Metallomics -  - ebook

Metallomics ebook

0,0
589,99 zł

Opis

Latest developments, new insights and knowledge derived from speciation analysis in one unique compilation: The reader gets acquainted with relevant instrumental as well as application aspects of Metallomics approaches, paving the road to understanding fate, pathway, and action of metals in environment and organisms. Upon an introductory chapter on analytical methods and strategies, the full bandwidth of applications is discussed. Expert chapter authors cast spotlights on recent topics such as Metallomics applications to environmental and nutrition studies as well as biology and medicine. Special chapters deal with the impact of manganese and iron on neurodegeneration, and the impact of nanoparticles on health.

Ebooka przeczytasz w aplikacjach Legimi na:

Androidzie
iOS
czytnikach certyfikowanych
przez Legimi
Windows
10
Windows
Phone

Liczba stron: 998




Table of Contents

Cover

Related Titles

Title Page

Copyright

List of Contributors

Preface

Part I: Analytical Methods and Strategies in Metallomics

Chapter 1: The Position of Metallomics Within Other Omics Fields

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Metallome and Metallomics in Relation to Other “-Ome” and “-Omics” Fields

1.3 Is Metallomics Feasible as a Global Study of the Metallome

1.4 Approaching the Metallome: Study of Metallome Subgroups

1.5 Analytical Strategies in Metallomics

1.6 Functional Connections Between DNA, Proteins, Metabolites, and Metals

1.7 Metallothiolomics as Example for Metallomics Studies of a Metallome Subgroup

1.8 Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 2: Coupling Techniques and Orthogonal Combination of Mass Spectrometric Techniques

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Analytical Techniques for Metallomics

2.3 Ionization Principles and Mass Spectrometric Detectors for Speciation

2.4 Overview about Coupling Techniques

2.5 Final Remarks and Outlook

References

Chapter 3: Quality Control in Speciation Analysis Using HPLC with ICP-MS and ESI MS/MS: Focus on Quantitation Strategies Using Isotope Dilution Analysis

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Synergetic Use of Elemental and Organic Mass Spectrometry in Compound Quantitation and Quality Assurance of Food Selenium Speciation

3.3 The Role of Species-Specific Isotope Dilution in Increasing Metrological Traceability for the Quantification of Bioinorganic Species

References

Chapter 4: Novel Methods for Bioimaging Including LA-ICP-MS, NanoSIMS, TEM/X-EDS, and SXRF

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Bioimaging by LA-ICP-MS

4.3 Bioimaging by NanoSIMS

4.4 Bioimaging by TEM/X-EDS

4.5 Bioimaging by SXRF

4.6 Conclusions and Outlook

References

Chapter 5: Electrochemistry Coupled to Mass Spectrometry for Investigating Oxidative Metabolism of Pt-Based Drug Conjugates: A Novel Approach

5.1 Introduction

5.2 EC-MS Methodology

5.3 EC-MS of Thiols

5.4 Influence of Cisplatin on Thiol Oxidation

5.5 Conclusions

References

Part II: Metallomics in Environment and Nutrition

Chapter 6: Selenium and Selenium Species

6.1 Speciation Analysis Especially of Tin and Selenium in Environmental Matrices

References

6.2 Selenium Species Extraction and Speciation in Plants and Yeast

References

Chapter 7: Arsenic and As Species

7.1 Arsenic Species in Marine Food

References

7.2 Compounds with As–S Bonds: Analytical and Biogeochemical Reasons Why These Species have been Elusive in Biota and Environment

References

7.3 Arsenolipids: An overview of current analytical aspects

References

Chapter 8: Analytical Procedures for Speciation of Chromium, Aluminum, and Tin in Environmental and Biological Samples

8.1 Speciation of Chromium

8.2 Speciation of Aluminum

8.3 Speciation of Tin

References

Chapter 9: Mercury Toxicity and Speciation Analysis

9.1 Mercury Toxicity

9.2 Mercury Speciation Analysis

References

Chapter 10: Environmental Speciation of Platinum Emissions from Chemotherapy

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Elemental Analysis of Platinum

10.3 Quantification Strategies

10.4 Preparation of Samples for Total Platinum Analysis by ICP-MS

10.5 Analysis of Platinum

10.6 Speciation of Platinum Emissions from Chemotherapy

10.7 Speciation Strategies for the Determination of CPC

10.8 Selected Applications

10.9 Conclusion

References

Chapter 11: Nanoparticles in Environment and Health Effect

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Nanoparticle Overview

11.3 Analytical Strategies

11.4 Conclusion

References

Part III: Metallomics in Medicine and Biology

Chapter 12: Metalloproteins

12.1 General Introduction to Metalloprotein Analysis

12.2 Sample Preparation Methodologies to Preserve Metal–Protein Interactions

12.3 Analytical Strategies for Identification of Metalloproteins

12.4 Quantitative Strategies for the Analysis of Metalloproteins

References

Chapter 13: Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications

13.1 Selenium and Selenoproteins in Human Health and Diseases

Acknowledgments

References

13.2 Metal Species as Biomarkers for Medical Diagnosis: A Case Study of Alzheimer's Disease

References

13.3 Vanadium Speciation as a Means in Drug Development and Monitoring for Diabetes

References

13.4 Analysis of Pt- and Ru-Based Anticancer Drugs: New Developments

References

13.5 Silver Distribution in Skin during Wound Healing

References

13.6 Neurodegeneration with Focus on Manganese and Iron Speciation

References

Index

End User License Agreement

Pages

XVII

XVIII

XIX

XX

XXI

XXII

XXIII

XXIV

XXV

XXVI

XXVII

1

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100

101

102

103

104

105

106

107

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

116

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

129

131

132

133

134

135

136

137

138

139

140

141

142

143

144

145

146

147

148

149

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

158

159

160

161

162

163

164

165

167

168

169

170

171

172

173

173

174

175

176

177

178

179

180

181

182

183

184

185

186

187

188

189

190

191

192

193

194

195

196

197

198

199

200

201

202

203

204

205

206

207

209

210

211

212

213

214

215

216

217

218

219

220

221

222

223

224

225

226

227

228

229

230

231

232

233

234

237

238

239

240

241

242

243

244

245

246

247

248

249

250

251

252

253

254

255

256

257

258

259

260

261

262

263

264

265

266

267

268

269

270

271

272

273

274

275

276

277

278

279

280

281

282

283

285

286

287

288

289

290

291

292

293

294

295

296

297

298

299

300

301

302

303

304

305

306

307

308

309

310

311

312

313

314

315

316

317

319

320

321

322

323

324

325

326

327

328

329

330

331

332

333

334

335

336

337

339

341

342

343

344

345

346

347

348

349

350

351

352

353

354

355

356

357

359

360

361

362

363

364

365

366

367

368

369

370

371

372

373

374

375

376

377

378

379

380

381

382

383

384

385

386

387

388

389

390

391

392

393

394

395

396

397

398

399

400

401

402

403

404

405

406

407

410

411

412

413

414

415

416

417

418

419

420

421

422

423

424

425

426

427

428

429

430

431

432

433

434

435

436

437

438

439

440

441

442

443

444

445

446

447

448

449

450

451

452

453

454

455

456

457

458

459

460

461

462

463

464

465

466

467

468

469

470

471

472

473

474

475

476

477

478

463

464

465

466

467

468

Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

Preface

Part I: Analytical Methods and Strategies in Metallomics

Begin Reading

List of Illustrations

Chapter 1: The Position of Metallomics Within Other Omics Fields

Figure 1.1 The metallome as subcategory of the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Examples for subgroups of the metallome.

