Handbook of Battery Materials -  - ebook

Handbook of Battery Materials ebook

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A one-stop resource for both researchers and development engineers, this comprehensive handbook serves as a daily reference, replacing heaps of individual papers. This second edition features twenty percent more content with new chapters on battery characterization, process technology, failure mechanisms and method development, plus updated information on classic batteries as well as entirely new results on advanced approaches. The authors, from such leading institutions as the US National Labs and from companies such as Panasonic and Sanyo, present a balanced view on battery research and large-scale applications. They follow a distinctly materials-oriented route through the entire field of battery research, thus allowing readers to quickly find the information on the particular materials system relevant to their research.

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Table of Contents

Related Titles

Title Page

Copyright

Dedication Page

Preface to the Second Edition of the Handbook of Battery Materials

List of Contributors

Part I: Fundamentals and General Aspects of Electrochemical Energy Storage

Chapter 1: Thermodynamics and Mechanistics

1.1 Electrochemical Power Sources

1.2 Electrochemical Fundamentals

1.3 Thermodynamics

1.4 Criteria for the Judgment of Batteries

References

Chapter 2: Practical Batteries

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Alkaline-Manganese Batteries

2.3 Nickel–Cadmium Batteries

2.4 Nickel–MH Batteries

2.5 Lithium Primary Batteries

2.6 Coin-Type Lithium Secondary Batteries

2.7 Lithium-Ion Batteries

2.8 Secondary Lithium Batteries with Metal Anodes

References

Further Reading

Part II: Materials for Aqueous Electrolyte Batteries

Chapter 3: Structural Chemistry of Manganese Dioxide and Related Compounds

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Tunnel Structures

3.3 Layer Structures

3.4 Reduced Manganese Oxides

3.5 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Chapter 4: Electrochemistry of Manganese Oxides

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Electrochemical Properties of EMD

4.3 Physical Properties and Chemical Composition of EMD

4.4 Conversion of EMD to LiMnO2 or LiMn2O4 for Rechargeable Li Batteries

4.5 Discharge Curves of EMD Alkaline Cells (AA and AAA Cells)

References

Further Reading

Chapter 5: Nickel Hydroxides

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Nickel Hydroxide Battery Electrodes

5.3 Solid-State Chemistry of Nickel Hydroxides

5.4 Electrochemical Reactions

References

Chapter 6: Lead Oxides

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Lead/Oxygen Compounds

6.3 The Thermodynamic Situation

6.4 PbO2 as Active Material in Lead–Acid Batteries

6.5 Passivation of Lead by Its Oxides

6.6 Ageing Effects

References

Further Reading

Chapter 7: Bromine-Storage Materials

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Possibilities for Bromine Storage

7.3 Physical Properties of the Bromine Storage Phase

7.4 Analytical Study of a Battery Charge Cycle

7.5 Safety, Physiological Aspects, and Recycling

References

Chapter 8: Metallic Negatives

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Overview

8.3 Battery Anodes (‘Negatives’)

References

Chapter 9: Metal Hydride Electrodes

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Theory and Basic Principles

9.3 Metal Hydride–Nickel Batteries

9.4 Super-Stoichiometric AB5+x Alloys

9.5 AB2 Hydride Electrodes

9.6 XAS Studies of Alloy Electrode Materials

9.7 Summary

Acknowledgment

References

Further Reading

Chapter 10: Carbons

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Physicochemical Properties of Carbon Materials

10.3 Electrochemical Behavior

10.4 Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 11: Separators

11.1 General Principles

11.2 Separators for Lead–Acid Storage Batteries

11.3 Separators for Alkaline Storage Batteries

Acknowledgments

References

Part III: Materials for Alkali Metal Batteries

Chapter 12: Lithium Intercalation Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

