The first comprehensive scholarly treatment of bed bugs since 1966 This book updates and expands on existing material on bed bugs with an emphasis on the worldwide resurgence of both the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., and the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (F.). It incorporates extensive new data from a wide range of basic and applied research, as well as the recently observed medical, legal, and regulatory impacts of bed bugs. Advances in the Biology and Management of Modern Bed Bugs offers new information on the basic science and advice on using applied management strategies and bed bug bioassay techniques. It also presents cutting-edge information on the major impacts that bed bugs have had on the medical, legal, housing and hotel industries across the world, as well as their impacts on public health. Advances in the Biology and Management of Modern Bed Bugs offers chapters that cover the history of bed bugs; their global resurgence; their impact on society; their basic biology; how to manage them; the future of these pests; and more. * Provides up-to-date information for the professional pest manager on bed bug biology and management * Features contributions from 60 highly experienced and widely recognized experts, with 48 unique chapters * A one-stop-source that includes historic, technical, and practical information * Serves as a reference book for academic researchers and students alike Advances in the Biology and Management of Modern Bed Bugs is an essential reference for anyone who is impacted by bed bugs or engaged in managing bed bugs, be it in an academic, basic or applied scientific setting, or in a public outreach, or pest management role, worldwide.
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List of Contributors
Part I: Bed Bugs in Society
1 Bed Bugs Through History
1.2 Origins and Spread
1.3 Early Extermination Methods
1.4 Propagation Within Cities (1880s–1950s)
1.5 Determination – and a Silver Bullet
1.6 Past is Present
2 Bed Bugs in Popular Culture
2.2 Bed Bugs in Poetry
2.3 Bed Bugs in the Figurative Arts
2.4 Bed Bugs in Theatre
2.5 Bed Bugs in Literature
2.6 Bed Bugs in Music
2.7 Bed Bugs in Television
2.8 Bed Bugs in Linguistics
2.9 Bed Bugs in Erotica
2.10 The Use of Bed Bugs in Popular Culture Through Time
Part II: The Global Bed Bug Resurgence
3 The Bed Bug Resurgence in North America
3.2 Bed Bug Resurgence in the United States
3.3 Bed Bug Resurgence in Canada
4 The Bed Bug Resurgence in Latin America
4.2 Bed Bugs in Brazil
4.3 The Resurgence of Bed Bugs in Brazil
4.4 Elsewhere in Latin America
5 The Bed Bug Resurgence in Europe and Russia
5.2 History of Bed Bugs in the Region
5.3 Historical Laws to Control Bed Bugs Pre‐resurgence
5.4 Documented Evidence for the Bed Bug Decline
5.5 Early Evidence for the Resurgence
5.6 The Degree of the Resurgence
5.7 Region‐specific Factors in the Resurgence
5.8 Strategies to Combat the Resurgence
6 The Bed Bug Resurgence in Asia
6.2 History of Bed Bugs in Asia
6.3 Laws, Regulations and Policies for Bed Bug Control Prior to the Resurgence
6.4 Modern Resurgence of Bed Bugs in Asia
6.5 Specific Factors Related to the Bed Bug Resurgence in Asia
6.6 Bed Bug Management Strategies in Asia
7 The Bed Bug Resurgence in Australia
7.2 History of Bed Bugs in Australia
7.3 Documented Evidence for the Bed Bug Decline
7.4 The Modern Resurgence
7.5 Strategies to Combat the Bed Bug Resurgence
8 The Bed Bug Resurgence in Africa
8.2 History of Bed Bugs in Africa
8.3 Laws, Regulations, and Policies for Bed Bug Control Pre‐resurgence
8.4 Documented Evidence for the Bed Bug Decline
8.5 Early Evidence for the Resurgence
8.6 The Extent of the Resurgence
8.7 Region‐ and Country‐specific Reasons for the Resurgence
8.8 Strategies to Combat the Resurgence and Relative Success
9 The Bed Bug Resurgence in the Indian Subcontinent
9.2 History of Bed Bugs in the Indian Subcontinent
9.3 Laws to Control Bed Bugs Pre‐resurgence
9.4 Documented Evidence for the Bed Bug Decline
9.5 The Modern Resurgence
9.6 Strategies to Combat the Bed Bug Resurgence
10 The Bed Bug Resurgence in the Middle East
10.2 History of Bed Bugs in The Middle East
10.3 Regional Reports of the Bed Bug Resurgence
10.4 Impact of the Bed Bug Resurgence
10.5 Pest Management Professionals Close Encounters with Cimicids
Part III: Bed Bug Impacts
11 Dermatology and Immunology
11.2 Bed Bug Saliva
11.3 Cutaneous Reactions
11.4 Dermatological Complications from Bed Bug Bites
11.5 Systemic Reactions
11.6 Immunological and Pathogenic Mechanisms
11.8 Differential Diagnoses of Bed Bug Bites
11.9 Clinical Management
12 Bed Bugs and Infectious Diseases
12.2 Vectors and Transmission Pathways
12.3 Bed Bugs and Infectious Diseases: an Overview
12.4 Why do Bed Bugs not Transmit Infectious Diseases?
12.5 The Future Hunt for Pathogens: A Cautionary Note
13 Mental Health Impacts
13.3 Main Findings
13.4 What Can Be Inferred from the Current State of the Literature?
13.5 Limitations and Future Research
14 Miscellaneous Health Impacts
14.2 Respiratory Issues
14.3 Blood Loss
14.4 Sleep Loss
14.5 Chemical Exposure
14.6 Miscellaneous Health Impacts
15 Fiscal Impacts
15.2 Types of Cost
15.3 Costs to the Multi‐Unit Housing Industry
15.4 Cost to the Hospitality and Travel Industry
15.5 Cost to the Retail Industry
15.6 Brand Damage in the Housing, Hospitality, and Retail Industries
15.7 Legal Expenses
15.8 Cost to Pest Management Companies
15.9 Bed Bug Management Revenues
Part IV: Bed Bug Biology
16 Bed Bug Biology
16.6 Egg Laying
16.7 Host‐seeking Behavior
