Transformation Index BTI 2012: Regional Findings Middle East and North Africa -  - ebook

Transformation Index BTI 2012: Regional Findings Middle East and North Africa ebook

0,0

Opis

Der politische und wirtschaftliche Entwicklungsstand eines Landes ist messbar: Im internationalen Vergleich lassen sich die Leistungen politischer Entscheidungsträger und die daraus resultierenden Transformationsprozesse gegenüberstellen. Den Entwicklungsstand in 128 Entwicklungs- und Transformationsländern dokumentiert die Bertelsmann Stiftung alle zwei Jahre in ihrem Transformationsindex: Anhand ausführlicher Ländergutachten beleuchtet der Index die Wirkung von Reformstrategien auf dem Weg zu rechtsstaatlicher Demokratie und sozialer Marktwirtschaft. Er gibt damit Akteuren in Politik, Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft und Wissenschaft wichtige Hinweise und Impulse für ihre Arbeit. Der Untersuchungszeitraum des "Transformationsindex BTI 2012" reicht vom Frühjahr 2009 bis zum Frühjahr 2011. Die sieben ergänzenden Materialbände "Regional Findings" beinhalten die ausführlichen englischsprachigen Regionalüberblicke und Langfassungen der Länderberichte zu den sieben untersuchten Regionen: Ostmittel- und Südosteuropa; Lateinamerika und Karibik; West- und Zentralafrika; Naher Osten und Nordafrika; Östliches und südliches Afrika; Postsowjetisches Eurasien; Asien und Ozeanien. The peaceful transition of authoritarian regimes towards democracy and a market economy poses enormous challenges for citizens and politicians alike. Around the world, under widely differing conditions and with varying degrees of success, reform-oriented groups are struggling to democratize their countries and to strengthen the market economy. Good governance is the decisive factor for the success or failure of any transition process. The Bertelsmann Stiftung's Transformation Index is published every two years. The global ranking measures and compares transition processes worldwide on the basis of detailed country reports. Comparing systematically the status of democracy and market economy on an international basis, the BTI also provides comprehensive data on the quality of political management.

Ebooka przeczytasz w aplikacjach Legimi na:

Androidzie
iOS
czytnikach certyfikowanych
przez Legimi
Windows
10
Windows
Phone

Liczba stron: 1383

Odsłuch ebooka (TTS) dostepny w abonamencie „ebooki+audiobooki bez limitu” w aplikacjach Legimi na:

Androidzie
iOS
Oceny
0,0
0
0
0
0
0



Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in theDeutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic datais available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.
© 2012 E-Book-Ausgabe (EPUB)
© E-Book Edition 2012 Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, Gütersloh
Responsible: Matthias JägerProduction editor: Christiane RaffelCover illustration: Getty Images; kopfstand GbR, Bielefeld
ISBN : 978-3-86793-451-0
www.bertelsmann-stiftung.org/publications