12.1 Introduction

12.2 History of Lithium-Ion Batteries

12.3 Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

12.4 Layered Metal Oxide Cathodes

12.5 Layered LiCoO2

12.6 Layered LiNiO2

12.7 Layered LiMnO2

12.8 Li[Li1/3Mn2/3]O2 - LiMO2 Solid Solutions

12.9 Other Layered Oxides

12.10 Spinel Oxide Cathodes

12.11 Spinel LiMn2O4

12.12 5 V Spinel Oxides

12.13 Other Spinel Oxides

12.14 Polyanion-Containing Cathodes

12.15 Phospho-Olivine LiMPO4

12.16 Silicate Li2MSiO4

12.17 Other Polyanion-Containing Cathodes

12.18 Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 13: Rechargeable Lithium Anodes

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Surface of Uncycled Lithium Foil

13.3 Surface of Lithium Coupled with Electrolytes

13.4 Cycling Efficiency of Lithium Anode

13.5 Morphology of Deposited Lithium

13.6 The Amount of Dead Lithium and Cell Performance

13.7 Improvement in the Cycling Efficiency of a Lithium Anode

13.8 Safety of Rechargeable Lithium Metal Cells

13.9 Conclusion

References

Further Reading

Chapter 14: Lithium Alloy Anodes

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Problems with the Rechargeability of Elemental Electrodes

14.3 Lithium Alloys as an Alternative

14.4 Alloys Formed In situ from Convertible Oxides

14.5 Thermodynamic Basis for Electrode Potentials and Capacities under Conditions in which Complete Equilibrium can be Assumed

14.6 Crystallographic Aspects and the Possibility of Selective Equilibrium

14.7 Kinetic Aspects

14.8 Examples of Lithium Alloy Systems

14.9 Lithium Alloys at Lower Temperatures

14.10 The Mixed-Conductor Matrix Concept

14.11 Solid Electrolyte Matrix Electrode Structures

14.12 What about the Future?

References

Further Reading

Chapter 15: Lithiated Carbons

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Graphitic and Nongraphitic Carbons

15.3 Lithiated Carbons vs Competing Anode Materials

15.4 Summary

Acknowledgments

References

Further Reading

Chapter 16: The Anode/Electrolyte Interface

16.1 Introduction

16.2 SEI Formation, Chemical Composition, and Morphology

16.3 SEI Formation on Carbonaceous Electrodes

16.4 Models for SEI Electrodes

16.5 Summary and Conclusions

References

Further Reading

Chapter 17: Liquid Nonaqueous Electrolytes

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Components of the Liquid Electrolyte

17.3 Intrinsic Properties

17.4 Bulk Properties

17.5 Additives

References

Chapter 18: Polymer Electrolytes

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Solvent-Free Polymer Electrolytes

18.3 Hybrid Electrolytes

18.4 Looking to the Future

References

Further Reading

Chapter 19: Solid Electrolytes

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Fundamental Aspects of Solid Electrolytes

19.3 Applicable Solid Electrolytes for Batteries

19.4 Design Aspects of Solid Electrolytes

19.5 Preparation of Solid Electrolytes

19.6 Experimental Techniques for the Determination of the Properties of Solid Electrolytes

Acknowledgment

References

Further Reading

Chapter 20: Separators for Lithium-Ion Batteries

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Market

20.3 How a Battery Separator is Used in Cell Fabrication

20.4 Microporous Separator Materials

20.5 Gel Electrolyte Separators

20.6 Polymer Electrolytes

20.7 Characterization of Separators

20.8 Mathematical Modeling of Separators

20.9 Conclusions

References

Chapter 21: Materials for High-Temperature Batteries

21.1 Introduction

21.2 The ZEBRA System

21.3 The Sodium/Sulfur Battery

21.4 Components for High-Temperature Batteries

References

Further Reading

Part IV: New Emerging Technologies

Chapter 22: Metal–Air Batteries

22.1 General Characteristics

22.2 Air Electrode

22.3 Zinc–Air Batteries

22.4 Lithium–Air Batteries

22.5 Other–Air Batteries

22.6 Conclusions

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 23: Catalysts and Membranes for New Batteries

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Catalysts

23.3 Separators

23.4 Future Directions

References

Chapter 24: Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Polysulfide Shuttle and Capacity-Fading Mechanisms

