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The Wiley International Handbook of Service-Learning for Social Justice ebook

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A comprehensive guide to service-learning for social justice written by an international panel of experts The Wiley International Handbook of Service-Learning for Social Justice offers a review of recent trends in social justice that have been, until recently, marginalized in the field of service-learning. The authors offer a guide for establishing and nurturing social justice in a variety of service-learning programs, and show that incorporating the principles of social justice in service-learning can empower communities to resist and disrupt oppressive power structures, and work for solidarity with host and partner communities. With contributions from an international panel of experts, the Handbook contains a critique of the field's roots in charity; a review of the problematization of Whitenormativity, paired with the bolstering of diverse voices and perspectives; and information on the embrace of emotional elements including tension, ambiguity, and discomfort. This important resource: * Considers the role of the community in service-learning and other community-engaged models of education and practice * Explores the necessity of disruption and dissonance in service-learning * Discusses a number of targeted issues that often arise in service-learning contexts * Offers a practical guide to establishing and nurturing social justice at the heart of an international service-learning program Written for advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, scholars, and educators, The Wiley International Handbook of Service-Learning for Social Justice highlights social justice as a conflict-ridden struggle against inequality, xenophobia, and oppression, and offers practical suggestions for incorporating service-learning programs in various arenas.

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Table of Contents

Cover

Notes on Contributors

Part I: Introduction

The Social Justice Turn in Service‐Learning

Engaging with Despair

Theoretical Framework

Literature Review: Evidence of a Social Justice Turn in Service‐Learning

Critiquing Charity and Salvationism

Critiquing White Normativity and Bolstering Diversity

Embracing Emotion: Tension, Ambiguity, and Discomfort

Critical Hope: “An Action‐Oriented Response to Contemporary Despair”

Reorienting Service‐Learning

Overview of Chapters

Conclusion

References

Part II: Introduction to Service‐Learning for Social Justice

1 Service‐Learning and the Discourse of Social Justice

History of Service‐Learning in North America

Approaches to Service‐Learning

Social Justice Discourse and CSL

The Importance of Cognitive Justice

Implications for Practice

References

2 “We Built up our Knowledge Together and Because it was Shared”

Introduction

Background: Community Partners

Theoretical Scaffolding

Context: Asianness and Immigration

The Teaching Context

Conclusion

References

3 Spanish Heritage Speakers, Service‐Learning, and Social Justice

Introduction

Overview of Spanish as a Heritage Language

Literature Review

References

Part III: Challenging Hegemony through Service‐Learning

4 Critical Feminist Service‐Learning

Introduction/Problem Statement

Conceptual Framework: Critical Feminist Service‐Learning

Case One: Teaching in Place

Case Two: Administration of Multiculturalism and Diversity in Higher Education

CFSL Enacted

CFSL – Important, yet Difficult Work

Indulging the Imagination

References

5 Service‐Learning in Higher Education by, for, and about LGBTQ People

Framing Service‐Learning by, for, and about the LGBTQ Community

Finding the Literature on Service‐Learning and the LGBTQ Community

Service‐Learning for the LGBTQ Community

Service‐Learning about the LGBTQ Community

Service‐Learning that is Critical of Othering and Privilege

Service‐Learning that Changes Students and Society

Curricular Shadows and Null Curriculum Affecting Service‐Learning and LGBTQ Communities

Conclusion

References

6 Local‐to‐Global Indigenous Health in Service‐Learning

Prologue

Introduction

Indigenous Service‐Learning Foundations: Ethical Space and Two‐Eyed Seeing – Indigenous and Western Knowledge Systems

Indigenous Service‐Learning: Local‐to‐Global Experience: Oki / Amba'wastitch / Danit'ada / Tansi / Hello – Preserving Sacred Teachings

Walking Forward Together

References

7 Transforming Preservice Teacher Practices and Beliefs through First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Critical Service‐Learning Experiences

Context in Canada: A Time for Reconciliation

Increasing Teacher Commitment to Social Justice through Praxis

The Pitfalls and Potential of Critical Service‐Learning with Indigenous Communities