www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/verlag

Table of Contents
Title Page
Copyright Page
BTI 2012 | Regional Findings Middle East and North Africa
BTI 2012 | Algeria Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Bahrain Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Egypt Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Iran Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Iraq Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Jordan Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Kuwait Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Lebanon Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Libya Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Morocco Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Oman Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Qatar Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Saudi Arabia Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Sudan Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Syria Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Tunisia Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Turkey Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | United Arab Emirates Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Yemen Country Report
Executive Summary
History and Characteristics of Transformation
Transformation Status
Transformation Management
Strategic Outlook
BTI 2012 | Regional Findings Middle East and North Africa
By Jan Claudius Völkel1
An overview of development and transformation in Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
This report presents the regional findings of the Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Transformation Index (BTI) 2012 for Middle East and North Africa. More on the BTI at http://www.bti-project.org.
Egypt’s development, and thus in a certain sense that of the region as a whole, took a decisive turn on 28 January 2011. On that day, President Hosni Mubarak bluntly reprimanded longtime Interior Minister Habib al-Adli because security forces had lost control of events despite their use of live ammunition. Mubarak relieved al-Adli of responsibility, and ordered his own military forces to shut down the nationwide demonstrations and restore internal security. In doing so, Mubarak sealed his own fate. For, contrary to his expectation, the generals made it quickly and unmistakably clear that although the military would protect public buildings and facilities, they would not take action against their own compatriots. Their loyalty to the president remained unchanged, they asserted; but Mubarak nonetheless had to come to terms with demonstrators’ demands and find a political solution. Mubarak thus lost control of two major pillars of his rule, the police and military, in a very short space of time. He resigned just two weeks later.
The wave of demonstrations that had in the meantime swept across the entire region was now unstoppable. Tunisia had set the movement in motion only few weeks before; citizens and foreign observers alike were taken aback by the rapid resignation of President Ben Ali on 14 January 2011. But it was the success in large, powerful Egypt – the ability to sweep away Mubarak’s 30-year-old dictatorship through peaceful demonstrations – that triggered the subsequent protest movements in Bahrain, Yemen, Libya, Syria and other countries in the region.
Are there hints within the BTI 2012 data that help explain the outbreak of these demonstrations? Yes and no. No, because the preceding period reveals no clearly uniform development in the countries that ultimately mounted the strongest protests against repression and social injustice. Yes, because the region as a whole, despite positive developments in recent years, showed no improvement in any of the BTI’s three dimensions during the period currently under review. Thus, on regional average, the low state of political transformation, economic transformation and management performance remained stagnant. Apart from a few country-specific improvements, regimes failed to consolidate the positive changes noted in the BTI 2010, and even reversed them in some countries. This is undoubtedly a key reason for the cross-generational and cross-national discontent demonstrated by the populations of many of the countries surveyed here.
The limited degree to which most governments in the region demonstrate a willingness to reform and the consequent pressure for change that erupted in the spring of 2011 are reflected in all three of the BTI’s analytical dimensions. In terms of political transformation, just two countries – Kuwait (+0.27 points) and Iraq (+0.18) – showed notable improvement; all other counties remained at the same level or declined, with Iran ( – 0.20) and Yemen ( – 0.53) showing the most significant deterioration. In terms of political transformation, the region as a whole stagnated at its previous low level, with Turkey, Lebanon and Iraq remaining the region’s only three democratic states.
In terms of economic transformation, only Iraq and – to a lesser extent – Morocco underwent significantly positive changes. Even regional leader Turkey showed no gains in this respect, but sustained its relatively advanced state of development. Saudi Arabia clearly showed the most dramatic decline in the area of economic transformation, with a fall of 0.46 points. Only Iraq demonstrated notable progress in the dimensions of both political and economic transformation, with an average gain of 0.27 points.
Finally, there are significant differences in terms of management performance among the region’s individual regimes. The strong improvement in Syria (+0.38 points) may seem surprising in view of the violent clashes that broke out between government forces and protesters in the spring of 2011; however, this reflects genuine steps toward reform made by the Asad government in recent years. Few positive developments can be noted in the government of Sudanese president Omar al-Bashir, however. The country saw a drastic decline of 0.70 points in this category, driven in particular by the uncompromising approach to international aid organizations, which were banned from Darfur in the summer of 2009, but also by the hesitant implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that in 2005 ended the civil war between North and South Sudan.