24.3 Cell Configuration

24.4 Positive Electrode Materials

24.5 Electrolytes

24.6 Negative Electrode Materials

24.7 Conclusions and Prospects

Acknowledgments

References

Part V: Performance and Technology Development for Batteries

Chapter 25: Modeling and Simulation of Battery Systems

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Macroscopic Model

25.3 Aging Model

25.4 Stress Model

25.5 Abuse Model

25.6 Life Prediction Model

25.7 Other Battery Technologies

25.8 Summary and Outlook

Acknowledgments

Nomenclature

References

Chapter 26: Mechanics of Battery Cells and Materials

26.1 Mechanical Failure Analysis of Battery Cells and Materials: Significance and Challenges

26.2 Key Studies in the Mechanical Analysis of Battery Materials

26.3 Key Issues Remaining to be Addressed

26.4 Outlook for the Future

References

Chapter 27: Battery Safety and Abuse Tolerance

27.1 Introduction

27.2 Evaluation Techniques for Batteries and Battery Materials

27.3 Typical Failure Modes

27.4 Safety Devices

27.5 Discussion of Safety and Abuse Response for Battery Chemistries

Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 28: Cathode Manufacturing for Lithium-Ion Batteries

28.1 Introduction

28.2 Electrode Manufacturing

28.3 Summary

References

Index

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The Editors

Dr.-Ing. Claus Daniel

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

MS6083

P.O. Box 2008

Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6083

USA

All books published by Wiley-VCH are carefully produced. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information contained in these books, including this book, to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate.

Library of Congress Card No.: applied for

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek

The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at <http://dnb.d-nb.de>.

© 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Boschstr. 12, 69469 Weinheim, Germany

All rights reserved (including those of translation into other languages). No part of this book may be reproduced in any form – by photoprinting, microfilm, or any other means – nor transmitted or translated into a machine language without written permission from the publishers. Registered names, trademarks, etc. used in this book, even when not specifically marked as such, are not to be considered unprotected by law.

Print ISBN: 978-3-527-32695-2

ePub: 978-3-527-63719-5

mobi: 978-3-527-63721-8

oBook: 978-3-527-63718-8

eBook: 978-3-527-63720-1

Dedication: Jürgen O. Besenhard (1944–2006)

The first edition of the “Handbook of Battery Materials” was edited by Professor Jürgen Otto Besenhard. Jürgen Besenhard began his scientific career at the time, when the era of lithium batteries came up. With his strong background in chemistry and his outstanding ability to interpret and understand the complex phenomena behind the many exploratory research findings on lithium batteries in the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s, Jürgen Besenhard was able to attribute “performance” to material properties. His early work is evidence for this:

1. Understanding of reversible alkali metal ion intercalation into graphite anodes (J. Electroanal. Chem., 53 (1974) 329 and Carbon, 14 (1976) 111)

2. Understanding of reversible alkali metal ion insertion into oxide materials for cathodes (Mat. Res. Bull., 11 (1976) 83 and J. Power Sources, 1 (1976/1977) 267)

3. First reviews on lithium batteries (J. Electroanal. Chem., 68 (1976) 1 and J. Electroanal. Chem., 72 (1976) 1)

4. Preparation of lithium alloys with defined stoichiometry in organic electrolytes at ambient temperature (Electrochim. Acta, 20 (1975) 513).

Jürgen Besenhard's research interests were almost unlimited. After he received a Full Professorship at the University of Münster (Germany) in 1986 and especially after 1993, when he assumed the position as head of the Institute of Chemistry and Technology at Graz University of Technology in Austria, he expanded his activities to countless topics in the field of applied electrochemistry. But his favorite topic, “his dedication,” has always been “Battery Materials.”

Jürgen Otto Besenhard was an exceptional and devoted scientist and he leaves behind an enduring record of achievements. He was considered as a leading authority in the field of lithium battery materials. His works will always assure him a highly prominent position in the history of battery technology.

Prof. Besenhard was also a highly respected teacher inside and outside the university. Consequently, it was only natural that he edited a book, which attempted to give explanations, rather than only summarizing figures and facts. The “Handbook of Battery Materials” was one of Jürgen Otto Besenhard's favorite projects. He knew that materials are the key to batteries. It is the merit of Claus Daniel and the publisher Wiley, that this project will be continued.

