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Developing and Enhancing Teamwork in Organizations ebook

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Praise for Developing and Enhancing Teamwork inOrganizations "Few questions are more vital and important than teamwork, in anincreasingly interdependent and connected world. This volume is aunique and essential reference for managers, scholars and anyoneinterested in enhancing team performance. The combination of vividreal-world examples with thoughtful evidence-based frameworks willmake a lasting contribution to the study and practice of team-basedmanagement." --John Boudreau, Professor of Management andOrganization, USC Marshall School of Business "Excellent practice insights from leading practitioners andacademics. A valuable contribution to our knowledge concerning howto create and manage teams." --Ed Lawler, Director of Center for EffectiveOrganizations

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Table of Contents

Cover

The Professional Practice Series

Published by Jossey-Bass

Published by Guilford Press

Editor

Dedication

Title

Copyright

Foreword

The Editors

The Contributors

Essay 1

Essay 2

Essay 3

Essay 4

Essay 5

Essay 6

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 16

Chapter 17

Chapter 18

Chapter 19

Chapter 20

Part One: Why Teamwork Matters in Organizations

ESSAY ONE: Teamwork in Financial Institutions—Does It Really Matter?

ESSAY TWO: Do Teams’ Leaders Really Matter?

ESSAY THREE: Teamwork Matters

ESSAY FOUR: Making a Difference with Health Care Teams

Health Care Teams Explored

ESSAY FIVE: Developing Leaders on Any Team

ESSAY SIX: Teamwork and Spaceflight—An Evolving Relationship

Part Two: The Organization and Its Influence

CHAPTER ONE: Silent Killers of Team Performance: How Honest, Collective, and Public Conversations Can Overcome Them

Silent Barriers to Team Performance

Overcoming Silent Barriers to Team Performance

CHAPTER TWO: How Organizational Process Maturity Improved Software Team Performance

The Impact of Individual Differences

Dissecting a Software Design Team

Measuring Software Team Performance

Early Team Methods to Improve Productivity and Quality

The Process Maturity Framework

The Capability Maturity Model

Adopting the CMM to Workforce Development

The Team Software Process

Teams in the Context of Software Organizations

Conclusion

CHAPTER THREE: Leading a Team to a Major Technological Development

Leading a Team to a Major Technological Development

Background

Definition of the Problem and a Conceptual Solution

Development and Communication of Policies and Strategies

Vision Statement

Goals and Change Plan

Stakeholder Involvement and Management

Governance

Staffing, Training, and Professional Development

Implementation and Measurement of Success

Keeping Staff Inspired and Motivated

Part Three: The Team Leaders

CHAPTER FOUR: Building Great Leadership Teams for Complex Problems

Leadership Teams

Tripwire 1: What Is the Purpose of This Leadership Team?

Obstacles to Clarity of Purpose

Condition 1: Create a Compelling and Clear Purpose for the Team

Tripwire 2: The Wrong People Are Convening

Condition 2: Convene the Right People

Tripwire 3: Meetings Are a Waste of Time

Condition 3: Create an Enabling Structure for the Team

Conclusion

CHAPTER FIVE: Developing High-Impact Teams to Lead Strategic Change

Leadership of High-Impact Teams

The Nature of Strategic Change

Challenges Teams Experience in Leading Strategic Change

Enhancing the Team's Ability to Lead Strategic Change: Tools for Leaders and Practitioners

Conclusion

CHAPTER SIX: Leading Executive Teams: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

Leaders Must Recognize That Executive Teams Are Different

Executive Teams Need Care and Feeding

Leaders Must Do Their Work Through Executive Teams

Leaders Must Know Themselves First

Leaders and Executive Teams Must Develop a Shared Understanding About the Culture

Leaders Must Be Clear on Who Is on the Executive Team

Define the Role of the Executive Team

Operational Responsibilities of the Executive Team Must Be Clear

Leaders Must Focus on Developing Trust Among Executive Team Members

Leaders Must Expect Executive Team Conflict, But All Conflict Is Not Equal

Executive Teams Must Be Provided Proper Rewards and Recognition

Leaders Must Deal with Good, Bad, and Ugly Executive Team Members

Leaders Must Recognize That Location, Location, Location Matters with Executive Teams

Conclusion

CHAPTER SEVEN: Leading from the Helm: Lessons from America's Cup Sailing Teams

Defining Team Leadership

Team Leadership in Context: Sailing Teams

Setting: Leadership in the America's Cup

Team Lessons

America's Cup Team Vignettes

Lessons Forward

Part Four: The Organizational Context

CHAPTER EIGHT: Virtual Teams: The How To's of Making “Being Virtually There” Successful

Introduction

Striving for Success

Review of Team Processes, Virtual and Otherwise

Challenges to Virtual Teamwork

Using Team Processes to Overcome Challenges

Virtual Teamwork Issues for Tomorrow

Conclusion

CHAPTER NINE: Trust and Conflict at a Distance: How Can I Improve Relational Outcomes in Distributed Work Groups?