Political transformation

Between 2005 and 2008, numerous countries in the region showed promising developments in terms of political transformation, which translated into gains in the BTI 2010. However, following this period, hopes turned to disillusionment virtually across the region. Once celebrated as the “Cairo,” “Beirut” or “Damascus Spring,” a respectable array of political advancements were in recent years left incomplete or even withdrawn by governing regimes. The most widely known example, the growth in political repression in Egypt following the relatively free presidential and parliamentary elections of 2005, was representative of the standstill that came to define the state of affairs in most of the region’s countries.
The average score for all 19 states in the area of political transformation decreased from 4.21 points in the BTI 2010 to the current 4.13 points. The region is in this regard by far the lowest-scoring of all BTI regions. With the exception of Turkey (7.65 points, rank 28 in this dimension), Lebanon (6.15 points, rank 57) and Iraq (4.40 points, rank 85), autocratic rule is the norm. In Turkey, the state of democracy has remained largely stable; in Lebanon, however, setbacks were noted relative to the BTI 2010 in the areas of the state’s monopoly on the use of force and the institutional separation of powers, while association and assembly rights were the only areas to show improvement. Iraq is classified within the BTI as a highly defective democracy. In the latest reporting period, the country continued along the path of positive development begun in 2007. Improvements were seen in both the independence of the judiciary and the professionalism of the public administration. In addition, steps were taken toward consolidating the party system, which remains limited in its functional capacity.
All other states, as seen in Table 1, remain classified within the BTI 2012 as autocracies. With a score of 4.95, Kuwait exceeds Iraq, but its lack of sufficiently free and fair elections ensures that it is still counted as an autocracy – even if by far it is the most open and political liberal autocracy in the region.
The most notable change in Kuwait was the seating of women delegates in parliament for the first time following the 2009 elections. For this reason, the assessment of the performance of democratic institutions and their public support recorded slight improvements.
Table 1: State of political transformation
Developments within the region’s remaining authoritarian states offered little ground for optimism. Only the United Arab Emirates (ranked 90th) and Tunisia (ranked 100th) managed some minimal improvement – all other states showed a trend of stagnation or even decline. In Tunisia, progress in the areas of speech and assembly freedoms tipped the scales in favor of an improved classification. In the case of the United Arab Emirates, the most notable progress was made in the area of anti-corruption; however, press and speech rights suffered setbacks.
Beyond these examples, the region showed exclusively negative developments. Yemen registers the most significant drop in terms of political transformation, with a decline of 0.53 points (finishing at rank 104). Seen as a beacon of hope in the 1990s, and cited for improvements as recently as the BTI 2010, the country this time saw occasionally significant declines in seven of the 18 individual scores associated with political transformation. Alarming deterioration was noted in the area of stateness as well as the freedoms of expression and of the press. The country report describes in detail how President Ali Abdallah Salih slowly but steadily lost his grip on authority. The mass rallies and subsequent bitter clashes between protesters and security forces in spring 2011 appeared as the latest installment in a series of developments begun long before.
Developments also came to a head in Sudan after the International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant for President Omar al-Bashir in early summer 2009. High hopes had been placed in Sudan’s establishment of a government of national unity, and in fact some progress was made in this regard after 2005. However, the current edition of the BTI shows a decline of 0.15 points with respect to political transformation, leaving Sudan ranked at only 119th place of 128 countries in this dimension. Although the provisions of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005 – which officially ended the decade-long conflict between the country’s north and south – were largely implemented, the most impressive step was the long-awaited 9 January 2011 referendum in southern Sudan, held after several delays, on independence from the north. However, civil rights and civil liberties were constrained to a significant enough extent, and civil society groups hampered strongly enough in their work, that setbacks outweighed the improvements.
A similar picture is presented by Iran, where political transformation scores already showing significant decline in the BTI 2010 tumbled another 0.20 points in this edition, leaving the country at rank 114. The outlook for democratization is cloudier here than in most of the region’s countries, because the struggle between democratic reformers and the government, similar to that ongoing in so many of the region’s countries today, was in Iran concluded in the regime’s favor in the summer of 2009. Following the demonstrably manipulated presidential elections of 12 June 2009, week-long protests against President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad broke out in the country’s large cities; the government succeeded in crushing this “Green Movement” through the use of massive police and military force. Many opposition figures were executed and many others remain in prison to date.
