broadened services to include domestic violence and sexual assault programs and CBPR efforts to address underlying causes of health disparities in minority populations. He has received national and local awards for his role in expanding access to culturally and linguistically appropriate health services. Guzman currently serves as chairperson of the board of directors for the National Association of Community Health Centers in Washington, DC.

BUDD HALL, PhD, is professor of community development at the University of Victoria and UNESCO co-chair in community-based research and social responsibility in higher education. He has been working within a participatory research framework since 1973.

SUSANA HENNESSEY LAVERY, MPH, is health educator with the San Francisco Department of Public Health, Community Health Equity and Promotion Branch (1992 to present). She codesigns and implements the CAM (community action model) for policy development with San Francisco's diverse communities. She played a lead role in development of healthy retail efforts, is the SFDPH staff member for the HealthyRetailSF program, and sits on the steering committee of the Tenderloin Healthy Corner Store Coalition. For more than a decade, she has participated on the Bay Area committee of Vision y Compromiso, a statewide community health worker network. She is coauthor of numerous professional publications.

CHRISTINA HOLT serves as the associate director for Community Tool Box services at the KU Center for Health Promotion and Community Development, where she directs the Community Tool Box, a free global resource that offers seven thousand pages of practical guidance for creating change and improvement. She has served as a speaker and technical consultant for groups including the World Health Organization, World Bank, United Nations, Peace Corps, and Institute of Medicine.

CHERYL HYDE, MSW, PhD, is associate professor at Temple University, School of Social Work. Her primary areas of scholarship and teaching are organizational and community capacity building, multicultural education, feminist praxis, social movements and collective action, and socioeconomic class issues. She is a past president of the Association for Community Organization and Social Administration, former editor of the Journal of Progressive Human Services, and a member of several social science and social work editorial boards and has practice experience in feminist, labor, and anti-oppression movements.

NADIA ISLAM, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Population Health at NYU School of Medicine. She is deputy director of the NYU Center for the Study of Asian American Health and the research director for the NYU-CUNY Prevention Research Center. She serves as PI on numerous federally funded initiatives evaluating the impact of culturally adapted community-clinical linkages strategies on improving health outcomes in racial and ethnic minority communities. Islam's work has been featured in Diabetes Care, the American Journal of Public Health, and other peer-reviewed journals.

BARBARA A. ISRAEL, DrPH, MPH, is professor of health behavior and health education, School of Public Health, University of Michigan. She has published widely and is actively involved in a number of CBPR partnerships examining and addressing, for example, the social and physical environmental determinants of health inequities in cardiovascular disease and childhood asthma and capacity building for and translating research findings into policy change.

JUSTIN JAGOSH, PhD, is honorary research associate, Institute for Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool, and director for the Centre for Advancement in Realist Evaluation and Synthesis (www.liv.ac.uk/cares). He was coinvestigator on a comprehensive realist review and evaluation of the CBPR. He runs regular training workshops in realist methodology, including an annual summer school and a biennial international realist methodology conference. See his website at www.realistmethodology-cares.org.

CAMARA PHYLLIS JONES, MD, MPH, PhD, a family physician and social epidemiologist, focuses on naming, measuring, and addressing the impacts of racism on the health and well-being of the nation. Her allegories on race and racism illuminate topics that are otherwise difficult for many Americans to understand or discuss. She is past president of the American Public Health Association and a senior fellow at the Satcher Health Leadership Institute and Cardiovascular Research Institute at the Morehouse School of Medicine. She was previously an assistant professor, Harvard School of Public Health (1994 to 2000), and a medical officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2000 to 2014).

NORA JONES, MS, is executive director of the Partnership Project and the founding president of Sisters Network Greensboro, a national breast cancer survivorship organization for African American women. Currently, she is the lead community coinvestigator for the ACCURE (Accountability for Cancer Care Through Undoing Racism and Equity) Research Study.

MIRIA KANO, PhD, research investigator, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of New Mexico, is the director of regional coordination for the geographic management of cancer health disparities program region 3. She served as PI on the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute Pipeline to Proposal Award (highlighted in Appendix 2). Kano has been a coinvestigator and research team member on four federally funded research grants, as well as senior program manager for the New Mexico Center for the Advancement of Research, Engagement and Science on Health Disparities, a P-20 center funded through the National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparities.