16.8 Harborage Seeking Behavior and Aggregation
17 Chemical Ecology
17.2 Olfaction and Contact Chemoreception
17.4 Host Seeking
18 Population Genetics
18.2 The Evolution of Modern Bed Bugs
18.3 Genetic Variation Within Populations
18.4 Genetic Variation Among Populations
18.5 Mitochondrial Heteroplasmy
18.6 Future Directions in Bed Bug Population Genetics
19.2 Stress Tolerance and Starvation Resistance
19.3 Blood Feeding
19.4 Reproduction and Development
19.5 Summary and Future Directions
20.2 Identity of Endosymbionts
20.3 Impact of Symbionts on Bed Bug Biology
20.4 Transmission of Symbionts
20.5 Symbionts and Bed Bug Management
21 Bed Bug Laboratory Maintenance
21.2 General Colony Maintenance
21.3 Feeding Techniques
21.4 Need for Plasma
21.5 Development of an Artificial Blood Source
Part V: Bed Bug Management
22 Bed Bug Industry Standards: Australia
22.2 Why was the Code Required?
22.3 The History and Aims of the Code
22.4 The Key Elements of the Code
22.5 The Benefits of the Code
23 Bed Bug Industry Standards: Europe
23.2 Why was the Code Required?
23.3 The History and Aims of the Code
23.4 The Benefits of the Code
24 Bed Bug Industry Standards: USA
24.2 History and Development of the NPMA Best Management Practices for Bed Bugs
24.3 Target Audience
24.4 Key Elements of the NPMA Best Management Practices
24.5 Marketing and Adoption of the NPMA Best Management Practices
24.6 Acceptance of the BMP
25 A Pest Control Company Perspective
25.2 The Resurgence
25.3 Responsibility and Liability
25.4 Inspection and Control Methods
26.4 Mattress Encasements
26.5 Desiccant Dusts
26.7 Bed Bug Management Policy
27 Detection and Monitoring
27.1 Importance of Detection and Monitoring
27.2 Detection of Bed Bugs
27.3 Field Comparison of Detection Methods
27.4 Bed Bug Inspections
Conflict of Interest Statement
28 Non‐chemical Control
28.2 Excluding Bed Bugs
28.3 Physically Removing Bed Bugs
28.4 Creating Adverse Environmental Conditions against Bed Bugs
28.5 Biological Agents Tested Against Bed Bugs
28.6 Other Non‐Chemical Control Methods
29 Insecticide Resistance
29.2 Insecticides and Insecticide Resistance in Bed Bugs
29.3 Metabolic Resistance
29.4 Reduced Penetration Resistance
29.5 Target‐site Resistance
29.6 Evolution of Resistance and Fitness Costs
30 Chemical Control
30.2 Insecticide Classes used Against Bed Bugs
30.3 Insecticide Formulations for Bed Bug Management
30.4 Factors Affecting Insecticide Efficacy
31 Limitations of Bed Bug Management Technologies
31.2 Bed Bug Detection
31.3 Bed Bug Control
32 Bed Bug Education
32.2 Strategies and Successes in Bed Bug Education
32.3 Educational Programs Focusing on Bed Bugs
32.4 The Media
32.5 The Effect of Social Media on Bed Bug Education
32.6 Identifying the Target Audience
32.7 Effective Adult Education
32.8 Measuring the Impacts of Bed Bug Education
Part VI: Bed Bug Control in Specific Situations
33 Low‐income Housing
33.2 Management of Bed Bugs in Low‐income Housing
33.3 Components of a Successful Building‐ or Complex‐wide IPM Program
33.4 The Future
34 Multi‐Unit Housing
34.2 Challenges Unique to the Human Living Environment
34.3 Obstructions to Control Success
34.4 Future Prospects for Success
35.2 Challenges in Shelters
35.3 Obstacles to Successful Control
35.4 Methods of Control in Shelters
35.5 Key Elements to Successful Control
36.2 Bed Bugs in Hotels: The Challenges
36.3 Successful Bed Bug Management in Hotels
37 Healthcare Facilities
37.2 The Challenges Bed Bugs Pose to Healthcare Facilities
37.3 The History of Bed Bugs in Healthcare Facilities
37.4 Bed Bugs in Healthcare Facilities with the Modern Resurgence
37.5 Bed Bug Management in Healthcare Facilities
38.2 Aviation Entomology – a Brief History
38.3 Bed Bug Management on Aircraft: The Challenges
38.4 Bed Bug Management on Aircraft
38.5 Improving the Pest Management Protocol
39 Cruise Ships and Trains
39.2 Cruise Ships and Ferries
40 Poultry Industry
40.1 History – Cimicids and Poultry
40.2 Mexican Chicken Bug,
40.3 Brazilian Chicken Bug,
40.4 Tropical Bed Bug,
40.5 The Common Bed Bug,
40.6 Biology and Impact of
40.8 Bed Bug Control in Poultry Facilities
40.9 Insecticide Assays
Part VII: Legal Issues
41 Bed Bugs and the Law in the USA
41.2 Registration of Pesticides
41.3 Legal Requirements Regarding Who Can Apply Pesticides in the USA
41.4 Legal Requirements for PMPs Regarding the Standard of Care
41.5 Public Health Acts Regarding Bed Bugs
41.6 Bed Bug‐related Statutes, Laws, and Ordinances
41.7 Laws Addressing Bed Bug Remediation
41.8 Tenants and Public Housing
41.9 Legal Standing Clients Encountering Bed Bugs in Temporary Occupancies
41.10 Bed Bug Lawsuit Landscape
Restatements of Law
42 Bed Bugs and the Law in the United Kingdom
42.2 Training of Pest Management Professionals
42.3 Bed Bug Pesticide Approval
42.4 Tenants, Guests and Bed Bugs
42.5 Local Authority Duties and Powers Regarding Bed Bugs
43 Bed Bugs and the Law in Australia
43.2 Registration and Use of Bed Bug Management Products
43.3 Legal Requirements of Pest Management Professionals
43.4 Public Health Laws Regarding Bed Bugs
43.5 Tenancy and Public Housing
43.6 Bed Bug Legal Cases
44 Bed Bugs and the Law in Asia
44.2 Registration and Use of Bed Bug Management Products
44.3 Legal Requirements for Pest Management Professionals
44.4 Bed Bug Legal Cases
45 On Being an Expert Witness
45.2 What is an Expert Witness?
45.3 The Expert’s Role
45.4 Providing Expert Testimony
45.5 Bed Bugs in a Court Case
Part VIII: Bed Bugs: the Future
46 Bed Bugs: the Future
End User License Agreement
Table 6.1 The number of bed bug treatments in Singapore from 2006 to 2011.