With the exception of the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait, the states of the Gulf Cooperation Council also showed setbacks with respect to political transformation, despite their many positive changes in the BTI 2010. While Bahrain now ranks at 88th place in terms of political transformation, Oman and Saudi Arabia each fell by 0.10 points, and lie respectively at 99th and 123th place. Saudi Arabia remains the most authoritarian country in the region. This was driven by declines in basic administrative performance as well as deteriorations in press and speech freedoms and the separation of powers. This latter issue also led to a decline in Oman, reinforced by increasing limitations on the independence of the judiciary.
At rank 91, Qatar too left its recent, promising path of liberalization, tumbling back by 0.12 points. On the one hand, religious officials have gained stronger influence over the tiny emirate’s political process, while on the other, civil liberties and the separation of powers are increasingly subject to violation. Also leading to lower scores was the fact that a parliamentary ballot originally scheduled for 2004 was delayed once again during the reporting period, and is now slated for 2013.
The North African states (with the exception of Tunisia) and the countries of the Levant have all lost ground in political transformation. Syria’ scores remained at extremely low levels, as it has made no notable progress with respect to political transformation since its withdrawal from Lebanon in 2005; as before, it is ranked 115th among the 128 BTI countries. The government’s harsh crackdown on demonstrators in 2011 offers chilling testimony to the inhumanity of technocratic regimes, and has driven Syria back to a state of affairs that many believed had been left behind with the death of Hafiz al-Asad.
The same applies to Libya. Already languishing under an extremely low standard of political transformation in recent years, the country saw another overall decline of 0.10 points, to 117th place, as a result of constraints on the freedoms of expression and of the press – now accorded the lowest possible scores – and on judicial freedom. Although Muammar al-Qadhafi’s regime always presented the country as a paragon of functioning direct democracy, even promoting it as a model for the rest of the world, the reality is that nothing in the way of a functioning democracy was apparent. This evaluation holds even though the brutal crackdown on the opposition movement began on 16 February 2011, after the close of the BTI 2012 investigation period.
In Egypt, the trend of political decline noted in the previous edition of the BTI continued until the end of Hosni Mubarak’s presidency on 11 February 2011. The country suffered a decline of 0.13 points, leaving Egypt at 91st place in the current democracy status ranking. Although its score of 4.08 placed the Mubarak regime among the moderate autocracies, it put it only a hairsbreadth from the lowest category of hard-line autocracies (4.00 points and lower). Setbacks were evident particularly in the areas of freedom of assembly, the separation of powers and judicial independence. In this last area, the decisive stroke was the curtailment of the judiciary’s right to oversee the implementation of national elections, which was first granted and then withdrawn. In addition, the Mubarak regime installed parallel special courts, seeking to bring more and more judicial processes under direct control. These special courts were subject to no civil control, clearly constraining the basic civil rights of the accused.
In Algeria, constraints on interest groups’ opportunities for political participation were a primary problem. Along with the official trade union, the Union générale des travailleurs, smaller autonomous unions found it increasingly difficult to defend the interests of their members. For example, the state apparatus reacted in a markedly repressive manner against several 2009 protests launched by the Conseil national des enseignants contractuels, a teachers’ union; participants in the demonstrations were arrested or beaten by police in the streets, sometimes to the point of requiring hospitalization. Several other unions were also subjected to this kind of treatment. The fact that Algeria’s internal political situation has remained relatively quiet, at least in comparison to other Arab countries, is attributable to two primary causes: First, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika’s regime reacted relatively quickly to the emerging protests in January 2011, lifting the 19-year-old state of emergency on 23 February 2011; second, the trauma of the civil war (1992 – 2000) remains fresh within Algerian society, so that a majority of the population today prioritizes peace and public order over demands for democracy.
With respect to political transformation, Jordan remains ranked at place 97, although its score has fallen by 0.10 points (to 3.92). This was due to declines in the areas of state identity and the state’s monopoly on the use of force, driven by clashes between clans in rural areas around Ajlun, Mafraq and other cities. The peak of the violent conflicts came with the November 2010 parliamentary elections, which led to riots in various parts of the country.
Overall, the majority of countries under review showed evidence of mild to significant setbacks in terms of political transformation. The signs of political opening visible around the year 2005 proved to be temporary exceptions rather than a true turnaround in this “democracy-resistant” region. By contrast, the current wave of democratization is borne from below rather than dictated from above, giving reason to hope that genuinely sustainable steps toward democratization can be taken, at least in Tunisia and Egypt.