How Can I Improve the Way My Distributed Group Works Together?

Basic Principle: Social Information

Mechanisms That Affect Social Information in Distributed Groups

Examples and Evidence from Practice

Myths and Misconceptions

Conclusion

CHAPTER TEN: Teamwork Improvement in Health Care: A Decade of Lessons Learned Every Organization Should Know

Introduction

Background

The Evidence Base for TeamSTEPPS

TeamSTEPPS Today, a Systems Solution: Lessons Learned About Drivers of Success

Success Factors Applied Before Training Delivery

Success Factors Applied After Training Delivery

Implications for the Future of Health Care Team Training

Conclusion

CHAPTER ELEVEN: Why Teamwork Matters: Enabling Health Care Team Effectiveness for the Delivery of High-Quality Patient Care

The Context and Characteristics of Health Care Teams

The Science of Health Care Teams

Outcomes in Health Care Teams

Team Processes for Ensuring Health Care Team Performance

Practical Measures of Health Care Team Effectiveness

Recommendations for Improving Health Care Team Effectiveness

Future Challenges for Health Care Team Research

Conclusion

CHAPTER TWELVE: Rethinking Team Diversity Management: Evidence-Based Strategies for Coping with Diversity Threats

Introduction

The Theory of Faultlines

The Management of Faultlines

Structural Level Managerial Strategies

Relational Level Managerial Strategies

Final Considerations and Conclusion

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: High Performance in Temporally Separated Team Work

Introduction

The Role of Team Coordination

Global Boundary Complexity

Temporal Separation Complexity

Time Zone Coordination Tactics

Temporal Distance and Calendar Efficiencies

Temporal vs. Spatial Distance

Dyad-Level Findings

Team Level Findings

The Role of Interaction Synchronicity

Concluding Remarks

Part Five: The Assessments, Applications, and Interventions for Teams

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: Designing, Delivering, and Evaluating Team Training in Organizations: Principles That Work

Teamwork and Team Training

Principles for Team Training

Conclusion

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: Conducting Team Debriefings That Work: Lessons from Research and Practice

What Is a Debriefing and Why Should We Care?

When Can Debriefings Be Conducted and Who Can Use Them?

What Are the Most Common Debriefing Pitfalls and Obstacles to Success?

Lessons Learned: Levers and Tips to Promote Effective Team Debriefings

What Does the Future Hold for Debriefing?

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: Achieving Optimal Team Composition for Success

Introduction

Types of Team Composition Decisions

Models of Team Composition

Team Composition Decision Constraints

A Recommended Approach for Practitioners

Additional Considerations for Research and Application

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: How, When, and Why You Should Measure Team Performance

Why Measure Team Performance?

What Should Be Measured?

How Should Team Performance Be Measured?

When Should Team Performance Be Measured?

Directions for Future Research

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: Team Time Management: Psychological Insights for Timely Project Performance

Temporal Synchronization in Collaborative Action

The Role of Shared Temporal Cognitions

Threats to Shared Temporal Cognitions

Action Regulation Toward Meeting Deadlines

A Dynamic Model of Team Time Management

Closing Comments

CHAPTER NINETEEN: Five Simple Processes That Improve High-Risk Team Effectiveness

Introduction

High-Risk Team Specifics

Five Simple (But Not Simplified) Team Processes

Maintaining Situation Awareness

Talking to the Room

Explicit Reasoning

Speaking Up

Closed-Loop Communication

Outlook

Part Six: Summary

CHAPTER TWENTY: Enhancing the Practice of Teamwork in Organizations: Emerging Themes

1. Clearly, Teamwork Does Matter in Organizations!

2. Break Down Barriers to Intra- and Inter-Team Coordination

3. Composition Variables Influence the Management of Teams

4. Organizational Conditions Drive Team Performance

5. The Nature of Teamwork Is Changing to Include Virtual Distributed Teams and Teams of Teams

6. Team Training Works, But Must Be Scientifically Grounded and Systematically Designed, Delivered, Implemented, and Evaluated

7. Teams Are Adaptable Social Entities

8. Leadership Matters!

9. Engage Team Members with a Shared Vision, Clear Mission, and Compelling Purpose

10. There's Still a Lot to Learn About Teamwork

Name Index

Subject Index

End User License Agreement

Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

Begin Reading

List of Illustrations

CHAPTER ONE: Silent Killers of Team Performance: How Honest, Collective, and Public Conversations Can Overcome Them