Table 6.2 Importance and difficulty of control of bed bugs in southeast Asian countries compared to other major urban pests.
Table 6.3 The ranking of bed bug related services offered by pest management professionals in southeast Asia.
Table 8.1 Summary of bed bug surveys conducted in Africa where bed bug prevalence was specifically expressed as percentage of infested sampling localities.
Table 8.2 Summary of studies conducted on bed bugs in Africa where occurrence is reported on, but not necessarily in terms of prevalence.
Table 8.3 Percentage of enquiries received per category for years indicated, as obtained from a survey completed by 32 pest management companies or individuals in South Africa and Namibia during June 2016.
Table 8.4 Specific bed bug recommendations proposed for African countries.
Table 13.1 Synthesis of the main findings of the seven studies with original data on mental health and bed bug infestations.
Table 18.1 Within and among
infestation population genetic summary statistics.
Table 18.2 Among
infestation measures of genetic differentiation.
Table 19.1 Stress tolerance in the Common bed bug,
Table 21.1 Blood sources used for
Table 29.1 Reports of resistance to different insecticide classes in bed bugs (
spp.), by year, and in different countries.
Table 30.1 Insecticide classes and their compounds evaluated for the control of
Table 30.2 Insecticide formulations evaluated for the control of C. lectularius and C. hemipterus during 1990–2016.
Table 36.1 A comparison of known number of rooms infested with bed bugs in three London hotels, pre‐ and post‐inspection, and rate of new infestations.
Table 36.2 Challenges to achieve bed bug eradication in hotels.
Figure 1.1 Bed bugs depicted in
(Anonymous, 1536). This was the first ever encyclopedic compilation of natural history, originally published in Germany in 1485.
Figure 1.2 “Summer Amusement, Bugg Hunting” (Cruikshank, 1782). People hand‐picked bed bugs long before the use of insecticides.
Figure 1.3 Title and facing page from John Southhall’s “
A Treatise of Buggs
” (London, 1730).
Figure 1.4 Bed bug inspections used to be important in maintaining a clean and healthful home.
Figure 1.5 Mercury chloride, popularly known as “bed bug poison,” was a common remedy for bed bugs. Many people died from accidentally or intentionally ingesting the poison.
Figure 1.6 Promotions for bed bug products were common and often entertaining. The cartoonist for this 1928 advertisement was Theodore Geisel (Dr Suess).
Figure 1.7 In 1945, suppliers began advertising the availability of DDT for civilian (non‐military) uses, including control of bed bugs.
Figure 1.8 When controlling bed bugs with DDT, treatment of the entire bed was recommended, including the entire mattress.
Figure 1.9 Early patent for a bed bug steamer, published in 1873.
Figure 2.1 Bed bug postcards through history. (A) Stereogram dated 1897 from Missouri, USA. (B) “A hunting we will go”, 1910 from Maine, USA. (C) Also “A hunting we will go”, postmarked 1907 (clearly the same illustrator as B). (D) “I’ve seen all the big bugs of this place”, postmarked 1907. (E) “A one night stand”, 1908, New York, USA. (F) “It’s the little things that count! Drop me a line”, c1910. (G) “Bed bug Islands (where poets dream), Lake Hopatcong, N.J.”, c1940. From the private collection of David Cain, except (C) from the private collection of Stephen Doggett.
Figure 2.2 More postcards through history. (A) “It’s very lively”, undated. (B) A postcard of an early photograph depicting a couple searching for bed bugs, undated. (C) “Bed‐bugs outwitted!”, c. 1900. (D–I). A series of late‐Victorian postcards, c. 1900; see text for details.
Figure 2.3 Bed bugs as practical jokes across the ages. (A) Imitation Bed Bugs, 1920s. (B) Fake Bed Bugs, 2016. (C) A close up of the “bed bugs”, which are surprisingly similar despite almost a century difference in age, ~5 mm in length. Both originate from the US.
Figure 2.4 Bed bug jewellery. (A&B) A small vintage 14 K charm; folding back the bed base reveals a bed bug (date unknown), approx. 1 cm in length; from the private collection of Stephen Doggett. (C) A modern necklace of a replica bed bug poison bottle, c. 2007;
Figure 4.1 Overall distribution of responses to resident questionnaires in Brazil. The numbers represent the number of counties represented in the survey. The percentages represent the percentage of counties responding in relation to the total number of counties in each state within the geographical regions of Brazil. Data compiled from September 2012 to March 2016.
Figure 6.1 The number of bed bug enquiries to the government of Tokyo, 1995–2014
Figure 6.2 The number of bed bug treatments per year reported by two different leading pest control companies in Japan from 2004 to 2014 (Motokazu Hirao, unpublished results).
Figure 16.1 An infested bed frame showing the distinctive periodic and equidistant distribution of bed bug “clusters”, despite the homogeneity of the refuge
Figure 17.1 Following a recent blood meal, replete
aggregate in folds of bed linen.
Figure 17.2 Exuviae and feces (dark spots on filter paper) of
, sources of the aggregation pheromone.
Figure 17.3 Types of
pheromones: (a) alarm pheromone produced by nymphs and adults in a state of alarm causing dispersal; (b) aggregation pheromone mediating aggregation of all instar nymphs as well as male and female adults; (c) anti‐mating pheromone released by males mounted by males; and (d) anti‐aphrodisiac pheromone produced by nymphs mounted by males. Notes: (1) some of the same components re‐occur in context‐specific functions; (2) in
, whole‐body extracts of nymphs [containing the components in (d)] – but not of males or females – repel nymphs as well as male and female adults.