Economic transformation

In the realm of economic transformation, recent developments in the region can be summed up in the word “stagnation.” The only notable development was the advancement of Qatar from second place to the role as top scorer in the category – as a consequence, the tiny emirate is the sole developed market economy in the region. On the other end of the spectrum is Sudan, which has replaced Iraq as the region’s lowest scorer. On a positive note, Morocco jumped from the second-worst to the middle category, and is now classified as a market economy with functional flaws. However, Oman has fallen back into this same category, after rising to the next highest in the previous edition of the BTI. The remaining 16 countries saw no change in their classification. As before, four countries fall within the second-best category of functioning market economies, seven remain unchanged in the middle category of market economies with functional flaws, and five are in the second-worst category of poorly functioning market economies (see Table 2).
Table 2: State of economic transformation
Qatar (+0.18 points, placing it at rank 14 out of the BTI’s 128 countries in this dimension) continued its avowed transformation process from a rent-based to a knowledge-based society, and showed improvement particularly in the areas of anti-monopoly policy, the strengthening of private enterprise and environmental protection. Thus, on 1 March 2009, Vodafone launched its entry into the Qatar market as the country’s first competitor in a mobile communications sector previously restricted exclusively to the state-owned QTel. Improvements also included changes to the investment law in 2010, which expanded the participation opportunities afforded to foreign investors.
The decline of Oman (rank 33) by 0.14 points is attributable to setbacks in the areas of environmental protection and education. In this latter area, a huge gap remains between the level of education and the needs of Oman’s labor market. Morocco’s improved classification (+0.21 points, to rank 79), is primarily based on the facilitation of foreign trade by new customs regulations and a higher level of attention to environmental concerns. The National Charter for Environment and Sustainable Development, adopted in April 2010, provides a solid, eco-friendly framework for all economic activities, and offers a set of benchmark values for compliance with policy-driven environmental standards. Although it is doubtful whether this can in fact lead to genuine progress, this is the first time that concern with the environment has been made the subject of an official statement of intent in the country.
The most significant improvements were achieved by Iraq, which gave up the region’s last-place role to Sudan, and with a gain of +0.36 points climbed nine places to rank 107. To be sure, the country remains in very difficult circumstances, but the steadily improving security situation has enabled some of the foundations for market competition to be created, including anti-monopoly policies, protection for property rights and environmental protection. The March 2010 establishment of a Council for Competitiveness and the Prevention of Monopoly serves as one impressive example of the improvements being made.
The biggest declines in economic transformation, however, were registered by Saudi Arabia. In recent years, fiscal discipline has been sacrificed to increasingly short-term economic interests, resulting in a tripling of nominal state expenditure. In addition, the Saudi economy relies too heavily on oil exports (and especially on a high oil price), with too little investment in productive economic sectors and an insufficient diversification of economic structures.
Saudi Arabia and Oman are the only members of the Gulf Cooperation Council that are not considered to be at least functioning market economies. With a score of 7.14 points, Kuwait’s showing remained unchanged from the BTI 2010. However, the United Arab Emirates (ranked 23rd overall) and Bahrain (ranked 21st) each saw declines, respectively of 0.21 points and 0.25 points.
In the United Arab Emirates, anti-monopoly legislation did take some small steps forward, but declines were evident in the areas of banking and inflation control; the financial center of Dubai suffered particular setbacks due to the global financial crisis of 2008 – 2009. The lack of proper supervision and oversight mechanisms within the banking sector were here painfully clear: In this sector, a 24 percent decline in profits was registered in 2009. After a growth rate of 13 percent in 2006, the overall economy grew by just 2.1 percent in 2010. Backward steps were also evident in the area of environmental protection, where the rapidly increasing population and the correspondingly rising consumption of natural resources have not been adequately addressed by environmental policy. In international comparison, the population of the United Arab Emirates has the world’s worst record of per-capita CO2 production. Although Bahrain has improved its banking system, and according to World Economic Forum analysts has the world’s most liberalized finance sector, the country demonstrated setbacks with respect to welfare regimes and the equality of opportunity. The former issue refers essentially to the large number of foreign guest workers, who were – for example – excluded from the April 2010 increase in the minimum wage; the latter issue is concerned above all with the Shi’ite majority population, which compared to the Sunni minority is significantly underrepresented within the political, military and public administrative spheres.