Designing a Critical Service‐Learning Program Leading to Reconciliatory Pedagogy

Lessons Learned from the Indigenous Critical Service‐Learning Program

Processes and Ways to Build Reconciliation

Summary and Future Implications

References

8 Critical Disability Studies and Community Engagement

Critical Disability Studies

Service‐Learning

Community Engagement and Epistemic Tensions

Community‐Based Approaches to Engaged Pedagogy

Genuine Collaboration

Discussion

References

Part IV: Disruption and Dissonance through Service‐Learning

9 Postcritical Service‐Learning

Introduction

A Postcritical Approach to Service‐Learning

Future Directions

References

10 Reshaping Professional Programs through Service‐Learning

Introduction: A Call to Action

Practice in the Professions

Moving toward Justice through Critical Service‐Learning

Recalibrating Learning to Meet Community Needs

References

11 Fostering Cultural Humility among Preservice Teachers

Introduction

Theoretical Framework

Findings: Emergent Themes

Implications, Challenges, and Conclusion

References

12 “Moving” Experiences

Our Ideological Biases are Showing

The Challenges of a Long‐Distance Relationship

United We Stand, Divided We Fall

Forgive Those Who Trespass Against Us

Negotiating the Border Crossing, Returning Home, and Trespassing Continuum

References

Part V: Defining and Engaging Community in Service‐Learning

13 Social Justice and Community‐Engaged Scholarship

Community‐Engaged Scholarship

Neoliberalized Higher Education as the Context for CES

Social Justice as a Framework for CES

Rethinking Community, Engagement, and Disengagement

Knowledge as Service

Justice‐Oriented CSL

Conclusion

References

14 Community as Teacher

An Ambivalent Standpoint

Defining and Mapping the Territory

Community–University Relations

Toward a Social Justice Approach

Community as Teacher

Being Taught by the Other

Examples of Community as Teacher

Implications and Significance for Adult Education

References

Part VI: International Engagement through Service‐Learning

15 International Service‐Learning

Introduction

Concurrent Movements: International and Civic Education

Pedagogical Theories

Theories of Cross‐Cultural Encounters

Development Theories

Research for Social Justice

International Service‐Learning and Social Justice

References

16 Global Service‐Learning

Background

The Need for Humility in GSL

Definition of Cultural Humility

Four Vignettes

Conclusion

References

17 Ethical Global Partnerships

Introduction to Fair Trade Learning

Considering Partnerships from India

FTL and Ethical Global Partnerships: Reflections from South Africa

Higher Education and Global Partnerships: The Need for New Frameworks

Beyond the “Single Story”: The Importance of Context

Global Service‐Learning in Service of Global Partnerships: Contesting Frameworks

Reframing the Questions: Co‐creation and Transformation

References

Part VII: The Pedagogy and Practice of Service‐Learning

18 A Practical Guide to Developing and Maintaining Social Justice at the Heart of ISL

Introduction

Scoping

Chapter Structure

Defining Social Justice

Learning Outcomes for ISL

Self and Relations with Others

Global Issues

Change Agency

Educational Impact

Conclusion

References

19 Participatory Assessment

Introduction

ENGAGE at Georgia College

Boundary Spanning and Boundary Spanners

Complexity Thinking: A Theoretical Framework for Boundary Spanning as Avenue for Transformational Learning and Social Justice

Cynthia’s Story and Description of Community Work in Harrisburg

Sandra’s Story and Description of Community Work in Harrisburg

Boundary Spanning: Teaching as Community Property

Boundary Spanning: Reflexive Student Activism

Conclusion

References

20 Service‐Learning as Power Analysis in the Humanities

Introduction

Service‐Learning as a Social Justice Pedagogy

Why Teach For and About Power?