Figure 1.2 Investigation of metal resistance in the metal hyperaccumulating plant

N. caerulescens

by complementary genome and metabolite analysis. (Adapted with permission from [21]. Copyright (2003) American Chemical Society and adapted from [3] with permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry.)

Figure 1.3 Workflow and analytical techniques in metallothiolomics. The metallothiolome is a subgroup of the metallome. (Reprinted from [7], Copyright (2011), with permission from Elsevier.)

Chapter 2: Coupling Techniques and Orthogonal Combination of Mass Spectrometric Techniques

Figure 2.1 Comparison of the flow profile of the EOF (a) and the laminar flow during HPLC separations (b) and its influence on the resulting peak shape.

Figure 2.2 Overview about ICP-MS detectable elements. (Adapted from Ref. [1]

Figure 2.3 Schematic overview of an ICP-MS/MS with an octopole collision and reaction cell (Agilent 8800).

Figure 2.4 Interference-free detection of arsenic using ICP-MS/MS operated in the O

2

mode.

Figure 2.5 Nomenclature for the different ions formed during CID of a peptide according to Roeppstorf

et al

. Ref. 85.

Figure 2.6 Schematic view of a simple linear MALDI-TOF system. (Adapted from Bruker Daltonics.)

Figure 2.7 Schematic view of a MALDI-reflectron-TOF. (Adapted from Bruker Daltonics.)

Figure 2.8 Schematic overview of a MALDI-TOF/TOF mass analyzer. (Adapted from Bruker Daltonics.)

Figure 2.9 Overview about interface systems for the coupling of nano- and capillary LC to ICP-MS. (Taken from [27].)

Chapter 3: Quality Control in Speciation Analysis Using HPLC with ICP-MS and ESI MS/MS: Focus on Quantitation Strategies Using Isotope Dilution Analysis

Figure 3.1 HPLC-ESI QTOF/MS/MS product ion spectrum of the precursor ion

m

/

z

198 (SeMet) obtained for a wheat flour extract. (a) represents the total ion chromatogram for the product ion spectrum of the precursor ion m/z 198 (selenomethionine) obtained for the analysis of a wheat flour extract using HPLC-ESI QTOF MS/MS. (b) represents the specific product ions observed for the elution time around 13 min.

Figure 3.2 Typical HPLC-ICP-MS separation and detection of CrIII and CrVI in waters by using a methodology reported elsewhere [ref 26].

Figure 3.3 RP-HPLC-ICPMS chromatogram of a serum sample IDMS blend.

Chapter 4: Novel Methods for Bioimaging Including LA-ICP-MS, NanoSIMS, TEM/X-EDS, and SXRF

Figure 4.1 (a) Principle and (b) workflow of imaging mass spectrometry from sample preparation of thin section by cryocutting, via the LA-ICP-MS measurement procedure by scanning of thin tissue section (line by line), acquisition, and evaluation of analytical data including quantification using single-point calibration (NIST SRM 1577b bovine liver) [1]. (Reproduced from [1]. Copyright (2013), open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY).)

Figure 4.2 Representative mass cytometry images of luminal HER2+ breast cancer tissue samples. For both tissues, a total of 32 proteins and phosphorylation sites were measured simultaneously at 1-µm resolution. (a) Overlay of cytokeratin 8/18 (red), H3 (cyan), and vimentin (yellow). (b) Overlay of cytokeratin 7 (red), H3 (cyan), and CD44 (yellow). (c) Overlay of pan-actin (red), progesterone receptor (blue), and CD68 (yellow). (d) Overlay of HER2 (red), H3 (cyan), and vimentin (yellow). (e) Overlay of E-cadherin (red), cytokeratin 7 (yellow), and phosphorylation on S235/S236 on S6 (blue). (f) Overlay of β-catenin (red), estrogen receptor (blue), and CD68 (yellow). Scale bars, 25 µm. For each unique tissue section, the measurement was performed once due to the destructive nature of imaging mass cytometry [21]. (Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: [21], Copyright (2014).)

Figure 4.3 NanoSIMS imaging of metabolic activities in single cells. (a) Scheme of the NanoSIMS principle with seven parallel secondary ion detectors and one secondary electron detector. (b) Example for the visualization of carbon and nitrogen fluxes between adjacent cells of the diazotrophic cyanobacterium

Aphanizomenon

sp. using Cs

+

as primary ion beam. (Reproduced from [27], Copyright (2015), and from [28], Copyright (2011), with permission from Wiley.)

Figure 4.4 NanoSIMS analysis of a cross-section of a nickel-rich

Alyssum lesbiacum

leaf prepared by high-pressure freezing followed by cryosubstitution [54]. (a) NanoSIMS maps from a peripheral region of the leaf cross section, including a stomatal complex obtained using the Cs

+

primary ion beam, and showing

16

O

,

12

C

2

,

12

C

14

N

,

31

P

, and

58

Ni

ion maps, and a color overlay for Ni and P. Scale bar: 10 µm. (b) NanoSIMS maps obtained using the O

primary ion beam for the distribution of

23

Na

+

,

24

Mg

+

,

39

K

+

,

40

Ca

+

, and

58

Ni

+

signals, from a region of the leaf surface including a stomatal complex. The secondary electron (SE) image acquired with the Cs beam is included to show the morphology of the imaged region. Scale bar: 10 µm. A heat scale for the images in panels (a) and (b) is shown on the right. (Reproduced from [54], Copyright (2010) Blackwell Publishing Ltd, with permission from Wiley.)

Figure 4.5 (a) TEM showing the set of electromagnetic lenses for direct imaging or diffraction pattern. (b) Interaction between high-energy electron beam and a sample. Arrows show the beams coming from the surface or the volume of the sample. Characteristic X-rays generate X-EDS providing local elemental composition, while the direct beam provides information on morphology, size distribution, atomic planes, and structure. Elastically or nonelastically scattered electrons are used for energy electron loss spectrometry (EELS).

Figure 4.6 Contrasted TEM images: effect of the thickness and the elemental composition of the sample.

Figure 4.7 (a) TEM image obtained from a 70 nm section of a resin-embedded algae (

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

) cell. Contrasted bright field showing the cell in perfect state with nucleus (n), double-wall membrane (m), pyrenoid (p) with starch plates (s), and a granule (g, white square). (b) Nanoprobe mode for X-EDS spectra of a granule showing P and Ca peaks (probe size 100–200 nm). (c) Nanodiffraction corresponding to the cell (white circle) revealing an amorphous structure.

Figure 4.8 Workflow for the preparation of biological samples for NanoSIMS and TEM/X-EDS by either chemical preparation or cryopreparation methods.

Figure 4.9 Elemental μXRF maps – (a) and (b) – of cryo cross sections of

Arabidopsis halleri

after 3 week 10 μM Cd treatment (step size = 3 µm, counting time = 100 ms for (a); step size = 0.5 µm, counting time = 600 ms for (b)) with a zoom on the central vein for (a) (inset). Maps show enrichment in Cd in vascular tissues including the central vein (xylem (xy) and phloem (phl)) and secondary veins (sv), and at the edge of the leaf. On the maps in (b), the epidermis (ep) seems depleted in Cd as compared with the mesophyll (mes) [116]. (Reproduced from [116], by permission of Oxford University Press.)