In Turkey, despite continued efforts oriented toward EU accession, the economic transformation process has stagnated. As in the BTI 2010, the country achieved a total score of 7.43 points, earning it a ranking of 21st within this analytical dimension for the BTI 2012. Slight improvements in the area of property rights were counterposed with declines within the social system. As in previous years, only about 80 percent of the Turkish population participates in social insurance mechanisms.
In Egypt too, economic transformation processes faltered. With a score of 5.43, the country retained its previous rank of 67. Economic stagnation and the above-noted constraints on political participation were clear contributors to the discontent evident throughout many parts of the population. This disaffection has mounted in recent years, and finally erupted in the mass protests in Tahrir Square in January and February 2011.
Much the same can be said about Tunisia, where the Arab Spring originated. Here, declines were seen particularly in the environment for market competition, driven in large part by high corruption and sluggish administrative work. For the population, the rise in gasoline prices by four percent in 2010 – a measure through which the government sought to slow rising subsidy expenditures – proved particularly palpable. This, in combination with rising food prices and the slowdown in economic growth (3.2 percent in 2010, as compared to 6.3 percent in 2007), has left the population feeling increased economic pressure in recent years. Tunisia was also the only country in the region to reduce its contributions to the social security system after 2008, further intensifying pressure on the population. The self-immolation of the young vegetable seller Mohamed Bouazizi on 17 December 2010 in front of the provincial administrative headquarters in Sidi Bouzid – in protest against arbitrary state action – and the subsequent mass protests against the regime would have been difficult to foresee, but were in retrospect an understandable development.
Iran, which in the BTI 2010 was the only country besides Tunisia to lose ground in economic transformation, this time showed slight improvements. The Ahmadinejad government again evinced declines in terms of anti-monopoly policy and support for private enterprise, as the government and its various militia-affiliated allies were among the biggest beneficiaries of the current monopolistic economic structures. However, progress was made in controlling inflation (just 8.5 percent in 2010, as compared with 25.5 percent in 2008).
Lebanon’s score rose by 0.14 points to reach 6.32 points, placing the country at rank 45 within this dimension (as compared to 51st place in the BTI 2010). Increased liberalization of foreign trade, improvements in the banking system and progress in controlling inflation all contributed significantly to this positive development, although macroeconomic deterioration and flaws within the education system clouded the picture somewhat. Government spending on education as a share of total government expenditure declined from 12 percent in 2002 to about eight percent in 2010.
The situation in Sudan can be described as exceptionally disastrous. Numerous conflicts and mismanagement on the part of the Bashir government were reflected in a deterioration of 0.25 points to just 3.79 points in terms of economic transformation. Driving the decline were a number of factors, including worsening control over inflation, a lack of provision for private property rights and gaps in education policy. Indeed, education policy reveals the country’s decline most saliently: Though it had one of Africa’s best education systems at the time of independence, Sudan is today very far from the United Nations target of providing primary education for all children by the year 2015. In 2010, only 71 percent of children in the north and 48 percent in the south of the country were enrolled in school. In general, a sharp difference can be noted between North and South Sudan in terms of economic environment; the framework conditions for South Sudan, which gained its independence on 9 July 2011, are extremely unfavorable. For example, the current literacy rate for adults is 78 percent in North Sudan, but just 37 percent in South Sudan. The development outlook for South Sudan is quite poor from an economic as well as political perspective, despite the presence of mineral resources.
Yemen’s state of affairs is only slightly better. With a score of 4.00 points, the country has shown some marginal improvement (thanks solely to improved environmental protections), but ranks at only 110th place in terms of economic transformation. Libya and Syria too showed only slight improvements. With a score of 4.61 points and a ranking of 91st place, Syria still belongs to the category of poorly functioning market economies; Libya’s score of 5.86 points (rank 58) qualifies it as a market economy with functional flaws.
Syria’s technocratic regime made progress in the areas of market-based competition, anti-monopoly policy, macrostability and the banking system. Within this latter area, new banking legislation in 2010 proved particularly important, as it enabled foreign participation of up to 60 percent in Syrian banks for the first time. By contrast, Libya’s improvements resulted primarily from educational reforms, which were announced in April 2009 and were slated to provide $9 billion in new investment for the Libyan educational system.
The region-wide economic stagnation represents one significant cause of wave of protest that gathered in early 2011. Dissatisfaction went beyond the fact that regimes’ redistributive polices, based on rents derived from oil sales or international aid, had increasingly reached their practical limits. Above all, it was driven by the growing gap between the decadent ruling classes and the impoverished, fast-growing underclasses – a gap that affected the economic situation and rendered regimes’ exploitation of their countries all too plain.