Service‐Learning, Power, and Learner Variability

A Higher Education Commitment to Social Justice

The “Power” of the Humanities

Service‐Learning and Power Analysis Rooted in Civic Reflection

Conclusion

References

21 Service‐Learning and STEM Creating New Possibilities in Public Schools

Description of Our Model

A Selective Review of the Literature

Discussion

Measurement and Evaluation

In Summary, but not a Conclusion

References

Index

End User License Agreement

List of Tables

Chapter 09

Table 9.1 Varying conceptualizations of service‐learning

List of Illustrations

Chapter 03

Figure 3.1 Service‐learning prism: Transforming learning through community service

Chapter 06

Figure 6.1 Common Language, Common Vision. Artist Byron Tagupa. Gifted with

aloha

to Andrea Puamakamae`okawēkiu Kennedy

Figure 6.2 The Tipi from Canadian Indigenous Women’s Resource Institute (n.d.).

Chapter 09

Figure 9.1 Relationality with the Other

Chapter 16

Figure 16.1 Hofstede model comparisons between Canada, the US, and Fiji

Figure 16.2 Building cultural humility and awareness: Training and activity structure and flow

Figure 16.3 Partial Hofstede exercise: Power and individualism vs. collective dimensions

Chapter 20

Figure 20.1 The PowerDial Action Plan (sample)

Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

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The Wiley International Handbook of Service‐Learning for Social Justiceby Darren E. Lund (Editor)

The Wiley International Handbook of Service‐Learning for Social Justice

Edited by Darren E. Lund

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Notes on Contributors

Ramaswami Balasubramaniam is a development activist, public policy advocate, author, and a leadership trainer. A physician with an MPhil in Hospital Administration & Health Systems Management and a Master’s in Public Administration from the Harvard Kennedy School, he was the Frank Rhodes professor at Cornell University and is adjunct professor, International Programs at the University of Iowa. He is the founder and president of the Swami Vivekananda Youth Movement, one of India’s largest development organizations and is also the co‐founder of the Vivekananda Institute of Indian Studies (www.viis.in) which has partnerships with over 20 universities around the world offering programs in global service learning, study abroad, semester internships, and immersion in development projects. He resides in India and has written five books. More information about him is at www.drrbalu.com

Tamara Baldwin is the director for the Office of Regional and International Community Engagement at the University of British Columbia, where she works with many international organizations to design international service‐learning courses that align with the priorities of the hosts. She has over 15 years’ experience in student affairs with an extensive background in strategic planning, curriculum development, assessment, and facilitation. Holding an MSc from the University of Birmingham in Poverty Reduction and Development Management she has engaged with numerous poverty alleviation projects internationally and domestically.This background sparked a keen interest in considering what role universities should (and perhaps, shouldn’t) take on in the realm of international development – particularly at the undergraduate level. Relatedly, she is interested in the ethics of engagement and was an implementing partner on a study and web‐based guide, Ethics of International Engagement and Service Learning (EIESL; http://ethicsofisl.ubc.ca).

Amy Bravo is the senior director of International and Experiential Education in Academic Affairs at New York Institute of Technology (NYIT). She has worked in the field of higher education since 1997 in the areas of career services, experiential education, and civic engagement. Her specific areas of interest are in program development and assessment, partnering the academy with community businesses and nonprofits, and student professional and civic development. She is co‐creator of several NYIT programs, one of which has sent students, faculty and staff to Peru, Ecuador, Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic to build houses and to increase community access to clean water. Her introduction of a centralized service‐learning program in 2009 opened opportunities for students to build professional experience while serving the public good. Partnerships she has developed with NYC public schools and area nonprofits have provided nearly a half of a million dollars in grant funding to expand NYIT student participation in the local community.

Judy Bruce is a research associate at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand and has recently begun working as Director of Learning and Development for Freeset in India. Prior to this, she was employed as a senior lecturer at the University of Canterbury and worked primarily at the intersections of teacher education and sociology. Her research interests are in global citizenship education, service‐learning, and ethical relationality drawing on postcolonial and poststructural theories. A summary of some of the key ideas of her chapter are available in a blog post: (Beyond) the death of global service‐learning and the white saviour undone (http://globalsl.org/beyond‐the‐death‐of‐global‐service‐learning‐and‐the‐white‐saviour‐undone).