May this new edition of the “Handbook of Battery Materials” be a useful guide into the complex and rapidly growing field of battery materials. Beyond that, it is my personal wish and hope that the readers of this book may also take the chance to review Prof. Besenhard's work. Jürgen Otto Besenhard has been truly one of the fathers of lithium batteries and lithium ion batteries.

Münster, Germany, July, 2011

Martin Winter

Preface to the Second Edition of the Handbook of Battery Materials

For Kijan and Stina

The language of experiment is more authoritative than any reasoning, facts can destroy our ratiocination – not vice versa.

Count Alessandro Volta, 1745–1827

Inventor of the Battery

You are looking at the second edition of the Handbook of Battery Materials. It has been 12 years since the first edition edited by Prof. Jürgen Besenhard was published.

This second edition is dedicated in memory of world renowned Prof. Jürgen Besenhard who was a pioneer in the field of electrochemical energy storage and lithium batteries. As a young scientist in the field of electrochemical energy storage, I am humbled to inherit this handbook from him.

Over the last decade, driven by consumer electronics, power tools, and recently automotive and renewable energy storage, electrochemical energy storage chemistries and devices have been developed at a never before seen pace. New chemistries have been discovered, and continued performance increases to established chemistries are under way. With these developments, we decided to update the handbook from 1999. The new edition is completely revised and expanded to almost double its original content.

Due to the fast pace of the market and very quick developments on large scale energy storage, we removed the chapter on Global Competition. It might be outdated by the time this book actually hits the shelves. Chapters from Parts I and II from the first edition on Fundamentals and General Aspects of Electrochemical Energy Storage, Practical Batteries, and Materials for Aqueous Electrolyte Batteries have been revised for the new edition to reflect the work in the past decade. Part III on Materials for Alkali Metal Batteries has been expanded in view of the many research efforts on lithium ion and other alkali metal ion batteries. In addition, we added new Parts IV on New Emerging Technologies and V on Performance and Technology Development with chapters on Metal Air, Catalysts, and Membranes, Sulfur, System Level Modeling, Mechanics of Battery Materials, and Electrode Manufacturing.

In our effort, we strongly held on to Prof. Besenhard's goal to “fill the gap” between fundamental electrochemistry and application of batteries in order to provide a “comprehensive source of detailed information” for “graduate or higher level” students and “those who are doing research in the field of materials for energy storage.”

I would like to thank all authors who contributed to this book; Craig Blue, Ray Boeman, and David Howell who made me apply my experience and knowledge from a different area to the field of electrochemical energy storage; and Nancy Dudney who continues to be a resourceful expert advisor to me.

Finally, I thank my wife Isabell and my family for the many sacrifices they make and support they give me in my daily work.

Oak Ridge, TN, July 2011

Claus Daniel

List of Contributors

Jörg H. Albering

Graz University of Technology

Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials

Stremeyrgasse 16/III

8010 Graz

Austria

Marius Amereller

University of Regensburg

Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Universitätsstr. 31

93053 Regensburg

Germany

Michel Armand

Université de Montréal

Département de Chimie

C.P. 6128

Succursale Centre-Ville

Montréal

Québec H3C 3J7

Canada

Josef Barthel

University of Regensburg

Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Universitätsstr. 31

93053 Regensburg

Germany

Dietrich Berndt

Am Weissen Berg 3

61476 Kronberg

Germany

Jürgen Otto Besenhard †

Graz University of Technology of Inorganic Materials

Stremayrgasse 16/III

8010 Graz

Austria

Leo Binder

Graz University of Technology

Institute for Inorganic Chemistry

Stremayrgasse 9

8010 Graz

Austria

Peter Birke

Christian-Albrechts University

Technical Faculty

Chair for Sensors and

Solid State Ionics

Kaiserstr. 2

24143 Kiel

Germany

H. Böhm

AEG Anglo Batteries GmbH

Söfliger Str. 100

889077 Ulm

Germany

Werner Böhnstedt

Daramic Inc.