Figure 18.1 Genetic diversity in
populations: (a) Within and among infestation mean number of alleles per locus; (b) Comparison of heterozygosities between the Common bed bug (
) and the German cockroach (
). Hashed bar, expected heterozygosity; open bar, observed heterozygosity;
haplotype distribution in
across the USA. Letter (A–D) refers to haplotype. A: 419 susceptible, 925 susceptible, B: 419 susceptible, 925 resistant, C: 419 resistant, 925 resistant, D: 419 resistant, 925 susceptible. Number below pie is total number of infestations screened. Data combined from Zhu
., (2008); Vargo
., (2011); Holleman and Booth (unpublished results).
Figure 21.1 Mason jar and components used to house bed bugs. Unassembled and assembled cap with mesh screening, and folded, filter paper harborage.
Figure 21.2 Commercially‐available glass feeders used for feeding bed bugs
Figure 21.3 Hemotek membrane feeding system for
feeding of bed bugs: (a) heating unit; (b) Parafilm, left; blood reservoir, center; and O‐ring to attach Parafilm to blood reservoir, right; (c) assembled blood reservoir; (d) reverse side of blood reservoir (after attachment of Parafilm and O‐ring) showing the two fill holes, left and right, and stoppers. Middle opening accepts the screw from heating unit. To fill the unit, after tilting the reservoir about 45°, approximately 3.5 ml blood is introduced through the bottom hole; the unit is then tilted 45° in the opposite direction and the left hole is plugged; after tilting 45° in the original direction, the right hole is plugged, resulting in a filled blood reservoir; (e) filled blood reservoir; (f) blood reservoir screwed into the heating unit; and (g) wooden stand to support the heating units and bed bug colonies (inverted for feeding).
Figure 25.1 A cluttered apartment, which is infested with bed bugs
Figure 27.1 Examples of passive and active monitors currently in the marketplace. (a) passive harborage‐style monitor (brand name: PackTite™ Passive Bed Bug Monitor, Bed Bugs Limited, London, UK, image courtesy David Cain, Bed Bugs Limited, London); (b) passive pitfall‐style monitor designed to be placed under legs of beds (brand name: BlackOut® BedBug Central, Lawrenceville, NJ); (c) passive pitfall‐style monitors designed to be placed under legs of beds (brand name: ClimbUp® Insect Interceptor, Susan McKnight, Inc., Memphis, TN); (d) passive monitor designed to be placed near or away from beds (brand name: SenSci Volcano®, BedBug Central, Lawrenceville, NJ); (e) active monitors baited with carbon dioxide, heat, and chemical lure (brand name: NightWatch® Bed Bug Monitor, BioSensory Inc., Putnam, CT); (f) active monitor baited with chemical lure (brand name: SenSci Volcano® with SenSci Activ® Bed Bug Lure, BedBug Central, Lawrenceville, NJ, image courtesy of Susannah Reese, Cornell University, NY).
Figure 28.1 Bed bugs and fecal spotting inside a wall void in multi‐family housing. (S.A. Kells, University of Minnesota).
Figure 28.2 Use of an infrared thermometer to verify surface temperatures immediately after steam application. (S.A. Kells, University of Minnesota).
Figure 28.3 Shipping container fitted with a heater for larger containerized heat treatments.
Figure 28.4 Stacking furniture in a portable container for heat treatment. (S.A. Kells, University of Minnesota).
Figure 28.5 Whole‐room heat treatment with electric furnaces.
Figure 36.1 The broad processes required to manage bed bugs in hotels (David Cain, unpublished results and after various sources, see also www.bed‐bugs.co.uk/hotels).
Table of Contents
Caption: “War on the bed bug”. Postcard c. 1916. Clearly humanity’s dislike of the bed bug has not changed through the years!
Stephen L. Doggett
NSW Health Pathology
Dini M. Miller
Department of Entomology
Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
School of Biological Sciences
Universiti Sains Malaysia
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Dedicated to the works of luminaries such as J.R. Busvine, A.A. Girault, A. Hase, C.G. Johnson, H. Kemper, K. Mellanby, K. Newberry, N. Omori, and R.L. Usinger. We are merely dwarfs standing of the shoulders of giants.
Mohammad AkhoundiService de Parasitologie‐Mycologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice – Hôpital de l'Archet, Nice, France
Ondřej BalvínCzech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic
Paul J. BelloPJB Pest Management Consulting, Alpharetta, Georgia, USA
Joshua B. BenoitDepartment of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
Clive BoaseThe Pest Management Consultancy, Haverhill, United Kingdom
Warren BoothDepartment of Biological Science, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA
David CainBed Bugs Limited, London, United Kingdom
Toni CainsSydney Local Health District Public Health Unit, Camperdown, Australia
Ana Eugênia de Carvalho CamposUnidade Laboratorial de Referênciaem Pragas Urbanas, Instituto Biológico, São Paulo, Brasil
Richard CooperCooper Pest Solutions and Bedbug Central, Lawrenceville, New Jersey, USA
Dionne CraffordClinvet International (Pty) Ltd, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Pascal DelaunayService de Parasitologie‐Mycologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice – Hôpital de l'Archet, Nice, France
Stephen L. DoggettDepartment of Medical Entomology, NSW Health Pathology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Australia
Odelon Del Mundo ReyesEcovar, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Sophie E.F. EvisonDepartment of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
Mark F. FeldlauferUSDA‐ARS, Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, USA
Pablo Fernandez‐PeñasDermatology, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Westmead, Australia
Josephus FourieClinvet International (Pty) Ltd, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Jim FredericksNational Pest Management Association (USA), Fairfax, Virginia, USA
Jody Gangloff‐KaufmannNew York State Integrated Pest Management Program, Cornell University, Geneva, New York, USA
Mark GoodmanVarment Guard Environmental Services Inc., Columbus, Ohio, USA
Gerhard GriesDepartment of Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada
Geneviève HamelinPublic Health Department of Montreal, Montreal, Canada
Harold J. HarlanUS Army Medical Entomologist (retired), USA
William T. HentleyDepartment of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
Motokazu HiraoHirao Biological Institute, Shizuoka, Japan
Andrew Ho‐OharaEden Law Corporation, Singapore
Shelley Ji Eun HwangDepartment of Dermatology, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, Australia
Garry JonesConsultant Pest Management Professional, Buff Point, Australia
Adam JusonMerlin Environmental Solutions Ltd, Carshalton, United Kingdom
Catherine JusonMerlin Environmental Solutions Ltd, Carshalton, United Kingdom
João Justi (Jr.)Unidade Laboratorial de Referênciaem Pragas Urbanas, Instituto Biológico, São Paulo, Brasil
David KaiserPublic Health Department of Montreal, Montreal, Canada