Shauna Butterwick is a professor at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, where she teaches courses on the histories, philosophies, and learning theory in adult education, community‐based adult education, as well as research methodologies. She has studied women’s reentry programs, women’s on‐the‐job learning and women’s social movement learning, including feminist popular education initiatives and, as a research associate with the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA), she has conducted studies on the impact of welfare reform on access to adult learning. Her current research and academic activism is focused on service‐learning and community‐university engagement. Publications include the co‐edited Working the Margins of Community‐Based Adult Learning: The Power of Arts‐Making in Finding Voice and Creating Conditions for Seeing/Listening. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense, 2016 (with C. Roy); and Women, Adult Education, and Leadership in Canada. Toronto: Thompson Educational, 2016 (with D. Clover and L. Collins).

Victoria Calvert is a business professor as well as the community service‐learning (CSL) facilitator for Mount Royal University. She adopted CSL into her classes in the mid‐1990s to enhance ethical and academic understanding. Her research interests include the impact of community‐based projects on students and community partners. She is on the steering committee for the Canadian Alliance for Community Service Learning and was the chair of its biannual national conference in 2016. She has authored several books that have been adopted nationally, and is the co‐editor of Canadian Student Service Learning Vignettes and the forthcoming publication Community Service Learning: Impact for Sustainability.

Samantha Cardinal is a nursing student from Saddle Lake Cree Nation. As a member of Saddle Lake, she plans to return her community’s educational support through advocacy and mentorship. The field school’s cultural learning experiences hold deep meaning for her, which she will carry throughout her nursing career. She also plans to increase her learning experiences by continuing participation in service‐learning and joining organizations that support indigenous health initiatives.

Robbin D. Crabtree is dean of the Bellarmine College of Liberal Arts at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles. Her research and teaching focuses on mass media in relation to globalization, revolution, and community development, as well as service‐learning theory and practice. With teaching and research experience in Brazil, El Salvador, Kenya, India, Nicaragua, Russia, Spain, and the US–Mexico borderlands, she has published nearly 50 books, articles, chapters, and essays, and served on several editorial boards. She was previously at Fairfield University where she served as founding director of the Office of Service‐learning and dean of the College of Arts & Sciences. She has been recognized as a Distinguished Woman in Higher Education Leadership and was a finalist for the Thomas Ehrlich Civically Engaged Faculty Award. She has also worked in public radio and with nonprofit agencies as staff, volunteer, consultant, researcher, and board member.

Dawn Currie is a professor of sociology at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver. She is also past chair of the Undergraduate Programme in Women’s Studies and past graduate advisor for the Centre for Research in Women and Gender Studies. In her department of sociology, she teaches qualitative research methods and feminist theorizing as well as a course in International Service‐Learning (ISL). Her interest in ISL reflects her commitment to teaching for social justice and her past experiences of capacity building for gender analysis with colleagues in South‐East Asia.

Patricia J. Danyluk grew up in northern Manitoba where she spent the early part of her career working with remote First Nations and Métis communities. Before joining the Werklund School of Education in 2014, she was employed with Laurentian University in northern Ontario. She is currently the director of Field Experience for the community‐based Bachelor of Education at the Werklund School of Education (University of Calgary) where she teaches both undergraduate and graduate level courses, and helped to create a service‐learning program with nearby First Nations schools. She publishes in the area of community‐based learning, reconciliatory pedagogy, and critical service‐learning, and is recognized as an ally in the work of reconciliation.

David M. Donahue is a professor of education and Director of the McCarthy Center for Public Service and the Common Good at the University of San Francisco. Before coming to USF in 2015, he was the Interim Provost and Associate Provost at Mills College in Oakland, California, and worked there for more than 20 years as a professor of education where he taught and advised doctoral students, teacher credential candidates, and undergraduates. He has a PhD in Education from Stanford University and a BA in History from Brown University. His research interests include teacher learning generally and learning from service‐learning and the arts specifically. He has also published on LGBTQ issues in education. He is co‐editor of Democratic Dilemmas of Teaching Service‐Learning: Curricular Strategies for Success (2011) published by Stylus in 2011. He is also co‐editor of Art‐Centered Learning Across the Curriculum: Integrating Contemporary Art in the Secondary School Classroom (2014) and Artful Teaching: Integrating the Arts for Understanding Across the Curriculum (2010), both published by Teachers College Press.