Erlengang 31

22844 Norderstedt

Germany

Peter G. Bruce

University of St. Andrews

School of Chemistry

North Haugh

St. Andrews, KY16 9ST

Scotland

Myoungdo Chung

Sakti3

Incorporated

Ann Arbor, MI

USA

Claus Daniel

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6083

USA

and

University of Tennessee

Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Knoxville, TN 37996

USA

Daniel H. Doughty

Battery Safety Consulting Inc.

139 Big Horn Ridge Dr. NE

Albuquerque, NM 87122

USA

Josef Drobits

Technische Universität Wien

Institut für Technische Elektrochemie

Getreidemarkt 9/158

1060 Wien

Austria

Christoph Fabjan

Technische Universität Wien

Institut für Technische Elektrochemie

Getreidemarkt 9/158

1060 Wien

Austria

Wujun Fu

Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge

TN 37831

USA

Nobuhiro Furukawa

Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. Electrochemistry Department

New Materials Research Center

1-18-3 Hashiridani

Hirahata City

Osaka 573-8534

Japan

Diane Golodnitsky

Tel Aviv University

Department of Chemistry

Tel Aviv 69978

Israel

Heiner Jakob Gores

University of Regensburg

Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Universitätsstr. 31

93053 Regensburg

Germany

and

WWU Münster (Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster)

MEET - Münster Electrochemical Energy Technology

Corrensstraße 46

48149 Münster

Germany

Fiona Gray

University of St Andrews

School of Chemistry

The Purdie Building

North Haugh

St Andrews

Fife KY16 9ST

UK

Robert Hartl

University of Regensburg

Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Universitätsstr. 31

93053 Regensburg

Germany

Robert A. Huggins

Christian-Albrechts-University

Kaiserstr. 2

24143 Kiel

Germany

HyonCheol Kim

Sakti3

1490 Eisenhower Place

Building 4

Ann Arbor, MI 48108

Kimio Kinoshita

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

Environmental Energy Technology

Berkeley, CA 94720

USA

Akiya Kozawa

ITE Battery Research Institute

39 Youke, Ukino

Chiaki-cho

Ichinomiyashi

Aichi-ken 491

Japan

Jianlin Li

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Materials Science and Technology Division

Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6083

USA

Chengdu Liang

Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge, TN 37831

USA

Zengcai Liu

Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Oak Ridge, TN 37831

USA

Arumugam Manthiram

The University of Texas at Austin

Materials Science and Engineering Program

Austin, TX 78712

USA

Alexander Maurer

University of Regensburg

Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Universitätsstr. 31

93053 Regensburg

Germany

James McBreen

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Department of Applied Science

Upton, NY 1973

USA

Dominik Moosbauer

University of Regensburg

Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Universitätsstr. 31

93053 Regensburg

Germany

and

Gamry Instruments, Inc.

734 Louis Drive

Warminster, PA 18974

USA

Partha P. Mukherjee

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Computer Science and Mathematics Division

Oak Ridge, TN 37831

USA

Theivanayagam Muraliganth

The University of Texas at Austin

Materials Science and Engineering Program

Austin, TX 78712

USA

Chaitanya K. Narula

University of Tennessee

Materials Science and Technology Division

Physical Chemistry of Materials

Oak Ridge, TN 37831

USA

and

Department of Materials Science and Engineering

Knoxville, TN 37966

USA

Koji Nishio

Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd.

Electrochemistry Department

New Materials Research Center

1-18-3 Hashiridani

Hirahata City

Osaka 573-8534

Japan

Sreekanth Pannala

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Computer Science and Mathematics Division

Oak Ridge, TN 37831

USA

Emanuel Peled

Tel Aviv University

Department of Chemistry

Tel Aviv 69978

Israel

Jack Penciner

Tel Aviv University

Department of Chemistry

Tel Aviv 69978

Israel

Karsten Pinkwart

Fraunhofer Institut für

Chemische Technologie (ICT)