Stephen A. KellsDepartment of Entomology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA
Márcio R. LageFaculdade de SaúdePública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil
Chow‐Yang LeeSchool of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
David G. LillyEcolab Pest Elimination, Macquarie Park, Australia
Jeffrey LipmanLipman Law Firm, West Des Moines, Iowa, USA
Dini M. MillerDepartment of Entomology, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
Richard NaylorThe Bed Bug Foundation, Chepstow, United Kingdom
Linda‐Lou O’ConnorAirRx Antimicrobial Sciences Inc., Baltimore, Maryland, USA
Joelle F. OlsonPest Elimination Division, Ecolab Research Center, Eagan, Minnesota, USA
Roberto M. PereiraEntomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
Stéphane PerronPublic Health Department of Montreal, Montreal, Canada
Michael F. PotterDepartment of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
Anil S. RaoPest Control (India) Private Ltd, Mumbai, India
Joshua A. RaoPest Control (India) Private Ltd, Mumbai, India
Alvaro RomeroDepartment of Entomology, Plant Pathology and Weed Science, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA
Coby SchalDepartment of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
Mike T. Siva‐JothyDepartment of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
Allen SzalanskiDepartment of Entomology, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA
Allison Taisey AllenNational Pest Management Association, Fairfax, Virginia, USA
Kevin R. UlrichUSDA‐ARS, Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland, USA
Karen VailDepartment of Entomology and Plant Pathology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA
Edward L. VargoDepartment of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA
Changlu WangDepartment of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA
Mark W. WilliamsEcolab Pest Elimination, Northwich, United Kingdom
Molly S. WilsonDepartment of Biochemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA
Rebecca WilsonDepartment of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
Yijuan XuDepartment of Entomology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.
Harold J. Harlan
Bed bugs were a serious pest of human communities long before recorded history. However, for millenia, information about bed bugs, and advice on how to deal with them, has been in evidence across many lineages of cultural lore. This fact is most obvious when you consider that bed bugs are known to have at least 71 common names originating from 36 different languages across the world (Usinger, 1966). The Monograph of Cimicidae (Usinger 1966) was the first comprehensive publication on bed bugs that combined extensive worldwide information from historic, cultural, scientific, pest management, and general public resources.
Advances in the Biology and Management of Modern Bed Bugs (ABMMBB) updates and expands much of Usinger’s (1966) information, with emphasis on the worldwide resurgence of both the Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., and the Tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (F.). ABMMBB incorporates extensive new information from a wide range of basic and applied research, as well as the recently observed medical, legal and regulatory impacts of bed bugs.
Today there are many new, extremely precise technologies, and laboratory tools that could not have been imagined in 1966. Recent innovations, especially in molecular biology and genetics, offer a fascinating range of potential applications. In addition, we have new systems for information gathering, processing, and sharing with international colleagues. These technologies have opened up whole new fields of scientific investigation over the past 20 years.
Stephen L. Doggett, Dini M. Miller, and Chow‐Yang Lee have done a terrific job of assembling and coordinating more than 60 contributing authors who are highly experienced and widely recognized as experts in their topic areas. The contributing authors offer new information on basic science and advice on using applied management strategies and bed bug bioassay techniques. The authors also present cutting‐edge information on the major impacts that bed bugs have had on the medical, legal, housing, and hotel industries across the world, as well as their impacts on public health.
ABMMBB is the most comprehensive compilation yet produced about these bugs that includes historic, technical, and practical information. It will certainly be the most thorough single reference on bed bugs for many decades to come. I believe that ABMMBB will be an essential reference for anyone who is engaged in managing bed bugs, be it in an academic, basic or applied scientific setting, or in a public outreach or pest management role, worldwide. I am very honored, and humbled, to have been asked to provide this foreword. I can hardly wait to buy my own personal copy.
Respectfully,Harold J. HarlanHarold J. Harlan, PhD, BCE, LTC (Ret.) was a US Army Medical Entomologist
Usinger, R.L. (1966)
Monograph of Cimicidae (Hemiptera – Heteroptera)
, Entomological Society of America, College Park.
The editors, Stephen L. Doggett, Dini M. Miller and Chow‐Yang Lee, would like to express gratitude to all the authors and reviewers that contributed towards the development of Advances in the Biology and Management of Modern Bed Bugs (ABMMBB). We would especially like to acknowledge Harold Harlan for writing the foreword, and for contributing so much to so many. The editors also wish to acknowledge Wiley‐Blackwell and staff (notably Sonali Melwani, Ramya Raghaven, Bella Talbot, David McDade, Emma Strickland, Gunalan Lakshmipathy, and Ward Cooper) for their assistance, advice, editorial, and production efforts. A special thank you to Junichiro Katayama from Semco Co. Ltd. in Japan, who kindly hosted the editors of ABMMBB in mid‐October 2016 so that we could finalize much of the text (thank you also for all the wonderful meals!).
The following are acknowledged for particular chapters:
Chapter 3: The Global Resurgence in North America
The author wishes to acknowledge the assistance of Dennis Monk (Director, Bedbug Solutions) and Sean Rollo (Regional Manager, Orkin Canada) for providing information on the current bed bug situation in Canada.
Chapter 5: The Global Resurgence in Europe and Russia
The authors are especially grateful to the contribution of Václav Rupeš, former head (retired) of the Department of Desinfection, Desinsection and Deratization, State Health Institute, Prague.
Chapter 8: The Global Resurgence in Africa
The authors would like to thank Henda Pretorius and Reinier Zwiegers [Clintest (Pty) Ltd], and Ashleigh Caddick (PES Africa) for their assistance in running the online survey cited in the chapter. The authors would also like to thank Carmen Neethling [Clinvet (Pty) Ltd] for assistance with literature searches.
Chapter 9: The Global Resurgence in India and the Subcontinent
The editors greatly appreciate the assistance of K.P. Jayanth (PCI India) in the development of this chapter.