Chapter 5: Electrochemistry Coupled to Mass Spectrometry for Investigating Oxidative Metabolism of Pt-Based Drug Conjugates: A Novel Approach

Figure 5.1 EC-MS of glutathione. (a) Intensity of three extracted mass traces as a function of applied oxidation potential, (b) mass spectrum at +1.15 V oxidation potential (

m

/

z

280–380), and (c) mass spectrum at +1.50 V oxidation potential (

m

/

z

280–380).

Figure 5.2 EC-MS of cisplatin-

N

-acetylcysteine-adduct.

Figure 5.3 Difference of oxidation currents for ligands after cisplatin addition minus oxidation currents of pure ligands as a function of applied oxidation potential. NAC:

N

-acetylcysteine, Cys: cysteine, GSH: glutathione (reduced form), and Met: methionine.

Figure 5.4 Maximum oxidation currents of different oxidation products of NAC, GSH, and Cys. (a) S-acids (dark gray) plus S-amides (light gray), and (b) disulfides, thiosulfinates, and thiosulfonates. Pure ligand (−) and ligand after cisplatin addition (+).

Chapter 6: Selenium and Selenium Species

Figure 6.2.1 Summary of the most popular selenometabolites found in plants and yeast: (a) selenols with a general formula R

1

–CH

2

–Se–H, (b) selenoethers with a general formula R

1

–CH

2

–Se–CH

2

–R

2

selenocysteine derivatives, (c) selenocysteine/selenohomocysteine-containing di- and tripeptides, (d) diselenides, Se sulfides, (e) polyselenides, (f) acetylated and 2,3-dihydroxypropionylated derivatives of selenols, and (g) selenosugars.

Figure 6.2.2 Chromatograms obtained by CE-HPLC-ICP-MS for the analysis of preconcentrated (by freeze-drying, 10 times) ammonium acetate extracts of (a) rice, (b) maize, and (c) wheat. (1) methylseleno-Se-pentose-hexose, (2) 2,3-hydroxypropionyl selenolanthionine, (3) deamino selenocysteine-Se-hexose, (4) cyclic selenomethionine-Se-hexose, (5) deamino methylselenocysteine, (6) methylseleno-Se-deoxypentose-hexose, (7) selenomethionine, (8) cyclic selenomethionine, (9) selenate (numbers in brackets correspond to weakly intense signals). Dashed lines indicate the retention time of Se standards in the following order: Se(IV), MeSeCys, SeMet, and Se(VI). Reproduced from [38] with permission from The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Figure 6.2.3 The SEC-ICPMS chromatogram of the Se-enriched soybean grain [52]. Reproduced with permission from The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Figure 6.2.4 Separation of the yeast water-insoluble proteome fraction by 2D gel electrophoresis gel. (a) Coomassie blue stained gel; (b) gel with

78

Se LA-ICP MS imaging [11]. Reproduced with permission from Elsevier.

Figure 6.2.5 (a) NanoLC-ESI-MS full-scan spectrum of the Se-containing strong anion-exchange (SAX) fraction of selenized yeast. The inset shows the correct isotopic pattern of selenium at

m

/

z

563.0503 ([M + H]

+

). (b) CID (collision-induced dissociation) spectrum of the analyte at

m

/

z

563.0503. (c) Proposed fragmentation pathways of the Se compound. Empirical formulae (theoretical mass,

δ

= difference of the measured mass in parts per million). (

1

) C

16

H

27

N

4

O

11

SSe

+

(563.0557,

δ

= 10), (

2

) C

14

H

22

N

3

O

9

SSe

+

(488.0236,

δ

= 37), (

3

) C

11

H

20

N

3

O

8

SSe

+

(434.0131,

δ

= 23), (

4

) C

8

H

16

N

3

O

5

SSe

+

(345.9976,

δ

= −8), (

5

) C

8

H

15

N

2

O

5

SSe

+

(330.9861,

δ

= 5), (

6

) C

8

H

13

N

2

O

4

SSe

+

(312.9756,

δ

= −4), (

7

) C

6

H

12

NO

5

Se

+

(257.9875,

δ

= 1), (

8

) C

6

H

10

NO

5

Se

+

(255.9719,

δ

= 7), (

9

) C

6

H

10

NO

4

Se

+

(239.9775,

δ

= 3), (

10

) C

5

H

8

NO

3

Se

+

(209.9664,

δ

= 2), (

11

) C

3

H

6

NO

2

Se

+

(167.9558,

δ

= −15), (

12

) C

5

H

8

NO

3

+

(130.0499,

δ

= −5), (

13

) C

2

H

4

NSe

+

(121.9503,

δ

= 9) [39]. Reproduced with permission from The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Chapter 7: Arsenic and As Species

Figure 7.2.1 A collection of natural compounds that potentially occur in biota or in environmental samples featured in this chapter (a) thio-DMA, (b) thio-DMAA, (c) monothioarsenate, (d) trithioarsenite, (e) thio-DMA(GS), (f) MA-PC2, (g) As(GS)

3

, and (h) As-(PC2)

2

complex.

Figure 7.2.2 XAS spectrum of As(GS)

3

showing the region of the XANES and EXAFS spectrum. The inset is a schematic of the process generating the oscillations in the EXAFS spectrum (absorbing atom, black; first-order neighbors, gray) (Copyright permission from

CSIRO Publisher Feldmann et al

. [1]).

Figure 7.2.3 Comparison of XANES spectra of aqueous arsenic standard compounds used for calculations of species present and root sample of

Thunbergia alata

. The absorption edge of 11 873 eV is characteristic of trivalent arsenic bound to three sulfur ligands, while the adsorption edge at 11 877 eV is characteristic of pentavalent arsenic bound to oxygen atoms (Copyright permission from Springer

Bluemlein et al

. [3]).

Figure 7.2.4 Schematic setup for parallel ICP-MS and ES-MS detection after separation by HPLC column.

Figure 7.2.5 Time-dependent uncorrected signal of 10 ppb arsenic (red) and 50 ppb sulfur (blue) solution; gradient 0–20 min linear increase of MeOH to 25% and hold time of 10 min; shown is the gradient under consideration of column dead volume (2 min) as it appears to the ICP-MS signal.

Figure 7.2.6 Eh–pH diagram indicating the region in which soluble As–S compounds may determine As solubility total ΣS 10

−3

M, As 10

−6

M at 25

o

S, 1 bar; gray-shaded areas denoted the solid phases (Copyright permission

Springer

[36]).

Figure 7.3.1 Examples of structures of four main classes of arsenolipids (from top to bottom): arsenosugar phospholipids (AsPL 958); arsenic fatty acids (AsFA 388); arsenic hydrocarbons (AsHC 360); and arsenic alcohols (AsOH 375). For convenience, the compound's molecular mass is placed after the abbreviation when referring to a particular arsenolipid; for example, AsPL 958 refers to the arsenosugar phospholipid with mass 958.

Figure 7.3.2 Early method adopting a natural products chemistry approach for extraction and fractionation of arsenolipids from fish oil [7].

Figure 7.3.3 Mean relative extraction efficiencies (

n

= 3) for seven arsenolipids depending on solvent mixture (100 mg alga extracted with 5 ml solvent/MeOH (2 + 1, v/v); hexane was used without MeOH (5 ml). For each arsenolipid, values are recorded as the amount of arsenolipid extracted by a particular solvent relative to the amount extracted by the most efficient solvent (expressed as %). (Figure adapted from Glabonjat

et al

. [22].)