Transformation management

Political management performance in the region as a whole remained at the low average level of 4.15 points. However, there is a clear division between winners and losers: While Syria (+0.38 points) and Qatar (+0.34) in particular showed better management performance, Lebanon ( – 0.32) and Yemen ( – 0.37) declined to virtually the same extent. Seven of the region’s 19 states were assigned a different management category in the BTI 2012 than in the BTI 2010 (see Table 3).
The situation in Sudan showed itself to be catastrophic: Here, the assessed management performance of President Omar al-Bashir and his regime tumbled by a dramatic 0.70 points; with just 2.56 points, the country now sits at rank 118 in this dimension, falling for the first time into the category of failed transformation management. Yet Sudan remains better governed than the region’s worst performer: Following its deterioration of 0.17 points, Iran is now ranked at 122nd place. However, Iran and Sudan are not the only states deemed to show failed transformation management: Libya, which the BTI 2010 assessed as showing weak management performance under Muammar al-Qadhafi, fell by 0.16 points to a total of 2.89 (rank 115), pushing it too into this bottom category. Syria and Qatar, on the other hand, were able to improve their classifications.
Table 3: Quality of transformation management
The two countries in the top group each showed improvements in the area of management. Despite a hesitant reaction to the global economic and financial crisis of 2008 – 2009, Turkey continued its positive path of development, improving by 0.26 points in the area of transformation management to a total of 6.60 and a ranking of 17th place (up from 23rd place in the BTI 2010). Decisive factors included the Erdogan government’s improved anti-corruption efforts, the weakening of the military as a potential veto actor (symbolized by the discovery of the Ergenekon conspiracy), an improved approach to the Kurdish question through the provision of numerous new (if comparatively small) concessions, and greater regional cooperation, particularly with regard to Iraq, Armenia and Greece. Qatar showed particular strengths in the form of improved conflict management, stronger inclusion of civil society and increased credibility on the international stage. For instance, conflicts between native and immigrant workers, which led to strikes and conflicts in 2007, were largely mediated and resolved by the government.
In view of recent events, it may be surprising that Syria showed the most improvement. Yet though the Bashar al-Asad regime remained far from achieving an overall positive assessment, it showed improvements particularly in the area of international cooperation. This represented the first successes of the regime’s strategy of filling an increasing number of positions with well-trained technocrats rather than relying primarily on obedient Baath party members. These Western-trained and internationally experienced diplomats are a characteristic face of Syria’s new leadership elite, whose policies have increasingly eschewed the traditional pan-Arab and anti-Israeli propaganda in favor of economically sound decisions. However, the fact that the Syrian leadership has followed a development path that is wholly economically determined and lacks attention to social equity is hardly a sufficient basis for long-term legitimation. Indeed, the ongoing, nationwide protest actions against the regime are a strong signal of discontent from a large part of the population.
A more detailed look at the three countries showing the biggest deterioration in management performance – Lebanon, Yemen and Sudan – is also worthwhile. Lebanon’s decline ( – 0.32 points, to rank 92) is attributable primarily to the political stalemate between the March 8 (Hezbollah-supported) and March 14 (supported by the Western-oriented forces around former Prime Minister Saad Hariri) coalitions. This paralyzed parliament for months, making it impossible to form a government effectively. Confessional differences, always a defining characteristic in this country, proved resistant to being minimized in favor of a “general state interest,” and indeed gained new prominence during the review period. As a consequence, Lebanon too has lost international credibility; particularly since the failure of the pro-Western government coalition in January 2011 and the subsequent change in government to the Hezbollah-led March 8 Alliance, doubts have risen as to Lebanon’s future reliability within the difficult Middle East diplomatic environment.
In Yemen ( – 0.37 points, rank 102), the supplantation of long-term policy goals by short-term interests in recent years has become an increasingly significant problem. The steering capability of President Ali Abdallah Salih’s regime was weakened not only by the poor implementation of policy decisions, but even more importantly by the almost nonexistent ability to learn from past mistakes. Thus, on the country’s most pressing issues (water scarcity, food insecurity, tribal conflicts, state failure), no innovative answers could be found. Rather, the government sought to impose solutions to the country’s numerous problems by force, with the help of the military.
Sudan’s government ( – 0.70 points, rank 118) operated largely without any convincing policy concept. Enormous weaknesses were evident throughout the development, coordination and implementation of policy. There is increasing uncertainty as to the government’s precise goals as well as its level of commitment in managing conflict. Although the question of South Sudan’s possible independence was not handled by the regime as restrictively as initially feared, significant progress in the Darfur conflict – ongoing since 2003 – has been altogether absent. On the contrary: The March 2009 expulsion of 13 international aid organizations from the region served to undermine al-Bashir’s credibility, and has further isolated the country on the international diplomatic stage.