Chapter 17: Chemical Ecology of Bed Bugs
The author wishes to thank John Borden for comments, Sharon Oliver for word processing and comments, Michael Hrabar for photographs, and Stephen DeMuth for graphical illustration. The Chapter is dedicated to Regine Gries who was the lead investigator in the research resulting in the identification of the bed bug aggregation pheromone and who in the process endured >180 000 bed bug bites for the maintenance of a thriving bed bug laboratory colony.
Chapter 18: Population Genetics
The published and unpublished population genetics studies mentioned in the chapter would not have been possible without the generous cooperation of many colleagues, too many to mention individually, who provided bed bug samples. Ron Harrison is especially acknowledged who facilitated the collections of samples from Orkin and Orkin International, and Rick Santangelo who managed the collections.
Chapter 19: Bed Bug Physiology
The author wishes to acknowledge that funding while developing this chapter was provided by the University of Cincinnati.
Chapter 21: Bed Bug Laboratory Maintenance
The authors wish to thank; A. Aak, J.F. Anderson, O. Balvin, B. Campbell, S.L. Doggett, C.Y. Lee, D.G. Lilly, J. Olson, R. Naylor, A. Romero, K. Reinhardt, A. Vander Pan, and C. Wang, for completing the rearing survey. Those individuals are acknowledged that contribute to the rearing efforts in all of the laboratories currently maintaining bed bugs. Members of the Armed Forces Pest Management Board (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) are also thanked, along with the personnel at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center (Bethesda, Maryland USA) for their assistance in obtaining blood products for the senior author.
Chapter 41: Bed Bugs and the Law in the USA
The authors wish to express gratitude to Kolby Warren, Drake University Law School, Des Moines, Iowa, USA, who assisted in the production of the chapter.
Chapter 43: Bed Bugs and the Law in Australia
The authors wish to acknowledge the following individuals for providing important information pertaining to environmental health laws pertaining to bed bugs, from the different states; Keith Rogers (Australian Capital Territory, Health), Rebecca Feldman (Department of Health & Human Services, Victoria), Michaela Hobby (Department of Health, South Australia), Nicola Slavin (Department of Health, Northern Territory), Rebecca Richardson (Department of Health, Queensland), and Mike Lindsay and Donald Howell (Department of Health, Western Australia). Keith Farrow (Rapids Solutions) generously provided information pertaining to the licensing of professional pest managers. Nicholas Cowdery AM QC (University of Sydney, Australia) kindly reviewed the chapter for legal accuracy.
Chapter 44: Bed Bugs and the Law in Asia
The authors wish to thank the following individuals for providing important information pertaining pesticide registration and the licensing of pest management professionals in their respective countries: Erh‐Lieh Hsu (National Taiwan University), Pascal Cai (Chinese Pest Control Association, China), Suchart Leelayouthyotin (King Service Center, Bangkok, Thailand), Sulaeman Yusuf (Indonesia Institute of Science), and Motokazu Hirao (Japan Pest Control Association).
The following individuals have generously supplied images for use in ABMMBB or critically reviewed manuscripts:
Zachary Adelman (Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA)
Joshua Benoit (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA)
Clive Boase (the Pest Management Consultancy, United Kingdom)
Kaci Buhl (National Pesticide Information Center, Oregon State University, Oregon, USA)
David Cain (Bed Bugs Limited, United Kingdom)
Richard Cooper (Cooper Pest Solutions and Bedbug Central, Lawrenceville, New Jersey, USA)
Richard deShazo, (University of Mississippi Medical Center, Mississippi, USA)
Keith Farrow (Rapid Training, Australia)
Mark Feldlaufer (USDA‐ARS, Invasive Insect Biocontrol and Behavior Laboratory, Maryland, USA)
Toby Fountain (Uppsala University, Sweden)
Adam Juson (Merlin Environmental Solutions Ltd, United Kingdom)
David Lilly (Ecolab Pest Elimination, Macquarie Park, Australia)
Oliver Madge (Bed Bug Foundation, United Kingdom)
Frank Meek (Orkin LLC, USA)
Mike Merchant (Texas A&M, AgriLife Extension Service, Texas, USA)
Kosta Y. Mumcuoglu (Hebrew University, Israel)
Richard Naylor (Bed Bug Foundation, United Kingdom)
Faith Oi (Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida, Florida, USA)
Christopher Orton (PiMACs, Australia)
Lawrence Pinto (Pinto & Associates, Mechanicsville, Maryland, USA)
Alvaro Romero (New Mexico State University, New Mexico, USA)
Bob Rosenberg (National Pest Management Association, Virginia, USA)
Veera Singham (Centre for Chemical Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia)
Coby Schal (North Carolina State University, North Carolina, USA)
Allison Taisey Allen (National Pest Management Association, Virginia, USA)
Changlu Wang (Department of Entomology, Rutgers School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, New Jersey, USA)
Jeff White (Bed Bug Central, New Jersey, USA)
Stephen L. Doggett, Dini M. Miller and Chow-Yang Lee
“…misery acquaints a man with strange bedfellows…”
William Shakespeare, The Tempest, 1610
“…intellects vast and cool and unsympathetic, regarded this earth with envious eyes, and slowly and surely drew their plans against us…”
H.G. Wells, The War of the Worlds, 1898
The quotation above from one of William Shakespeare’s greatest works could easily read as an allegory for the personal suffering one experiences with a bed bug infestation. However, Shakespeare’s play was written in 1610, only a short time after the UK produced their first reliable bed bug record in 1583 (Mouffet, 1634). Thus it was quite possible that Shakespeare himself never acquainted himself with the misery of bed bugs. Yet it was not long before the insect became so common in the country that companies appeared which specialized in bed bug extermination, such as the famous Tiffin & Son, founded in 1690 (Potter, 2011).
In fact, bed bugs have a long history of inflicting their misery upon humanity. The remains of bed bugs have been found in Egyptian settlements dating back some 3565 years (Paragiotakopulu and Buckland, 1999). With the discovery in 1939 that dichloro‐diphenyl trichloroethane (better known as DDT) had a powerful insecticidal action, suddenly the world had the magical solution that could rid humanity of bed bugs forever. Subsequently DDT (and other organochlorines), and the organophosphates where widely employed to control bed bugs, and infestations became rare in the developed world for many years after World War II (Usinger, 1966). Yet forever was not to be. The late 1990s saw a worldwide re‐emergence of both the Tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus (F.), and the Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. Not unlike the Martians in H.G. Wells’ classic novel, suddenly nowhere on earth was exempt from bed bugs.