Judy Gleeson is an associate professor in the School of Nursing and Midwifery at Mount Royal University. Her professional practice background is public health nursing, and she teaches courses in community health, health equity, and global health. Her current research program is focused on nurses' engagement in health policy, the use of community gardening for promoting health, and reciprocity in global service‐learning (GSL). In 2014, she participated in Reciprocity in Service‐Learning, a GSL initiative with Canadian nursing students and community partners in the Dominican Republic.

Stephanie Glick is an educator, researcher, and artist. She is a doctoral student in Educational Studies at the University of British Columbia. Her scholarship explores society’s complicity and co‐creation of systemic public violence as well as trauma, access to education, and the possibility of schools as sites for cognitive justice.

Sandra E. Godwin earned a PhD in sociology from North Carolina State University in 2000 and has taught at Georgia College since 2002. She has been teaching service‐learning courses since 2011. Sandra’s book manuscript, Creating Spaces for Transformation During the Early Civil Rights Era: The Student YWCA and Georgia State College for Women is under review at The University of Georgia Press. The manuscript is a case study of the (White) campus chapter of the Young Women’s Christian Association at Georgia State College for Women (Georgia College’s former name) during the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s. Though the YWCA is not today typically seen as a promoter of social justice or progressivism, the Student YWCA in the South created spaces for black and white college students to interact together on equal footing. The manuscript tells how the YWCA accomplished this during a time of reactionary politics in Georgia and the nation.

Rafael Gómez is a professor of Spanish at California State University Monterey Bay. His research focuses on second language acquisition, Spanish as a second language pedagogy, and Spanish as a heritage language. He is the coauthor of Rumbos: Curso intermedio de español (Heinle, 2011), “Using Program Evaluation to Make a Case for a New Spanish BA” in Toward Useful Program Evaluation in College Foreign Language Education (2009), and “Mexican Immigration and the Question of Identity in the United States” in The Politics, Economics, and Culture of Mexican‐US Migration: Both Sides of the Border (Palgrave / McMillan, 2007). He received his PhD from Indiana University.

Kari M. Grain is a doctoral candidate and Vanier Scholar in the Department of Educational Studies at the University of British Columbia (UBC), where she currently works in the Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology. She also develops curriculum and pedagogy for service‐learning and experiential education courses across UBC. Previously held positions include service‐learning manager at the University of Calgary and division manager of education programs for an immigrant and refugee settlement organization. Her master’s thesis on volunteer teacher programs in Rwanda garnered the Michele Laferrière Award for top Canadian thesis in comparative education. Her research interests include social justice and global service‐learning, international development, critical emotion and affect studies, and the politics of hope in global engagement efforts. Her current fieldwork uses photovoice and community‐based research to examine community impacts of an international service‐learning program in rural Uganda.

Eric Hartman is an assistant professor of Leadership Studies at Kansas State University, and has previously served as a Visiting Assistant Professor of Global Studies at Providence College and Arizona State University. He holds a PhD in International Development and Public Administration from the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public and International Affairs (GSPIA). Dr. Hartman has published extensively on global civic engagement, campus–community partnerships, and Fair Trade Learning, leading to his receipt of the Early Career Research Award from the International Association for Research on Service‐Learning and Community Engagement. He was recognized with the 4 under 40 Impact Award from GSPIA, due to his leadership as Executive Director of the nongovernmental organization Amizade Global Service‐Learning. Dr. Hartman is co‐founder and editor of globalsl.org, a virtual hub that advances research‐based best practices supporting global learning and cooperative development.

Jennifer Hauver is an associate professor in the Department of Education at Randolph‐Macon College. Her scholarship explores various dimensions of teachers’ and students’ identities and lived experience as they influence their relationships with formal and hidden curricula, each other, and their communities. She is particularly interested in the gendered nature of discursive, institutional, and sociopolitical contexts that shape the possibilities we imagine as educators. Her recent work, exploring the relational dimensions of young people's civic thought and action, will be the subject of her forthcoming book, Young Children's Civic Mindedness: Using Research to Inform Practice (Routledge). She is co‐editor of the book Feminist Community Engagement: Toward Achieving Praxis (Palgrave), and has been published in leading national and international journals, including Gender & Education, Teaching & Teacher Education, and Teachers College Record.