SARAH L. KASTELIC, PhD, MSW, is executive director of the National Indian Child Welfare Association, where she serves as PI on several federally funded projects addressing the well-being of American Indian and Alaska Native children. She is a citizen of the Native village of Ouzinkie near Kodiak, Alaska, and the founding director of the Policy Research Center at the National Congress of American Indians.

DMITRY KHODYAKOV, PhD, is senior behavioral-social scientist at RAND and core faculty member at Pardee RAND Graduate School. He specializes in methods of stakeholder and patient engagement, expert elicitation, and intervention evaluation. Khodyakov is the author of more than forty-five peer-reviewed publications and has served as PI or co-PI on research projects funded by PCORI, NIEHS, and CMS, among others.

LAURA C. LEVITON, PhD, is senior advisor for evaluation at the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in Princeton, New Jersey, having overseen more than 120 national, state, and local evaluations and a wide variety of other social research related to health. Leviton has coauthored three books: Foundations of Program Evaluation (Sage, 1991), Confronting Public Health Risks (Sage, 1997), and Managing Applied Social Research (Wiley, 2017).

RICHARD LICHTENSTEIN, PhD, recently retired as S. J. Axelrod Collegiate Professor of Health Management and Policy at the University of Michigan School of Public Health, where he taught for more than forty years. His research interests include CBPR, racial and ethnic disparities in health, barriers to health insurance coverage for low-income children, and efforts to increase diversity in the health workforce.

ALEXANDRA LIGHTFOOT, EdD, is research assistant professor in the Department of Health Behavior in the Gillings School of Global Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She also directs the Community Engagement, Partnerships and Technical Assistance Core at the Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, a CDC-sponsored prevention research center. She conducts research using the CBPR approach in collaboration with communities across North Carolina and provides training and technical assistance to build and strengthen community-academic research partnerships.

ALISA LINCOLN, MPH, PhD, is interdisciplinary professor of Sociology and Health Sciences and the director of the Institute on Urban Health Research and Practice at Northeastern University. Lincoln's research examines the way that social exclusion and marginalization contribute to and are a consequence of poor mental health. She has led the way in developing innovative models by which we can increase the involvement of stakeholders and mental health service users in the process of research through her NIMH-funded CBPR projects.

JULIE E. LUCERO, MPH, PhD, is assistant professor in the School of Community Health Sciences at the University of Nevada, Reno. She is a mixed-methods researcher who uses CBPR to promote social justice and health equity. She researches trust in community-academic partnerships, social determinants, diversity and inclusion, and research ethics.

MAYA MAGARATI, PhD, is a sociologist at the Indigenous Wellness Research Institute (IWRI) in the University of Washington's School of Social Work, where she serves as the associate director of the Community Engagement and Outreach Core. She has served as a coinvestigator in multiple federally funded participatory research studies to cocreate knowledge with Indigenous communities focused on culture-centered behavioral health protective factors.

JACK MAKAU is executive director of Shack/Slum Dwellers International–Kenya (SDI-Kenya). He has almost twenty years of experience with mapping and surveying informal settlements. He has worked in cities across Africa and advised the UN-Habitat, World Bank, and numerous organizations on participatory slum upgrading.

LILLI MANN, MPH, is research associate in the Department of Social Sciences and Health Policy at Wake Forest School of Medicine. She is involved in the development, implementation, and evaluation of CBPR studies, focusing on interventions promoting health services access, sexual and reproductive health, HIV prevention, HIV care linkage, and retention among racial and ethnic minority and sexual and gender-identity minority communities.

KELLY MATTHEWS, BSW, is outreach coordinator for the Rochester Prevention Research Center: National Center for Deaf Health Research. Matthews has worked in the Deaf community in the fields of HIV/AIDS, mental health, supported employment, obesity, and multiple public health initiatives.

ELI MOORE, MA, was cofounder of the Safe Return Project and has facilitated CBPR processes with environmental justice communities, farm workers, youth, and others over the last fifteen years. Eli is currently a program manager at the Haas Institute for a Fair and Inclusive Society at UC Berkeley.

RACHEL MORELLO-FROSCH, PhD, is an environmental health scientist and professor in the School of Public Health and the Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management at the University of California, Berkeley. Her research examines social determinants of environmental health disparities among diverse communities in the United States with a focus on environmental chemicals, air pollution, and climate change.