Angewandte Elektrochemie

Josef-von-Fraunhofer-Str. 7

76327 Pfinztal

Germany

James J. Reilly

Brookhaven National Laboratory

Department of Sustainable Energy

Technologies

Upton, NY 11973

USA

Ann Marie Sastry

Sakti3

1490 Eisenhower Place

Building 4

Ann Arbor, MI 48108

and

University of Michigan

Departments of Mechanical

Biomedical and Materials

Science and Engineering

2300 Hayward Street

Ann Arbor, MI 48109

USA

Robert Spotnitz

Battery Design LLC

2277 Delucchi Drive

Pleasanton, CA 94588

USA

Shin-ichi Tobishima

Gunma University

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

Faculty of Engineering

1-5-1 Tenjin-cho

Kiryu, Gunma, 376-8515

Japan

Jens Tübke

Fraunhofer Institut für

Chemische Technologie

Angewandte Elektrochemie

Josef-von-Fraunhofer-Str. 7

76327 Pfinztal

Germany

John A. Turner

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Computer Science and Mathematics Division

Oak Ridge, TN 37831

USA

Chia-Wei Wang

Sakti3

1490 Eisenhower Place

Building 4

Ann Arbor, MI 48108

Werner Weppner

Christian-Albrechts University

Technical Faculty

Chair for Sensors and Solid State Ionics

Kaiserstr. 2

24143 Kiel

Germany

Martin Winter

Graz University of Technology of Inorganic Materials

Stremayrgasse 16/III

8010 Graz

Austria

David L. Wood III

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Materials Science and

Technology Division

Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6083

USA

Jun-ichi Yamaki

Kyushu University

Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering

6-1 Kasuga-koen

Kasuka-shi 816-8508

Japan

Kohei Yamamoto

Fuji Electrochemical Co.

Washizu, Kosai-shi

Shizuoka-ken 431

Japan

Masaki Yoshio

Saga University

Faculty of Science and Engineering

Department of Applied Chemistry

1 Honjo

Saga 8408502

Japan

Ji-Guang Zhang

Pacific Northwest

National Laboratory

Energy and Environment Directory

Richland, WA 99352

USA

X. Gregory Zhang

Independent consultant

3 Weatherell Street

Ontario M6S 1S6

Canada

Xiangchun Zhang

Sakti3

Incorporated

Ann Arbor, MI

USA

Sandra Zugmann

University of Regensburg

Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

Universitätsstr. 31

93053 Regensburg

Germany

Part I

FUNDAMENTALS AND GENERAL ASPECTS OF ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE

1

Thermodynamics and Mechanistics

Karsten Pinkwart and Jens Tübke

1.1 Electrochemical Power Sources

Electrochemical power sources convert chemical energy into electrical energy (see Figure 1.1). At least two reaction partners undergo a chemical process during this operation. The energy of this reaction is available as electric current at a defined voltage and time [1].

Figure 1.1 Chemical and electrical energy conversion and possibilities of storage.

Electrochemical power sources differ from others such as thermal power plants in the fact that the energy conversion occurs without any intermediate steps; for example, in the case of thermal power plants, fuel is first converted into thermal energy (in furnaces or combustion chambers), then into mechanical energy, and finally into electric power by means of generators. In the case of electrochemical power sources, this multistep process is replaced by one step only. As a consequence, electrochemical systems show some advantages such as high energy efficiency.

The existing types of electrochemical storage systems vary according to the nature of the chemical reaction, structural features, and design. This reflects the large number of possible applications.

The simplest system consists of one electrochemical cell – the so-called galvanic element [1]. This supplies a comparatively low cell voltage of 0.5–5 V. To obtain a higher voltage the cell can be connected in series with others, and for a higher capacity it is necessary to link them in parallel. In both cases the resulting ensemble is called a battery.

Depending on the principle of operation, cells are classified as follows:

1.Primary cells are nonrechargeable cells in which the electrochemical reaction is irreversible. They contain only a fixed amount of the reacting compounds and can be discharged only once. The reacting compounds are consumed by discharging, and the cell cannot be used again. A well-known example of a primary cell is the Daniell element (), consisting of zinc and copper as the electrode materials.

represents anodic, cathodic current density (A cm).

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Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!