Figure 7.3.4 HPLC/ICPMS chromatograms of a crude algae extract and an algae extract after silica cleanup step. The polar arsenicals eluting early on RP-HPLC are removed by the silica cleanup together with most of the matrix. The arsenolipid profile remains largely unchanged. The peak at about 1.8 min is likely dimethylarsinic acid.

Figure 7.3.5 GC/MS chromatograms of a fraction of capelin oil (Adopted from Raber

et al.

[26]): For GC/MS determinations, a system combining a GC 7890A combined with a quadrupole MS 5975C (Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany) was used. The injection volume was 1 µl (splitless injection; injection port temp. 280 °C). A (5%-phenyl)methylpolysiloxane column, 30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 µm film thickness (DB-5ms from Agilent) was used; carrier gas was helium. The temperature of the column was started at 50 °C for 1 min, raised to 180 °C at 50 °C min

−1

, raised to 220 °C at 3 °C min

−1

and held for 1 min, and then raised to 270 °C at 15 °C min

−1

and held for 4 min. The arsenic-containing hydrocarbons were detected with electron ionization (70 eV) in scan mode (mass range 20–500) and in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode at

m

/

z

105 (Me

2

As), 106 (Me

2

AsH), 316 (AsHC332-

16

O), 344 (AsHC360-

16

O), and 388 (AsHC404-

16

O). GC/MS can also be applied to the measurement of arsenic fatty acids following their reduction to the arsine with simultaneous methylation to give the carboxylic acid ester (S. Khoomrung, unpublished results). The other major arsenolipids, however, appear to be too complex to be amenable to derivatization and GC analysis.

Figure 7.3.6 An example of separation of arsenolipids by reversed-phase HPLC/ICPMS. The compounds were three arsenic-containing fatty acids AsFA362 (1) AsFA388 (2), and AsFA418 (3) and three arsenic-containing hydrocarbons AsHC332 (4), AsHC360 (5), and AsHC444 (6), concentrations were 500 μg As L

−1

each; HPLC system consisted of a polymer-based C8 column (Shodex, Asahipak C8P-50 4D; 150 mm × 4.6 mm) and a water/ethanol gradient containing 0.1% formic acid (gradient: 0–15 min from 10% ethanol to 95%; 15–30 min 95% ethanol) was used. Flow rate was 0.4 ml min

−1

, column temperature 40 °C, and injection volume 20 µl.

Figure 7.3.7 Instrumental setup for the analysis of arsenolipids by HPLC/ICPMS/ESMS. The HPLC system consisting of a reversed-phase column employing either water/methanol or water/ethanol gradients is coupled simultaneously to an ICPMS used as arsenic-selective detector at

m

/

z

75 for quantification and an ESMS for molecular detection of arsenolipids. The HPLC flow is split with an adjustable passive flow splitter directing the high flow to the ESMS and the low flow to the ICPMS. The low flow to the ICPMS is supported with an aqueous sheath flow for plasma stabilization when organic solvents are introduced. Carbon compensation [22] is performed by either aqueous methanol or ethanol solutions delivered continuously with a peristaltic pump to the spray chamber to ensure that a constant carbon content reaches the plasma.

Figure 7.3.8 RP-HPLC/ICPMS chromatograms of the three arsenolipid standard compounds AsHC332, AsHC360, and AsHC444 as oxo and thio analogs (300 µg As l

−1

of each compound in EtOH). ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C8 (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5 µm); mobile phase, water/ethanol gradient (70−90% EtOH, incl. 0.1% formic acid); flow rate, 1 ml min

−1

; column temperature, 30 °C; injection volume 20 µl.

Chapter 8: Analytical Procedures for Speciation of Chromium, Aluminum, and Tin in Environmental and Biological Samples

Figure 8.1 (a) Partitioning of Cr in natural soils (I) and tannery waste amended soils 5 (II) months and 2 years (III) after tannery waste application. Total Cr content in natural soils 65–85 mg kg

−1

and in tannery waste amended soils 1700–2300 mg kg

−1

. (b) Variation of exchangeable concentration (0.015 mol l

−1

KH

2

PO

4

) of Cr and Cr(VI) with time in tannery waste amended soils. (Adapted from Ref. [12] with permission from American Chemical Society.)

Figure 8.2 Chromatogram of 0.5–5 µg Cr(III) l

−1

and Cr(VI) l

−1

; column: RSpak NN-814 4DP, mobile phase: 90 mM ammonium sulfate + 10 mM ammonium nitrate pH 3.0, column temperature = 40 °C, flow = 0.3 ml min

−1

, injection volume: 25 µl, monitored isotope:

m

/

z

52. (Reproduced from Ref. [40] with permission from Elsevier.)

Figure 8.3 IC-ICP-MS chromatogram of a extract of SRM 2701 soil CRM using 5 mmol l

−1

EDTA at pH 10 as mobile phase. (Reproduced from Ref. [24] with permission from American Chemical Society.)

Figure 8.4 A chromatogram of the doubly spiked soil extract (pH 8) (10 ng ml

−1 50

Cr(VI) and

53

Cr(III) at

m

/

z

50, 52 and 53. (Reproduced from Ref. [20] with permission from Springer.)

Figure 8.5 Typical chromatogram of Cr species in (a) aqueous solution at pH 11, doubly spiked with 10 µg l

−1

of

50

Cr(VI) and 10 µg l

−1

of

53

Cr(III), and (b) Cr species in alkaline extract (0.1 mol l

−1

Na

2

CO

3

containing 0.1 mol l

−1

MgCl

2

, pH 11) of Neem powder doubly spiked with 10 µg l

−1

of

50

Cr(VI) and 10 µg l

−1

of

53

Cr(III). (Adapted from Ref. [47] with permission from Elsevier.)

Figure 8.6 Typical chromatograms of separated Al species and MS-MS spectra of Al binding ligands, eluted under the chromatographic peaks, are presented in this Figure (Adapted from Ref. [79] with permission from Elsevier.)

Figure 8.7

27

Al HILIC-ICP-MS chromatogram of the

P. almogravensis

root sample exposed to 400 μM Al. Inset depicts the extracted ion chromatogram of

m

/

z

648.96, 666.97, 677.92, and 695.93 ions obtained by HILIC-ESI-MS. (Reproduced from Ref. [81] with permission from Royal Society of Chemistry.)

Figure 8.8 Chromatograms of uremic (120 ng Al ml

−1

) and normal serum (2.5 ng Al ml

−1

) after FPLC separation by UV (upper graph) and ETAAS detection (lower graph). (Adapted from Ref. [94] with permission from Royal Society of Chemistry.)

Figure 8.9 Separation of standard serum proteins on anion-exchange CIM-DEAE-8 monolithic column with UV (278 nm) detection and Al elution profiles of human serum at physiological concentration levels (1 + 4), and the blank sample after overall cleaning procedure (left column). UPLC-ESI-MS of separated protein peak from human serum (right column). (Adapted from Ref. [65] with permission from American Chemical Society.)

Figure 8.10 Chromatogram of a sea water sample analyzed by HS-SPME-GC–QqQ-MS/MS in full scan (a) and SRM detection mode (b). (Reproduced from Ref. [110] with permission from Elsevier.).