Figure 1.1. The Silent Killer Syndrome: Barriers to Team Performance

Figure 1.2. The Strategic Fitness Process: Iterating Between Advocacy and Inquiry

Figure 1.3. Steps in the Strategic Fitness Process

CHAPTER TWO: How Organizational Process Maturity Improved Software Team Performance

Figure 2.1. Percentage of Agreement During Team Design Meetings

Figure 2.2. A Model of Factors Affecting Software Team Performance

CHAPTER FOUR: Building Great Leadership Teams for Complex Problems

Figure 4.1. Leadership Team Purposes Lack Clarity

Figure 4.2. Outstanding Leadership Teams Have Enabling Structures

CHAPTER FIVE: Developing High-Impact Teams to Lead Strategic Change

Figure 5.1. Views of Teams and Team Leadership

Figure 5.2. Example of a Challenge Chain

Figure 5.3. High-Performing and Low-Performing Team Information Flow

Figure 5.4. Creating a High-Impact Team for Business Development

Figure 5.5. Boundary-Spanning Strategies and Practices for High-Impact Teams

CHAPTER TEN: Teamwork Improvement in Health Care: A Decade of Lessons Learned Every Organization Should Know

Figure 10.1. The TeamSTEPPS

®

Instructional Framework

Figure 10.2. The TeamSTEPPS

®

Phased Approach

CHAPTER TWELVE: Rethinking Team Diversity Management: Evidence-Based Strategies for Coping with Diversity Threats

Figure 12.1. Faultline-Performance Framework

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: Designing, Delivering, and Evaluating Team Training in Organizations: Principles That Work

Figure 14.1. A Temporal Display of the Principles of Team Training

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: Conducting Team Debriefings That Work: Lessons from Research and Practice

Figure 15.1. Alternative Types of Debriefings—Application to Same Team

Figure 15.2. Alternative Types of Debriefings—Application to Different Team

Figure 15.3. How Debriefing Works: Proposed Framework

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: Team Time Management: Psychological Insights for Timely Project Performance

Figure 18.1. A Dynamic Model of Team Time Management

CHAPTER NINETEEN: Five Simple Processes That Improve High-Risk Team Effectiveness

Figure 19.1. The Five Team Processes Organized Along a Two-Dimensional Taxonomy

List of Tables

CHAPTER 1: What Is a SCADA System?

Table 2.1. Maturity Levels of the Process Maturity Framework

CHAPTER THREE: Leading a Team to a Major Technological Development

Table 3.1. Objectives (Deliverables) and Actions of the Ten Steps in Leading a Team to a Major Change

CHAPTER FOUR: Building Great Leadership Teams for Complex Problems

Table 4.1. Tripwires and Conditions for Great Leadership Teams

CHAPTER FIVE: Developing High-Impact Teams to Lead Strategic Change

Table 5.1 Team Leadership Functions

CHAPTER FIVE: Developing High-Impact Teams to Lead Strategic Change

Table 5.2 The Changing Face of Teams

CHAPTER EIGHT: Virtual Teams: The How To's of Making “Being Virtually There” Successful

Table 8.1. Most Successful Behaviors for Virtual and Traditional Teams

Table 8.2. Most Challenging Behaviors for Virtual and Traditional Teams

Table 8.3. Challenges to Virtual Team Success

Table 8.4. Factors and Questions Leading to Team Success

Table 8.5. Common Process Challenges for Virtual Teams

Table 8.6. Tips for Overcoming Process Challenges to Virtual Teamwork

CHAPTER NINE: Trust and Conflict at a Distance: How Can I Improve Relational Outcomes in Distributed Work Groups?

Table 9.1. Managing Virtual Teams to Promote Trust and Cooperation

CHAPTER TEN: Teamwork Improvement in Health Care: A Decade of Lessons Learned Every Organization Should Know

Table 10.1. TeamSTEPPS

®

Competencies, Skills, and Related Tools

Table 10.2. Tips for Creating a Successful Organizational Climate for Team Training

CHAPTER TWELVE: Rethinking Team Diversity Management: Evidence-Based Strategies for Coping with Diversity Threats

Table 12.1. Team A Composition

Table 12.2. Team Constellation with Varying Degrees of Diversity and Faultline Strength

Table 12.3. Intervention Strategies for Faultline Stages

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: High Performance in Temporally Separated Team Work

Table 13.1. Summary of Main Constructs

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: Designing, Delivering, and Evaluating Team Training in Organizations: Principles That Work