In the early days of the modern resurgence, infestations mainly occurred in the hospitality sector and bed bugs were more limited to premises with high guest turnover. Then people started to take the insect with them wherever they went and, in the process, spread bed bugs into the wider community. Infestations began to appear in such diverse locations as in private homes, on public transport, within the retail sector, in cinemas, at the office, in schools and universities, and even in healthcare facilities. Thus wherever a person went, they could be potentially exposed to bed bugs and take them elsewhere. The greatest concern however, has been the proliferation of bed bugs amongst the socially disadvantaged, a group that often does not have the economic resources to pay for control. As a result, infestations can go uncontrolled and spread throughout a building complex. With a lack of public and government support to ensure that infestations are successfully eradicated, it is unfortunate that such groups have become bed bug reservoirs for the wider society. Thus support should be provided for bed bug eradication programs in low income housing…even if it is only to selfishly protect ourselves from future infestations.
There have been a number of reasons postulated for the modern bed bug resurgence (Pinto et al., 2007; Doggett et al., 2012). This includes globalization and the ease with which people move around the world, thereby enabling the spread of modern bed bug strains. Changes in pest management have meant that hotel rooms are no longer routinely treated for pests. The insecticides available today do not have the same residual life as the organochlorines and are simply not as efficacious. Poor knowledge of bed bugs, in particular how to control modern strains, has clearly been a major factor in the degree of the resurgence, as treatment failures often result in the infestation spreading to other apartments in multiple occupancy dwellings. This particular phenomenon has been aided by the ever increasing concentration of people into high density living due to the uncontrolled growth in the world’s population. These days it is much easier for bed bugs to spread from an infestation to invade other premises. A variety of other reasons have been given for the resurgence, but it appears that the key contributing factor to the modern bed bug resurgence is the development of insecticide resistance within the insect.
In many ways, the bed bugs that our grandparents experienced are very different to those that we are exposed to now. The contemporary bugs have developed multiple defences against the insecticides we use against them. They have thicker skins, which slows down the penetration of insecticides into the body. They produce a range of complex enzymes that can break down insecticides, and they possess mutations that prevent the insecticides from acting at the target sites. Thus the modern bed bug is truly the superbug of the 21st century. The challenge for modern scientists is to find ways to circumvent this range of extraordinary adaptations.
One aspect that has been the subject of debate is the geographical origin of the modern (and resistant) bed bug. Some US based researchers have suggested that resistant strains of C. lectularius arrived from Eastern Europe, although somewhat amusingly, locals in Eastern Europe have the opposing view of blaming American tourists (Borel, 2015). In spite of the contrary opinions, neither belief can explain the origin and simultaneous rise of C. hemipterus. This species has a more tropical distribution, has never been reported from Eastern Europe, and only recently reappeared in the USA (Campbell et al., 2016). Arguably a more simple answer to the origin of resistance in both species is that resistant strains originated from a region where the two species are sympatric and where insecticide selection pressures were equally applied. This would help to explain the synchronous revival of the two species. The most logical locations would be from areas of Africa where infestations of C. hemipterus and C. lectularius coexisted even when infestations elsewhere in the world had become uncommon. In KwaZulu, South Africa, during the late 1980s it was observed that bed bug infestations (of both species) were more common in human dwellings that were sprayed annually with DDT to combat malaria than unsprayed dwellings (Newberry et al., 1987, 1990; Newberry, 1991). The increase in nuisance biting from bed bugs meant that householders often refused chemical treatments despite the potential risk of death from malaria as they believed that spraying may have contributed to greater bed bug numbers! Even some 20 years earlier, a report from the early 1970s noted an increase in bed bug infestations occurred in spite of regular treatments with the organochlorines (Rafatjah, 1971). In both cases, the development of insecticide resistance was the suspected cause of these increases. In fact, by the early 1970s, insecticide resistance had been long known in South African bed bug populations.
The first report of resistance to DDT in C. lectularius was from Hawaii in 1947. This was only three years after the pesticide was first employed (Johnson and Hill, 1948). Within a relatively short time thereafter, reports of resistance to both bed bug species had become widespread (Busvine, 1957). Thus it appears that resistance evolved rapidly, but this may not have been the case. Natural pyrethrins were used for bed bug control after the mid‐1800s, and resistance to this class of insecticides confers cross resistance to the organochlorines. Perhaps some degree of resistance in bed bugs had developed long before the late 1940s but was simply not identified. The organochlorines being more efficacious than pyrethrins may have helped to rapidly eliminate the non‐resistant and less resistant insects. Furthermore, presumably the bed bugs that disappeared in developed nations post World War II were all susceptible strains (or had low‐level resistance). Yet in pockets of the world, high levels of resistance had evolved (and presumably continued to evolve). These “superbugs” just required the means of escape in order to spread elsewhere. The means were provided by humans, with our modern tendency to move about the world. Widespread global travel is a relatively recent behavior in human history, yet rapidly growing. The World Bank estimated that in 1970 there were some 310 million people movements globally, and by 2015 this number had risen to 3.4 billion (World Bank, 2016). Thus insecticide‐resistant bed bugs had ample means to spread from their original source to a new location. The constant rise in human population combined with the increased movement of people across the globe, the recent changes in pesticides and pest management practices mentioned above, and the presence of resistant bed bugs in certain parts of the world, makes it seem that, perhaps in hindsight, the global bed bug resurgence was inevitable and should have been anticipated.