Figure 8.11 Chromatograms of standard mixture at 10 mg (Sn) l

−1

after ethylation (a) and propylation (b). (Reproduced from Ref. [119] with permission from Royal Society of Chemistry.)

Figure 8.12 Transformation of butyltins in landfill leachate over time span of 6 months. Landfill leachate was spiked with

117

Sn-enriched TBT (920 ng Sn L

−1

of TBT, 170 ng Sn L

−1

of DBT, 15 ng Sn L

−1

of MBT) and concentrations determined at

m

/

z

117 (a) and

m

/

z

120 (B). (Adapted from Ref. [124] with permission from Elsevier.)

Figure 8.13 Chromatograms of a sewage sludge sample obtained at different gate settings of the PFPD detector. (a) Gate delay 5 ms and gate width 4 ms; (b) gate delay 2 ms and gate width 3 ms; (c) gate delay 3 ms and gate width 2 ms; *impurities that do not disturb OTC detection. (Reproduced from Ref. [127] with permission from Elsevier.)

Chapter 9: Mercury Toxicity and Speciation Analysis

Figure 9.1 Schematic representation of Hg speciation steps and the most common analytical approaches. Abbreviations of the preconcentration techniques: CPE, cloud-point extraction; HF-LLLME, hollow fiber liquid–liquid–liquid microextraction; PT, purge and trap; SBSE, stir-bar sorptive extraction; SDME, single-drop microextraction; SE, solvent extraction; SPE, solid-phase extraction; SPME, solid-phase microextraction.

Chapter 10: Environmental Speciation of Platinum Emissions from Chemotherapy

Figure 10.1 Separation of cisplatin, monoaquacisplatin, and diaquacisplatin in patient urine using adsorption chromatography in combination with ICP-MS and ICP-SFMS [29]. Due to the basic character of the used eluent (0.5 mM NaOH), monoaquacisplatin was present in the form of monohydroxocisplatin (MHC) and diaquacisplatin in the form of dihydroxocisplatin (DHC).

Figure 10.2 Separation of 13.3 ng g

−1

Pt(II)Cl

4

2−

and 7.0 ng g

−1

Pt(IV)Cl

6

2−

by CE-ICP-SFMS using the method described in Standler

et al.

[32]. The methods' LODs are 0.08 ng l

−1

Pt. About 1 g l

−1

NaCl (HCl, pH 2.4) served as conducting buffer. The separation was carried out at −30 kV in a 50 µm ID fused-silica capillary. The setup of the CE interface is described elsewhere [64].

Chapter 11: Nanoparticles in Environment and Health Effect

Figure 11.1 Simplified environmental cycle of the particles, from their source to human exposure.

Figure 11.2 Main processes involving particles in the environment.

Figure 11.3 Dependence of some main biophysicochemical processes upon particle characteristics and surrounding conditions.

Figure 11.4 Possible processes of preparation of environmental, biological, food, or body-care samples, for particle characterization. CPE, cloud point extraction; LLE, liquid–liquid extraction; SLE, solid–liquid extraction; SPE, solid-phase extraction. Dilution in water can be optional.

Chapter 12: Metalloproteins

Figure 12.1 Separation of the different metalloproteins in human serum using anion-exchange chromatography and detection by UV absorption (a) and selective elemental detection by ICP-MS (b).

Figure 12.2 Instrumental setup used for the introduction of a generic standard of Fe to quantify the iron content in the separated transferrin sialoforms. With permission from reference [19].

Figure 12.3 Schematic diagram of the obtained results for five different standards of (Cu, Zn) superoxide dismutase, simultaneously, by HPLC-ICP-MS (monitoring Cu) and spectrophotometrically with the activity assay of pyrogallol autoxidation at 420 nm. Adapted from reference [5].

Figure 12.4 Chromatogram obtained by saturation of transferrin with isotopically enriched

57

Fe and using postcolumn

54

Fe after separation of the protein sialoforms by anion-exchange chromatography and ICP-MS detection.

Chapter 13: Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications

Figure 13.1.1 Schematic of selenium role in human health and tissue distribution of selenoproteins in human. Quantitative proteomic data were obtained from proteomicsDB using the accession number of Table 13.1.1. Only the five most abundant proteins are listed in each tissue.

Figure 13.3.1 Molecular structures of selected candidate vanadium drugs.

Figure 13.5.1 Schematic structure of the human skin.

Figure 13.5.2 Schematic representation of the instrumental setups adopted to study

in vitro

the release of Ag into the wound bed and its percutaneous permeation: (a) vial incubation; (b) Franz static diffusion cell; (c) membrane diffusion cell; (d) 3D cell cultures.

Figure 13.6.1 Mn speciation in serum from two different animal studies. Comparison of Mn bound to HMM/LMM as well as free inorganic Mn in percentage revealed by SEC-ICP-MS of serum samples from a subchronic feeding (+Mn_Food) and an acute i.v. injection of MnCl

2

(+Mn_Inj) in rats. ( Adapted with permission from Ref. [88] Copyright (2015) American Chemical Society.)

Figure 13.6.2 Correlation of Mn concentrations with Fe(II) and Fe(III) in brain extracts. (a) After subchronic feeding of Mn in rats, Fe(II) was stronger positively correlated with Mn concentrations in brain extracts compared to Fe(III). (b) Fe(II) showed weak positive correlation with increasing Mn concentrations, which was also true for Fe(III) but only until a certain concentration of total Mn in brain extracts after a single i.v. injection of MnCl

2

in rats.

List of Tables

Chapter 2: Coupling Techniques and Orthogonal Combination of Mass Spectrometric Techniques

Table 2.1 Frequently used LC separation modes in metallomics and speciation analysis

Table 2.2 Common classification of different LC columns

Table 2.3 Brief overview of the separation modes, separation principles, and analytes according to [33]

Table 2.4 Comparison of the capabilities of different mass spectrometric ionization techniques for elemental speciation analysis and metallomics

Table 2.5 Selected metals, metalloids, and heteroelements utilized as tags for ICP-MS-based quantification in environmental and life sciences, their isotopes, and prominent polyatomic interferences

Table 2.6 Possible operation modes for the most frequently used gases

Table 2.7 Overview about frequently used MALDI matrices

Chapter 3: Quality Control in Speciation Analysis Using HPLC with ICP-MS and ESI MS/MS: Focus on Quantitation Strategies Using Isotope Dilution Analysis

Table 3.1 Examples of low-molecular-weight Se species identified in selenized yeast using hyphenated techniques

Table 3.2 Results from AQUACHECK-clean water round 433 and 441 (mean ±1 standard deviations from three replicate determinations)

Table 3.3 Results from double spike procedure AQUACHECK waste water 443 (mean ±1 standard deviations from three replicate determinations)

Chapter 4: Novel Methods for Bioimaging Including LA-ICP-MS, NanoSIMS, TEM/X-EDS, and SXRF

Table 4.1 Main limitations due to TEM and sample specifications

Table 4.2 Selected scientific questions and the adapted or recommended TEM modes. Columns “Facility” and “Limits” depend on the experience and background of the users

Chapter 6: Selenium and Selenium Species

Table 6.1.1 Common applications of tin and selenium speciation in environmental matrices

Table 6.1.2 Extraction of elemental species of tin and selenium from environmental matrices along with their recovery

Table 6.2.1 Selenium-containing proteins identified in plants

Table 6.2.2 Selenium-containing proteins identified in yeast

Table 6.2.3 Concentrations of total Se and its species reported for plants

Table 6.2.4 Concentrations of total Se and its species reported for yeast

Chapter 7: Arsenic and As Species

Table 7.1.1

Abbreviated name, nomenclature, and molecular formula of the main arsenic species cited in this review

.