Table 14.1. Checklist for Team Training—Before

Table 14.2. Pros and Cons of Delivery Methods of Team Training

Table 14.3. Checklist for Team Training—During

Table 14.4. Checklist for Team Training—After

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: Conducting Team Debriefings That Work: Lessons from Research and Practice

Table 15.1. Six Types of Team Debriefings

Table 15.2. Desired Improvements/Outcomes from Debriefings

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: Achieving Optimal Team Composition for Success

Table 16.1. Types of Team Composition Decisions

Table 16.2. Four Models of Team Composition Effectiveness

Table 16.3. Constraints on Team Composition Decisions

Table 16.4. Recommendations for Application

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: How, When, and Why You Should Measure Team Performance

Table 17.1. Team Process Performance

CHAPTER NINETEEN: Five Simple Processes That Improve High-Risk Team Effectiveness

Table 19.1. Five Team Processes, Examples for Behavioral Markers, and Practical Recommendations

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The Professional Practice Series

The Professional Practice Series is sponsored by The Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. (SIOP). The series was launched in 1988 to provide industrial and organizational psychologists, organizational scientists and practitioners, human resources professionals, managers, executives, and those interested in organizational behavior and performance with volumes that are insightful, current, informative, and relevant to organizational practice. The volumes in the Professional Practice Series are guided by five tenets designed to enhance future organizational practice:

Focus on practice, but grounded in science

Translate organizational science into practice by generating guidelines, principles, and lessons learned that can shape and guide practice

Showcase the application of industrial and organizational psychology to solve problems

Document and demonstrate best industrial and organizational-based practices

Stimulate research needed to guide future organizational practice

The volumes seek to inform those interested in practice with guidance, insights, and advice on how to apply the concepts, findings, methods, and tools derived from industrial and orga­nizational psychology to solve human-related organizational problems.

Previous Professional Practice Series volumes include:

Published by Jossey-Bass

Advancing Executive Coaching: Setting the Course for Successful Leadership CoachingGina Hernez-Broom, Lisa A. Boyce, Editors

Technology-Enhanced Assessment of TalentNancy T. Tippins, Seymour Adler, Editors

Going Global: Practical Applications and Recommendations for HR and OD Professionals in the Global WorkplaceKyle Lundby with Jeffrey Jolton

Strategy-Driven Talent Management: A Leadership ImperativeRob Silzer, Ben E. Dowell, Editors

Performance Management: Putting Research into PracticeJames W. Smither, Manuel London, Editors

Alternative Validation Strategies: Developing New and Leveraging Existing Validity EvidenceS. Morton McPhail

Getting Action from Organizational Surveys: New Concepts, Technologies, and ApplicationsAllen I. Kraut

Customer Service DeliveryLawrence Fogli, Editor

Employment Discrimination LitigationFrank J. Landy, Editor

The Brave New World of eHRHal G. Gueutal, Dianna L. Stone, Editors

Improving Learning Transfer in OrganizationsElwood F. Holton III, Timothy T. Baldwin, Editors

Resizing the OrganizationKenneth P. De Meuse, Mitchell Lee Marks, Editors

Implementing Organizational InterventionsJerry W. Hedge, Elaine D. Pulakos, Editors

Organization DevelopmentJanine Waclawski, Allan H. Church, Editors

Creating, Implementing, and Managing Effective Training and DevelopmentKurt Kraiger, Editor

The 21st Century Executive: Innovative Practices for Building Leadership at the TopRob Silzer, Editor

Managing Selection in Changing OrganizationsJerard F. Kehoe, Editor

Evolving Practices in Human Resource ManagementAllen I. Kraut, Abraham K. Korman, Editors

Individual Psychological Assessment: Predicting Behavior in Organizational SettingsRichard Jeanneret, Rob Silzer, Editors

Performance AppraisalJames W. Smither, Editor

Organizational SurveysAllen I. Kraut, Editor

Employees, Careers, and Job CreatingManuel London, Editor

Managing Human Resources for Environmental SustainabilitySusan E. Jackson, Deniz S. Ones, Stephan Dilchert, Editors