THE MORRIS JUSTICE PROJECT (MJP) is a collaborative research team of neighborhood residents in the south Bronx and members of the Public Science Project, the CUNY Graduate Center, John Jay College, and Pace University Law Center. The project was founded in 2011 after a group of local mothers, whose sons had been harassed by police as a result of a stop-and-frisk policy disproportionately affecting African Americans and Latinos, decided to take action. MJP's research includes large community surveys and “sidewalk science,” for example, temporary art installations in public spaces to gather and share data on residents' concerns. The collective has shared its research in numerous venues including the 2015 Citizen Science Forum at the White House.

MICHAEL MUHAMMAD, PhD, is the current Paul B. Cornely Postdoctoral Fellow in the University of Michigan's School of Public Health Center for Research on Ethnicity, Culture, and Health (CRECH). His work focuses on contemporary racism, eugenic ideology, structural inequality, and the evaluation of CBPR partnerships including the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center University of Michigan.

JENNIFER NALL, MPH, is health-promotion disease-prevention director at the Forsyth County Health Department in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. She has worked in the field of HIV/STIs for more than fifteen years and has experience with HIV counseling and testing, community-based interventions, and program evaluation.

EMILY J. OZER, PhD, is clinical-community psychologist, professor of community health sciences at the UC Berkeley School of Public Health, and cofounder of the Innovations for Youth (I4Y) Center. She has authored more than sixty articles in participatory research, trauma and resilience, and school-based interventions (funded by NIDA, NICHD, William T. Grant Foundation, and CDC). Learning experiences with participatory research in India and Latin America inspired her dual foci on youth-led participatory research and psychological resiliency in the face of stress and trauma. Ozer seeks equitable and sustained collaborations to challenge rigid notions of evidence and to highlight insider expertise in changing the conditions for positive development of marginalized adolescents and their communities.

LAURA CHANCHIEN PARAJÓN, MD, MPH, is the medical director and cofounder of the nonprofit organization AMOS Health and Hope. Based in Nicaragua, AMOS is dedicated to using community-based and empowering approaches to reduce health disparities in Nicaragua. She is passionate about applying CBPR frameworks in global health as well as training health professionals and community health workers in CBPR principles and practice.

EDITH A. PARKER, DrPH, MPH, is professor and chair of the Department of Community and Behavioral Health, University of Iowa College of Public Health, and was previously associate professor at University of Michigan School of Public Health. Her research focuses on community-engaged health promotion interventions. She has served as the PI or Co-PI on more than twenty federally funded grants.

MYRA PARKER, JD, PhD, is an enrolled member of the Mandan and Hidatsa tribes and serves as an assistant professor in the Center for the Study of Health and Risk Behavior in the University of Washington School of Medicine's Department of Psychiatry. Her research experience as a coinvestigator on public health research with American Indian and Alaska Native communities involves CBPR and disparities research funded through NIMHD, NIAAA, NIDA, and NIDDK.

CYNTHIA PEARSON, PhD, is the director of the research at the Indigenous Wellness Research Institute. She is the author of more than sixty scientific publications and has served as a principal and coinvestigator on more than thirty-two federally funded grants using an CBPR approach in developing ethical research training curriculum, conducting studies on epidemiology of HIV prevention and co-occurring mental and drug use disorders, and developing trauma-informed HIV-prevention interventions among American Indian and Alaska Natives.

AMBER AKEMI PIATT, MPH, works at PolicyLink with the Convergence Partnership, advising funders on strategies to advance health and equity through policy and practice changes. She also serves on the Innovations for Youth (I4Y) community advisory board, Alameda County Human Relations Commission, and the Sea Change Program's advisory board. She has worked on CBPR and YPAR projects since 2010 and sees participatory research as a critical way to democratize knowledge and build community power.

MICHELE POLACSEK, PhD, MHS, is associate professor of public health at the University of New England and recently served as PI on three grants examining school food and beverage marketing environments, including digital marketing. She also recently served as lead investigator on two studies evaluating innovative approaches to promote nutrition among low-income populations in a supermarket setting. Michele has taught CBPR online and worked to develop innovative teaching tools for this setting.

ABIGAIL REESE, CNM, MSN, is a doctoral candidate in health policy at the UNM College of Nursing, and a Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nursing and Health Policy Collaborative Fellow. She is a certified nurse-midwife with extensive clinical and teaching experience in diverse practice settings. She currently serves as the program director for the New Mexico Perinatal Collaborative. Her research focuses on access to care for underserved women.