Table 7.1.2 Analytical methods for the extraction of arsenic species in marine food

Table 7.1.3 HPLC conditions for arsenic speciation

Table 7.1.4 Bioaccessibility and bioavailability studies of arsenic species in marine food samples

Table 7.3.1 Fragments of four arsenic-containing fatty acids and three arsenic-containing hydrocarbons determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry

Chapter 9: Mercury Toxicity and Speciation Analysis

Table 9.1 Major Hg species present in the environment and biological samples

Table 9.2 Examples of applied Hg speciation techniques on various sample matrixes

Chapter 10: Environmental Speciation of Platinum Emissions from Chemotherapy

Table 10.1 Recently reported limits of detection for the determination of Pt via ICP-MS

Table 10.2 Methods developed for speciation methods of cancerostatic platinum compounds

Chapter 11: Nanoparticles in Environment and Health Effect

Table 11.1 Selection of manufactured nanoparticles and their main uses

Table 11.2 Selection of techniques used for dimensional nanoparticle characterization

Chapter 13: Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Applications

Table 13.1.1 List of human selenoproteins with our current knowledge on their function and distribution

Table 13.2.1 Biological function of the most abundant metallic and metalloid elements

Table 13.2.2 Metals levels in biological samples of AD patients.

Table 13.2.3 Altered element-to-element ratios (A/B) in the different fractions (TOTAL, high, and low molecular mass – HMM and LMM) and between the fractions in AD and MCI versus healthy controls

Table 13.4.1 Applications of LA-ICP-MS in metal-based anticancer drug research

Table 13.4.2 Comparison of different metal imaging techniques

Table 13.4.3 Figures of merit in speciation analysis carried out in the past 5 years with different mass spectrometry techniques and different separation tools

Table 13.5.1 Donor and receptor liquid media used to study

in vitro

the release of Ag into the wound bed and its percutaneous permeation

Related Titles

Becker, S.J.

Inorganic Mass Spectrometry - Principles and Applications

2007

Print ISBN: 978-0-470-01200-0

Adobe PDF ISBN: 978-0-470-51720-8

ISBN: 978-0-470-51722-2

 

Handbook of Elemental Speciation 2V Set

2005

Print ISBN: 978-0-470-01465-3

 

Brennan, M.M.

A Practical Approach to Quantitative Metal Analysis of Organic Matrices

2008

Print ISBN: 978-0-470-03197-1

ISBN: 978-0-470-99828-1

Adobe PDF ISBN: 978-0-470-99829-8

 

Dean, J.R.

Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy

2005

Print ISBN: 978-0-470-09349-8

Adobe PDF ISBN: 978-0-470-09350-4

ISBN: 978-0-470-09351-1

Mobi-lite ISBN: 978-0-470-29827-5

 

Sun, H.H. (ed.)

Biological Chemistry of Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth

2010

Print ISBN: 978-0-470-71390-7

Adobe PDF ISBN: 978-0-470-97549-7

ISBN: 978-0-470-97550-3

ePub ISBN: 978-0-470-97622-7

MobiPocket ISBN: 978-1-119-95559-7

 

Caroli, S. (ed.)

The Determination of Chemical Elements in Food

Applications for Atomic and Mass Spectrometry

2006

Print ISBN: 978-0-471-68784-9

Adobe PDF ISBN: 978-0-470-14099-4

ISBN: 978-0-470-14100-7

 

Hooda, P., Hooda, P.

Trace Elements in Soils

2010

Print ISBN: 978-1-405-16037-7

ISBN: 978-1-444-31947-7

Adobe PDF ISBN: 978-1-444-31948-4

 

Merian, E., Anke, M., Ihnat, M., Stoeppler, M. (eds.)

Elements and their Compounds in the Environment

Occurrence, Analysis and Biological Relevance

2 Edition

2004

Print ISBN: 978-3-527-30459-2

ISBN: 978-3-527-61963-4

 

Broekaert, J.A.

Analytical Atomic Spectrometry with Flames and Plasmas

2 Edition

2005

Print ISBN: 978-3-527-31282-5

ISBN: 978-3-527-60665-8

Adobe PDF ISBN: 978-3-527-60677-1

 

Vanhaecke, F., Degryse, P. (eds.)

Isotopic Analysis

Fundamentals and Applications Using ICP-MS

2012

Print ISBN: 978-3-527-32896-3

ISBN: 978-3-527-65048-4

MobiPocket ISBN: 978-3-527-65049-1

ePub ISBN: 978-3-527-65050-7

Adobe PDF ISBN: 978-3-527-65051-4

Edited by Bernhard Michalke

Metallomics

Analytical Techniques and Speciation Methods

 

 

 

 

Editor

Prof. Bernhard Michalke

Martin-Luther-Str. 39

85570 Markt Schwaben

Germany

 

Cover

The material was kindly provided by the editor

 

All books published by Wiley-VCH are carefully produced. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information contained in these books, including this book, to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate.

 

Library of Congress Card No.: applied for

 

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

 

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

 

Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek

 

The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at <http://dnb.d-nb.de>.

 

© 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Boschstr. 12, 69469 Weinheim, Germany

 

All rights reserved (including those of translation into other languages). No part of this book may be reproduced in any form – by photoprinting, microfilm, or any other means – nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without written permission from the publishers. Registered names, trademarks, etc. used in this book, even when not specifically marked as such, are not to be considered unprotected by law.

 

Print ISBN: 978-3-527-33969-3

ePDF ISBN: 978-3-527-69493-8

ePub ISBN: 978-3-527-69491-4

Mobi ISBN: 978-3-527-69492-1

oBook ISBN: 978-3-527-69490-7

Cover design Schulz Grafik-Design, Fußönheim, Germany

List of Contributors

Carlo Barbante

Ca' Foscari University of Venice

Department of Environmental Sciences

Informatics and Statistics (DAIS)

Via Torino 155

30172 Venice

Italy

 

and

 

National Research Council

Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes (CNR-IDPA)

Via Torino 155

30172 Venice

Italy

 

María Carmen Barciela-Alonso

University of Santiago de Compostela

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition, and Bromatology

Campus Vida

Avda. das Ciencias

s/n

15782 Santiago de Compostela

Spain

 

Pilar Bermejo-Barrera

University of Santiago de Compostela

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition, and Bromatology

Campus Vida

Avda. das Ciencias

s/n

15782 Santiago de Compostela

Spain

 

Katarzyna Bierła

CNRS-UPPA IPREM

Laboratory of Bioinorganic Analytical and Environmental Chemistry

UMR 5254

2 Avenue Président Angot

64053 Pau

France

 

Elisa Blanco-González

University of Oviedo

Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry

Calle Julian Clavería 8

33006 Oviedo

Spain

 

Katharina Bluemlein

Department of Analytical Chemistry

Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM)

Nikolai-Fuchs-Str.

