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Skeletal Variation and Adaptation in Europeans ebook

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A comprehensive analysis of changes in body form and skeletal robusticity from the Terminal Pleistocene through the Holocene, leading to the modern European human phenotype. Skeletal Variation and Adaptation in Europeans: Upper Paleolithic to the Twentieth Century brings together for the first time the results of an unprecedented large-scale investigation of European skeletal remains. The study was conducted over ten years by an international research team, and includes more than 2,000 skeletons spanning most of the European continent over the past 30,000 years, from the Early Upper Paleolithic to the 20th century. This time span includes environmental transitions from foraging to food production, small-scale to large-scale urban settlements, increasing social stratification and mechanization of labor, and climatic changes. Alterations in body form and behavior in response to these transitions are reconstructed through osteometric and biomechanical analyses. Divided into four sections, the book includes an introduction to the project and comprehensive descriptions of the methods used; general continent-wide syntheses of major trends in body size, shape, and skeletal robusticity; detailed regional analyses; and a summary of results. It also offers a full data set on an external website. * Brings together data from an unprecedented large-scale study of human skeletal and anatomical variations * Includes appendix of specific information from each research site * Synthesizes data from spatial, temporal, regional, and geographical perspectives Skeletal Variation and Adaptation in Europeans will be a valuable resource for bioarchaeologists, palaeoanthropologists, forensic anthropologists, medical historians, and archaeologists at both the graduate and post-graduate level.

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Skeletal Variation and Adaptation in Europeans

Upper Paleolithic to the Twentieth Century

Edited by Christopher B. Ruff

Center for Functional Anatomy and EvolutionJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimore, MD, USA

This edition first published 2018© 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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The publisher and the authors make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranties; including without limitation any implied warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. This work is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. In view of on‐going research, equipment modifications, changes in governmental regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to the use of experimental reagents, equipment, and devices, the reader is urged to review and evaluate the information provided in the package insert or instructions for each chemical, piece of equipment, reagent, or device for, among other things, any changes in the instructions or indication of usage and for added warnings and precautions. The fact that an organization or website is referred to in this work as a citation and/or potential source of further information does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the information the organization or website may provide or recommendations it may make. Further, readers should be aware that websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this works was written and when it is read. No warranty may be created or extended by any promotional statements for this work. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for any damages arising here from.

Library of Congress Cataloging‐in‐Publication Data

Names: Ruff, Christopher, editor.Title: Skeletal variation and adaptation in Europeans : upper Paleolithic to the Twentieth Century / edited by Christopher B. Ruff.Description: Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, 2018. | Includes bibliographical references and index. | Identifiers: LCCN 2017052568 (print) | LCCN 2017058923 (ebook) | ISBN 9781118628034 (pdf) | ISBN 9781118628027 (epub) | ISBN 9781118627969 (cloth)Subjects: LCSH: Human skeleton–Variation–Europe. | Human skeleton–Analysis. | Paleoanthropology–Europe.Classification: LCC QM101 (ebook) | LCC QM101 .S548 2018 (print) | DDC 611/.71–dc23LC record available at

Cover Design: WileyCover Image: Simon Bening. September: plowing and sowing seed. Book of Hours (“Da Costa Hours”), Bruges, c. 1515. MS. M.399, f.10v.Image courtesy of Akademische Druck‐ u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz/Austria.The Morgan Library & Museum, New York, NY, USAPhoto Credit: The Morgan Library & Museum / Art Resource, NY

List of Contributors

Margit BernerDepartment of AnthropologyNatural History MuseumViennaAustria

Evan GarofaloCenter for Functional Anatomy and EvolutionJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimore, MDUSA

Heather GarvinCenter for Functional Anatomy and EvolutionJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimore, MDUSA

Brigitte HoltDepartment of AnthropologyUniversity of MassachusettsAmherst, MAUSA

Martin HoraDepartment of Anthropology and Human GeneticsFaculty of Science, Charles UniversityPragueCzech Republic

Juho‐Antti JunnoDepartment of ArchaeologyUniversity of OuluOuluFinland

Anna KjellströmOsteological Research LaboratoryStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden

Heli MaijanenDepartment of ArchaeologyUniversity of OuluOuluFinland

Eliška MakajevováDepartment of Anthropology and Human GeneticsFaculty of Science, Charles UniversityPragueCzech Republic

Petra MolnarOsteological Research LaboratoryStockholm UniversityStockholmSweden

Sirpa NiinimäkiDepartment of ArchaeologyUniversity of OuluOuluFinland

Markku NiskanenDepartment of ArchaeologyUniversity of OuluOuluFinland

Christopher B. Ruff