Outlook

The BTI 2012’s findings for the Middle East and North Africa region impressively illustrate the reform pressure that has mounted in recent years, and which has been only marginally allayed by the few, often cosmetic steps toward liberalization taken by authoritarian regimes. Although a majority of rulers did make some concessions to demands for political and economic participation in recent decades, the stagnant results of the BTI 2012 reflect the near-complete immobility and aversion to reform on the part of Arab regimes through the end of the current review period on 31 January 2011; for the first time since 2006, the BTI shows deadlock rather than progress in this region, with respect to both political and economic transformation. With a decline of 0.08 points, the overall average regional score for political transformation remained at a low level, with only Kuwait, Iraq, Tunisia and the United Arab Emirates showing improved scores. Both “winners” and “losers” were evident in the area of economic transformation, with Iraq proving to be the best performer, and Saudi Arabia the worst performer. The consideration of transformation management completes these sobering findings: Significant improvements in this area were evident only in Syria, Qatar and Turkey. “Stagnation” thus best describes the overall state of affairs in North Africa and the Middle East.
Until the revolution in Tunisia, this profound stagnation appeared to be a successful means on the part of governing regimes to suppress social protest and the popular desire for participation. The quickly crushed protests against Ahmadinejad’s falsified 2009 election results in Iran enabled some to draw the conclusion that although social and political protest could be articulated with impressive strength even under repressive conditions, reactionary forces would nevertheless prevail in the end.
But this stalemate evidently represented only the calm before the storm. Governments’ inability to engage in renewal and modernization, the persistent neglect of broad segments of society, and progressive economic deterioration – caused not only by the above-described mismanagement, but also by strong population growth and food prices that began to rise rapidly in 2008 – led to persistently mounting discontent. Tensions were ultimately explosively released in the slogans and demands of demonstrators in Tunis, Cairo and other cities across the Arab world. The force of events came not only from their surprise, but also from the fact that this was the first time since the revolutions of the 1950s and 1960s (particularly since the military coups in Egypt and Libya, but also those of the Baathists in Syria and Iraq) that real reforms had been forced from below. To this point, transformation steps undertaken within the region had been almost wholly imposed from above, to satisfy and pacify either internal critics or the international community.
Given this diagnosis of stagnation in the region, the events of 2011 came as a true surprise. Who would have thought that Ben Ali and Hosni Mubarak would have relinquished power not for reasons of age or due to a military intervention, but instead because of multi-week, largely peaceful mass protests? Who would have thought that civil society groups and actors, strictly controlled and repressed for decades by governing regimes, would suddenly develop and generate this kind of power – bringing together people across classes to force their hated regime from power? The data of the BTI cannot be used as a forecasting tool for the prediction of coming events, but can serve as a diagnostic tool for existing flaws in the political and economic systems of the assessed countries. What analysts and observers of the region can learn from the BTI data and the events of 2011 is that though undemocratic regimes may secure their power across decades using strict authoritarian measures, the attraction and appeal of democracy, freedom and self-determination cannot be suppressed in the long run.
BTI 2012 | Algeria Country Report
Key Indicators
Sources: The World Bank, World Development Indicators 2011 | UNDP, Human Development Report 2011. Footnotes: (1) Average annual growth rate. (2) Gender Inequality Index (GII). (3) Percentage of population living on less than $2 a day.

Executive Summary

During the review period (January 2009 – January 2011), setbacks were observed in Algeria with regard to both democratization and establishing a market economy grounded in socially responsible principles. After a late 2008 constitutional modification allowing President Bouteflika to run for a third term, Bouteflika won in a landslide victory on 9 April 2009 with 90.24% of the votes. The president continued to enjoy the backing of several (potential) veto-players within the military, security forces and the “presidential coalition” in parliament. Although Islamist-inspired acts of violence measurably decreased, individual attacks primarily on security forces in the east that were carried out by dispersed groups of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) continued to make headlines.
During the review period, the Algerian government refrained from further liberalizing state-owned companies and banks. Existing liberalization measures were watered down, and strategic sectors were protected from foreign and private domination. Barriers to investment, such as corruption, bureaucratic hurdles and difficult access to finance continued to paralyze entrepreneurship. Although Algeria weathered the global economic downturn in 2007 – 2008 with relative ease, the country’s balance of payments suffered as global oil prices dropped in mid-2008, resulting in a significant reduction in (hydrocarbon) export revenues. Higher oil and gas prices in 2010, together with the government’s ambitious public infrastructure programs, have since helped macroeconomic performance to improve measurably.
In January 2011, Algerian citizens took to the streets in unprecedented numbers to protest their living conditions. By February 2011, the riots and protests were widespread enough that President Bouteflika, with an eye toward the Tunisian revolt underway, introduced several social measures as he gave in to the opposition’s demands to finally lift the state of emergency that had been in force since 1992. Both the riots and the government’s response to them highlight the intrinsic weaknesses of the Algerian development model. Highly dependent on windfall gains from hydrocarbon exports, Algeria’s economy continues to feature a narrow productive industrial base, relatively high structural unemployment among youth, and a population whose purchasing power continues to decline.

History and Characteristics of Transformation

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!