130625 Hannover

Germany

 

Julia Bornhorst

University of Potsdam

Department of Food Chemistry

Institute of Nutritional Science Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114–116

14558 Nuthetal

Germany

 

Anne-Laure Bulteau

Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)/Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour (UPPA)

Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 5254

Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l'Environnement et les Matériaux (IPREM)

Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE)

Technopôle Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées

2 Avenue du Président Pierre Angot

64000 Pau

France

 

Belén Callejón-Leblic

University of Huelva

Department of Chemistry

Campus El Carmen

Fuerzas Armadas Ave

21007 Huelva

Spain

 

and

 

University of Huelva

Research Center of Health and Environment (CYSMA)

Campus El Carmen

Fuerzas Armadas Ave

21007 Huelva

Spain

 

Laurent Chavatte

Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)/Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour (UPPA)

Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 5254

Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l'Environnement et les Matériaux (IPREM)

Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE)

Technopôle Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées

2 Avenue du Président Pierre Angot

64000 Pau

France

 

Philippe Le Coustumer

Université de Bordeaux

UF Sciences de la Terre et Environnement

Allée G. Saint-Hillaire

33615 Pessac

France

 

and

 

Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, CNRS

Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l'Environnement et les Matériaux (IPREM)

UMR 5254

64000 Pau

France

 

Jörg Feldmann

University of Aberdeen

Department of Chemistry

TESLA (Trace Element Speciation Laboratory)

Meston Walk

Aberdeen

AB24 3UE

UK

 

Kevin A. Francesconi

University of Graz

Institute of Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry

NAWI Graz

Universitätsplatz 1

8010 Graz

Austria

 

Zuzana Gajdosechova

University of Aberdeen

Chemistry Department

Meston Walk

Aberdeen AB24 3UE

UK

 

Tamara García-Barrera

University of Huelva

Department of Chemistry

Campus El Carmen

Fuerzas Armadas Ave

21007 Huelva

Spain

 

and

 

University of Huelva

Research Center of Health and Environment (CYSMA)

Campus El Carmen

Fuerzas Armadas Ave

21007 Huelva

Spain

 

Ronald A. Glabonjat

University of Graz

Institute of Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry

NAWI Graz

Universitätsplatz 1

8010 Graz

Austria

 

José Luis Gómez-Ariza

University of Huelva

Department of Chemistry

Campus El Carmen

Fuerzas Armadas Ave

21007 Huelva

Spain

 

and

 

University of Huelva

Research Center of Health and Environment (CYSMA)

Campus El Carmen

Fuerzas Armadas Ave

21007 Huelva

Spain

 

Etienne Gontier

Université de Bordeaux

Bordeaux Imaging Center UMS 3420 CNRS – US4 INSERM

Pôle d'imagerie électronique

146 rue Léo Saignat

33076 Bordeaux

France

 

Stephan Hann

University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences

BOKU-Vienna

Department of Chemistry

Division of Analytical Chemistry

Muthgasse 18

1190 Vienna

Austria

 

Helle R. Hansen

Chemist Metal Section

Eurofins Miljo A/S

Ladelundvej 85

6600 Vejen

Denmark

 

Robert Hutchinson

Electro Scientific Industries

8 Avro Court

Ermine Business Park

Huntingdon

Cambridge PE29 6XS

UK

 

Heidi G. Infante

LGC Limited

Science and Innovation Division

Queens Road

Teddington

Middlesex TW11 0LY

UK

 

Marie-Pierre Isaure

Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour CNRS

Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l'Environnement et les Matériaux (IPREM)

UMR 5254

64000 Pau

France

 

Kenneth B. Jensen

University of Graz

Institute of Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry

NAWI Graz

Universitätsplatz 1

8010 Graz

Austria

 

Bernhard K. Keppler

University of Vienna

Department of Inorganic Chemistry

Waehringer Strasse 42

1090 Vienna

Austria

 

and

 

University of Vienna

Research Platform ‘Translational Cancer Therapy Research’

Waehringer Strasse 42

1090 Vienna

Austria

 

Gunda Koellensperger

University of Vienna

Department of Analytical Chemistry

Waehringer Strasse 38

1090 Vienna

Austria

 

Eva M. Krupp

University of Aberdeen

Chemistry Department Meston Walk

Aberdeen AB24 3UE

UK

 

Gaëtane Lespes

Université de Pau et des Pays de

l'Adour

Avenue de l'Université

BP 1155

64013 Pau Cedex

France

 

Hanna Lohren

University of Potsdam

Department of Food Chemistry

Institute of Nutritional Science

Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116

14558 Nuthetal

Germany

 

Julien Malherbe

Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, CNRS

Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l'Environnement et les Matériaux (IPREM)

UMR 5254

64000 Pau

France

 

Bernhard Michalke

Helmholtz Center Munich German Research Center for Environmental Health GmbH

Research Unit: Analytical BioGeoChemistry

Ingolstädter Landstr. 1

85764 Neuherberg

Germany

 

Radmila Milačič

Department of Environmental Sciences

Jožef Stefan Institute

Jamova 39

1000 Ljubljana

Slovenia

 

and

 

Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School

Jamova 39

1000 Ljubljana

Slovenia

 

Luis Galvez

University of Vienna

Department of Analytical Chemistry

Waehringer Strasse 38

1090 Vienna

Austria

 

Maria Montes-Bayón

University of Oviedo

Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry

Calle Julian Clavería 8

33006 Oviedo

Spain

 

Katharina Neth

Helmholz Center Munich German Research Center for Environmental Health GmbH

Research Unit: Analytical BioGeoChemistry

Ingolstädter Landstr. 1

85764 Neuherberg

Germany

 

Volker Nischwitz

Forschungszentrum Jülich

Central Institute for Engineering Electronics and Analytics Analytics (ZEA-3)

Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße

52428 Jülich

Germany

 

Maria Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou

National Technical University of Athens

School of Chemical Engineering

Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry

Iroon Polytechneiou 9

Zografou Campus

157 80 Athens

Greece

 

Daniel Pröfrock

Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht

Centre for Materials and Coastal Research

Department Marine Bioanalytical Chemistry

Institute of Coastal Research/Biogeochemistry in Coastal Seas

Max-Planck Str. 1

21502 Geesthacht

Germany

 

Andrea Raab

University of Aberdeen

Department of Chemistry

TESLA (Trace Element Speciation Laboratory)

Meston Walk

Aberdeen

AB24 3UE

UK

 

Georg Raber

University of Graz

Institute of Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry

NAWI Graz

Universitätsplatz 1

8010 Graz

Austria

 

Marco Roman

Ca' Foscari University of Venice

Department of Environmental Sciences

Informatics and Statistics (DAIS)

Via Torino 155

30172 Venice

Italy

 

and

 

National Research Council

Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes (CNR-IDPA)

Via Torino 155

30172 Venice

Italy

 

Lena Ruzik

Warsaw University of Technology

Noakowskiego 3

00-664 Warsaw

Poland

 

Janez Ščančar

Department of Environmental Sciences

Jožef Stefan Institute

Jamova 39

1000 Ljubljana

Slovenia

 

and

 

Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School

Jamova 39

1000 Ljubljana

Slovenia

 

Dirk Schaumlöffel

Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, CNRS

Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l'Environnement et les Matériaux (IPREM)

UMR 5254

64000 Pau

France

 

Tanja Schwerdtle

University of Potsdam

Department of Food Chemistry

Institute of Nutritional Science

Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116D

14558 Nuthetal

Germany

 

Jordan Sonet

Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)/Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour (UPPA)

Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 5254

Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l'Environnement et les Matériaux (IPREM)

Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement (LCABIE)