Published by Guilford Press

Diagnosis for Organizational ChangeAnn Howard and Associates

Human Dilemmas in Work OrganizationsAbraham K. Korman and Associates

Diversity in the WorkplaceSusan E. Jackson and Associates

Working with Organizations and Their PeopleDouglas W. Bray and Associates

The Professional Practice Series

SERIES EDITOR

Allen I. Kraut Baruch College, CUNY/Kraut Associates, USA

EDITORIAL BOARD

Seymour AdlerAon Consulting, USA

Neil R. AndersonBrunel University, United Kingdom

Neal M. AshkanasyUniversity of Queensland, Australia

C. Harry HuiUniversity of Hong Kong, China

Elizabeth B. KolmstetterDirector of National Intelligence, USA

Kyle LundbyCEB Valtera, USA

William H. MaceyCEB Valtera, USA

Lise M. SaariBaruch College, CUNY/New York University, USA

Handan SinangilMarmara University, Turkey

Nancy T. TippinsCEB Valtera, USA

Michael A. WestLancaster University, United Kingdom

This volume is dedicated to the life and work of Richard Hackman (1940–2013), who's theories, thinking, research and approach to understanding team effectiveness inspired, guided and motivated all of us …

Developing and Enhancing Teamwork in Organizations

Evidence-Based Best Practices and Guidelines

Eduardo Salas

Scott I. Tannenbaum

Debra J. Cohen

Gary Latham

Cohen photo courtesy of Society of Human Resource Management

Cover design: Wiley

Copyright © 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Published by Jossey-Bass

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No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Developing and enhancing teamwork in organizations: evidence-based best practices and guidelines / Eduardo Salas, Scott I. Tannenbaum, Debra Cohen, Gary Latham, editors.

pages cm. – (The professional practice series)

Includes index.

ISBN 978-1-118-14589-0 (cloth); ISBN 978-1-118-62716-7 (ebk.);

ISBN 978-1-118-42095-9 (ebk.); ISBN 978-1-118-41922-9 (ebk.)

1. Teams in the workplace. I. Salas, Eduardo.

HD66.D4727 2013

658.4'022–dc23

2013008456

Foreword

This latest volume in the SIOP Professional Practice Series was sparked and inspired by a Leading Edge Conference sponsored by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology held in the fall of 2010. That conference was designed to bring together leading-edge practitioners and academics to exchange views and knowledge about effective teams and help lead to better practice in that area.

Gary Latham chaired that Leading Edge Conference, in his final role as president of SIOP. The conference theme he chose was work teams. The co-chairs of the conference were Scott Tannenbaum, who brought together leading scientists on work teams, and Debra Cohen, who brought together leading practitioners. Eduardo Salas, who was SIOP president-elect, represents both aspects, as he is a scientist-practitioner on work teams and hence was selected as the primary editor of this book.

Using the best results from the conference, Eduardo Salas and his colleagues, who were all involved in key roles for that conference, employed the presentations and concepts as a framework to bring the contents of this volume to us. After reflecting on the conference's presentations and experience, all of the content in this book was updated and new material was added beyond that covered in the conference itself.

As one can see in the table of contents, the settings and outcomes of team performance described in this book cover a wide range of activities and industries. We learn about teamwork in the NASA organization supporting astronauts, superior performance in football, and also in the military and industry. We are also treated to some fascinating chapters concerning health care organizations and their delivery of vital services.

The range of contributors to this volume includes about one-quarter from outside of the United States, reflecting the global importance of this topic and the wealth of experience available around the world. The editors are to be commended for honoring and sharing this broad set of viewpoints.

The wide range of contributors' work settings and experiences also adds to the value of this book. The contributors include internal and external consultants, highly regarded academics and professors, as well as the full-time staff of many of these organizations.

It is fascinating to read about the range of challenges that face teams in today's organizations. Many are made up of a diverse set of team members, varying in experience, education and training, and other personal characteristics. Many teams include people who are not in the same room together, are geographically dispersed, and often connected only by electronic media. Welcome to the new world of work!

The problems and settings in which we see teams playing a vital part include several high-risk enterprises, such as military and high-technology units. Others require complex problem-solving skills in environments of great uncertainty and political sensitivity. In such situations, no single person can accomplish the work required. Only teams will be able to do what needs to be done, but only effective teams will suffice. Fortunately, this book helps us understand what must be done to make such teams effective.

It is particularly refreshing to see this volume focus on what we know will work to develop and enhance team performance in organizations. The contributors are dedicated and consistent in offering evidence-based practices. In other words, they use research to support the many specifics offered here for good team performance and ways to enhance teamwork. The presentations in this volume are extremely helpful to the serious researcher or practitioner attempting to improve team performance.

Our field owes thanks to the editors of this book for bringing it all together. Debra Cohen, Gary Latham, Eduardo Salas, and Scott Tannenbaum are well-respected and esteemed scholars and practitioners on the topic of effective teams. This volume demonstrates why they are so highly regarded. Their efforts and those of the chapter contributors certainly enrich our understanding of effective work teams.

ALLEN I. KRAUT, Series Editor

Rye, New YorkJanuary 1, 2013

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