As a consequence of the modern resurgence, there has been a renewed interest in bed bug research. In recent years, a plethora of publications relating to bed bugs have appeared. For example, a search on Pubmed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) using the term “Cimex”, reveals 259 peer reviewed publications between 1912 and 1999. That number rose to 492 between 2000 to the end of 2016. If industry publications and newspaper reports were included, the increase in bed bug publications would be even more dramatic. Interestingly, the number of scientific publications from 2010 onwards have plateaued at around 50 per year, which probably reflects how minimally funded bed bug research is today. While Usinger’s (1966) seminal manuscript, the Monograph of Cimicidae (Hemiptera – Heteroptera), continues to be the key reference for taxonomy of the Cimicidae, other areas of research are now much further advanced. Thus there is a need for the distillation of all the contemporary information into a modern academic text and hence the birth of Advances in the Biology and Management of Modern Bed Bugs (ABMMBB).
ABMMBB is a synthesis of bed bug information from the past to the present. It aims to serve as a reference book for academic researchers and students alike. It is a valuable text for those in the hospitality sector and accommodation managers, who are tasked with the job of minimizing the risk of bed bugs in their facility, or who organize the eradication of active infestations. With the growth in bed bug litigation, both the litigant and defendant legal teams will find ABMMBB an essential source of contemporary information. Finally, ABMMBB provides up‐to‐date information for the pest management professional on bed bug biology and management. In recent years, most bed bug research has focused on C. lectularius, as this species has impacted the more economically advantaged nations of Europe and North America. However, ABMMBB is aiming to be global in context, and where possible, both bed bug species are discussed and key differences highlighted. With the aim of having an international appeal, ABMMBB has over 60 contributing authors, spanning some 14 nations.
There are seven main parts within ABMMBB. These cover Bed Bugs in Society, the Global Resurgence, Bed Bug Impacts, Biology, Management, Control in Specific Situations, and Legal Issues. Finally, ABMMBB ends with a discussion on the future of bed bugs in society and research needs.
The first part, Bed Bugs in Society, contains two chapters. Chapter 1, “Bed Bugs Through History”, reviews the early methods of extermination. By examining past control methodologies when synthetic insecticides had yet to be discovered, perhaps insights can be gained in how to successfully eradicate insecticide‐resistant strains now; thus the importance of including this work in ABMMBB. The chapter also covers the origins and spread of bed bugs throughout the world. While the bed bug spread was documented historically to a reasonable extent, few bothered to determine which species was involved. It can be surmised (based on past records and current distributions) that it was mainly C. lectularius that was introduced and established in Europe, North America, and initially into Australia. However, few records exist regarding the global spread of C. hemipterus. Thus it is necessary to review the early taxonomic descriptions for this species, as these texts contain information on the site of collection (reviewed in Usinger, 1966). Fabricius first described C. hemipterus, which was captured from South America houses in 1803 (Fabricius, 1803), while other early records include “Ile Bourbon” (1852) [now known as Réunion], “Ost‐Indien” (1861) [East India], Colombia (1854), and Sokotra (1899) [also spelled Socrota, which is part of Yemen]. These references indicate that C. hemipterus had spread around the world by the mid‐19th century as had C. lectularius.
Chapter 2, “Bed Bugs in Popular Culture”, highlights the intimate relationship that humans had with bed bugs throughout history via the depiction of the insect in various forms of media. Bed bugs have appeared over the years in poetry, art, the theatre, literature, music, and more recently, in television.
Part 2, on the global bed bug resurgence, contains contributions from all the major regions across the world, including chapters from the Americas, Europe and Russia, Asia, Australia, Africa, the Indian subcontinent, and the Middle East. Each chapter discusses the history of bed bugs in their respective region, the resurgence, and strategies employed to combat the return of the bed bug.
Bed Bug Impacts (Part 3) reviews the dermatological, mental health, and miscellaneous heath impacts associated with bed bugs. The potential for bed bugs to transmit infectious diseases is also considered. It is difficult to argue the fact that the health‐related impacts of bed bugs are relatively minor compared with insects, such as mosquitoes, that are known to transmit vector‐borne diseases. However, the fiscal impacts of bed bugs are significant and the resurgence has probably cost the world economy billions of dollars. The monetary effects of bed bugs are many and varied, and detailed in the final chapter of this section.
The basis of integrated pest management (IPM) is a comprehensive understanding of the biology of the pest as it relates to effective control strategies, hence the need to include such issues within ABMMBB. Topics covered within Part 4 include host‐seeking and blood‐feeding behaviors, harbourage selection and aggregation, dispersal, chemical ecology, population genetics, physiology, symbionts, and laboratory maintenance. The bizarre reproductive behaviour of bed bugs known as “traumatic insemination” is also discussed.
Part 5 focuses on bed bug management. The first three chapters of this section review the industry standards on bed bug control that have been developed in recent years in Australia, Europe, and the USA. These standards are followed by a chapter on how a large multinational pest management firm approaches bed bug management to ensure consistency of treatments and a positive outcome for the clients. The following chapters focus on prevention (in terms of minimizing the risk of bed bug establishment and spread); detection and monitoring; non‐chemical management; insecticide resistance; and chemical control. In recent years with the modern bed bug resurgence, many technologies have appeared on the market, but only few are truly efficacious. Thus Chapter 31 reviews the inherent limitations in bed bug management technology. The bed bug management coverage finishes with a focus on education. This involves sending the correct message to the community on how to minimize the risk of bed bugs, and how an infestation should be properly managed.
Part 6, on bed bug control in specific situations, reviews the experiences of industry leaders who are responsible for bed bug management in particular environments. These include low‐income housing, multi‐unit housing, shelters, hotels, healthcare facilities, aircraft, trains and cruise ships, and within the poultry industry. In many cases, little has been published in these areas, so the authors often had to recount their own personal experiences and the challenges involved in achieving a successful outcome.
In recent years, bed bugs have been the cause of legal action, especially in the USA, where some cases involve settlements of several million dollars. Thus Part 7 deals with bed bugs and the law, covering legal aspects from the USA, the UK, Asia, and Australia. There is also a chapter on the challenges of being an expert witness involved in bed bug litigation.
The final chapter of ABMMBB undertakes some crystal‐ball gazing to imagine what the future will look like in terms of bed bug and human interaction, and reviews the strategies and research required to reverse the resurgence. Perhaps one of the greatest challenges ahead is to make control affordable for all people. However, only considerable technological and methodological advancements will make this happen. Ultimately the real question is, can we defeat bed bugs again, or are bed bugs set to plague human society forever? Only time will tell.
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