Technopôle Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées

2 Avenue du Président Pierre Angot

64000 Pau

France

 

Michael Stiboller

University of Graz

Institute of Chemistry

Analytical Chemistry

NAWI Graz

Universitätsplatz 1

8010 Graz

Austria

 

Joanna Szpunar

CNRS-UPPA IPREM

Laboratory of Bioinorganic Analytical and Environmental Chemistry

UMR 5254

2, Avenue Président Angot

64053 Pau

France

 

Sarah Theiner

University of Vienna

Department of Inorganic Chemistry

Waehringer Strasse 42

1090 Vienna

Austria

 

and

 

University of Vienna

Research Platform ‘Translational Cancer Therapy Research’

Waehringer Strasse 42

1090 Vienna

Austria

 

Fotios Tsopelas

National Technical University of Athens

School of Chemical Engineering

Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry

Iroon Polytechneiou 9

Zografou Campus

157 80 Athens

Greece

 

Janja Vidmar

Department of Environmental Sciences

Jožef Stefan Institute

Jamova 39

1000 Ljubljana

Slovenia

 

and

 

Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School

Jamova 39

1000 Ljubljana

Slovenia

 

Marianna Vitkova

University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences

BOKU-Vienna

Department of Chemistry

Division of Analytical Chemistry

Muthgasse 18

1190 Vienna

Austria

 

Dirk Wallschläger

Trent University

Water Quality Centre

1600 West Bank Drive

Peterborough ON K9L 0G2

Canada

 

Günther Weber

Leibniz-Institut für Analytische Wissenschaften – ISAS – e.V.

Otto-Hahn-Str. 6b

44227 Dortmund

Germany

 

Tea Zuliani

Department of Environmental Sciences

Jožef Stefan Institute

Jamova 39

1000 Ljubljana

Slovenia

Preface

Metallomics bridges chemistry and the biological sciences from a global and quantitative systems approach. It encompasses metalloproteomics as well as metallometabolomics. Metallomics is an emerging field addressing the role, uptake, transport, and storage of trace metals essential for protein functions, but can also focus on metallometabolites, which may appear in the environment or which circulate in organisms as metal carriers. The latter are prone to play a significant role at barriers. Whereas metalloproteins typically are controlled strictly regarding metal transport across barriers, small metal species are often able to circumvent such essential control systems, which may result in debalancing and shifting away from physiological condition. Metalloproteins, metallometabolites, and ionic forms of elements having different specific valance states are considered as metal species, which are analyzed by metal speciation techniques. Together these metal species build up the metallome of an organism, in a sample or in an environmental compartment.

Metalloproteins are one of the most diverse classes of proteins. For proper and precise protein function, they contain intrinsic metal atoms providing a catalytic, regulatory, and structural role. Metallometabolites can generally occur everywhere in the organism due to their complexing capacity combined with inter- and intracellular availability of metals, either according to physiological processes or after exposure. As an example, citrate and malate act as ligands for many metals, typically transition metals, whereas sulfur-rich compounds/metabolites tend to bind heavy metals such as mercury or are connected to selenium. Transition metals such as Cu, Fe, and Zn play important roles in the physiology of life. Zn, the most abundant transition metal in cells, plays a vital role in the functionalities of more than 300 enzymes, in the stabilization of DNA, and in gene expression. However, debalancing their natural cellular ratio – occasionally seen for small metal species – can result in detrimental shifts and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

Although in metallomics-related literature, statement that an element has some biological impact or induces a biological response (e.g., “zinc triggered a signal” etc.) is often found, we never should lose track on the fact that elements can only act as a specific form, either as an ionic form with a defined valence state (charge) or as a specific metal ligand molecule. Such specific forms are named element species. Usually, numerous species of an element are present in a sample having different ways of interaction or impact on biological–chemical processes. The analytical approaches to identify these element species were increasingly evolving from the early 1990 and are termed elemental speciation analysis. They are of inestimable value, actually mandatory for an in-depth understanding of biological intercellular and intracellular processes. Since organisms are in close interaction with their environment, such metal-species-related processes must also be analyzed in environment and nutrition.

This book is intended to provide specifically recent knowledge in the metallomics field based on sophisticated techniques from metal speciation, spatial distribution of metals, for example, in tissue or even cells analyzed by novel and advanced approaches in metallo-bioimaging techniques and analysis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs). Following this intention, the book starts with a methodical section with a first chapter (Chapter 1) positioning metallomics within the “omics” field. This first chapter is followed by a comprehensive chapter (Chapter 2), introducing modern speciation techniques, mainly based on sophisticated hyphenated systems such as HPLC-ICP-MS and ESI-MS/MS and by a further chapter (Chapter 3) on quality control. The special focus here is on species quantitation by isotope dilution in speciation, since correct species quantitation is mandatory for providing reliable data in this quickly growing, important research field.

Today, spatial localization of metals enables metal mapping of tissues even in high resolution and allows, for example, for intracell localization of different metals, even NPs, before and after an intervention. Thus, in Chapter 4, new approaches of this topic are discussed including NanoSIMS, TEM-EDX, μSXRF, and LA-ICP-MS.

The methodical part of this book ends with a very new technique: electrochemistry coupled to mass spectrometry for investigating oxidative metabolism of drugs. As an example, Pt drugs are in focus of this chapter, which interrelates the methodical (1) with the biomedical/pharmaceutical section (Chapters 13.1–13.6).

The second section consists of Chapters 6–11, which describes metallomics in environment and nutrition. In these chapters, specifically speciation of the elements selenium, arsenic, chromium, tin, aluminum, mercury, and platinum is in focus, aside from a chapter about nanoparticles. Selenium speciation is outlined in plants and environment – here together with tin speciation, whereas the multifaceted problems around arsenic are mirrored in chapters about As species in marine food, arseno-sulfur compounds, and arsenolipids. Links from environment to biomedical viewpoints become obvious in the chapters about aluminum, chromium or mercury, platinum, and nanoparticles. For example, aluminum speciation, being analytically challenging, is described in environmental and in biological samples, but it is also of interest in neurotoxicology. Platinum-containing wastewater from hospitals relating to therapy with anticancer drugs (Pt species) and mercury species, well known for their toxicity in environment, are even more relevant for (neuro)toxic effects in humans. Finally, nanoparticles, appearing practically everywhere in the environment, are designed as effective means to transport intracellularly drugs/reactive compounds to the point of action but are also recognized as potentially harmful for human health.

As a third section, the biomedical and health section of the book starts with a comprehensive overview on metalloproteins (Chapter 12) and goes on with a subsection (Chapters 13.1–13.6) on a biomedical–analytical view about metal species as biomarkers used for medical diagnosis and about metallodrugs. It starts with a review on selenoproteins in human health and disease including enzymatic assays and protein labeling (Chapter 13.1) and continues with an Alzheimer disease case study to show the use of metal speciation for biomarkers in medical diagnosis (Chapter 13.2). Further topics in this area are vanadium speciation related to diabetes (Chapter 13.3), since some (future) diabetes drugs are based on V-species, and novel platinum or ruthenium species for anticancer treatments in (Chapter 13.4). Chapter 13.5 reports about silver species in wound healing, starting with Ag nanoparticles, but also covers Ag skin layer models or surface-enhanced Raman scattering microscopy as the analytical tool. The biomedical section finally closes with a chapter related to neurodegeneration and speciation in human samples or animal models, with a focus on manganese and iron speciation.