Susan V. Iverson is a professor of Higher Education Leadership at Manhattanville College. Iverson’s research interests focus on: equity and diversity, status of women in higher education, feminist pedagogy, and the role of policy (e.g., sexual violence) in shaping perceptions and culture. She has two co‐edited volumes: Feminist Community Engagement: Achieving Praxis (Palgrave, 2014) and Reconstructing Policy Analysis in Higher Education: Feminist Poststructural Perspectives (Routledge, 2010), and has been published in national and international journals, including Review of Higher Education, Educational Administration Quarterly, Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning. Prior to becoming faculty, Iverson worked in student affairs administration for more than 10 years. Iverson earned her doctorate in higher educational leadership, with a concentration in women’s studies, from the University of Maine.

Rachael Jones is a nursing student with an interest in community health nursing. She spends her time volunteering with the homeless population in Calgary and with Alberta Cancer Foundation. Rachael’s experience with the indigenous Hawaiian community is meaningful to her because it showed her the power of resiliency in children, culture, and community. Rachael holds deep gratitude for her instructor, Andrea Puamakamae`okawēkiu Kennedy, and Elder Aunty Francine for their teachings.

Tania Kajner is a Killam scholar with a doctorate in Educational Policy Studies from the University of Alberta. Her research program critically examines community engagement and higher education in Canada, exploring the intersections of scholarship, community action, and difference. She co‐edited Engaged Scholarship: The Politics of Engagement and Disengagement, one of the few books that critically examines theories and practices of community engagement. Her own engagement in social action is centered on gender equity and social justice, particularly in the areas of violence, poverty, and leadership.

Andrea Puamakamae`okawēkiu Kennedy is a child and family health advocate, dedicated to indigenous peoples. As an associate professor at Mount Royal University (MRU), she teaches undergraduate nursing by integrating Indigenous knowledge. She is honored to learn with her Elders. She holds a deep pride for her diverse relations, including Métis ancestry and adoptive Tsuut'ina and Hawaiian families. She co‐founded MRU Indigenous Health Community of Practice, and is engaged in community service including Wisdom Council, Indigenous Health Program – Alberta Health Services.

Claire J. King is a youth advocate and K–16 educator. Her teaching experience began in a classroom in the South Bronx. As a service‐learning practitioner, she works nationally and internationally with pedagogies of engagement. Currently an open discipline faculty member with expertise in experiential education at Stella and Charles Guttman Community College at CUNY, she teaches and assists colleagues in designing experiential learning opportunities. She is interested in applied research on issues of asset‐based youth development in underresourced urban educational and community settings, and interdisciplinary, inquiry‐based teaching. To this end, she studies brain‐based translational research in the learning sciences and creates culturally responsive and multimodal educational interventions. As the faculty liaison with Guttman’s Office for Partnerships and Community Engagement, she identifies, cultivates, and maintains reciprocal partnerships with external stakeholders for collaboration on projects and grants that relate to the institutional Applied and Civic Engagement student learning outcomes.

Lianne Lee has completed her Master of Arts in Educational Research at the University of Calgary’s Werklund School of Education. She is also the director of the Alberta Healthy Youth Relationships Strategy with Shift: The Project to End Domestic Violence. She has led a broad range of community programs and systems‐change initiatives that seek to enhance the well‐being of children and youth from diverse backgrounds, including co‐founding the award‐winning educational initiative, the Service‐Learning Program for Pre‐service Teachers. Building on this experience, her research focuses on the perspectives of community organization staff in community/university critical service‐learning partnerships.

Darren E. Lund is a professor in the Werklund School of Education at the University of Calgary, where his research examines social justice activism in schools, communities, and professional education programs. Darren was a high school teacher for 16 years, and formed the award‐winning Students and Teachers Opposing Prejudice (STOP) program. He has published over 300 articles, books, and book chapters, and is creator of the popular online Diversity Toolkit project. He co‐founded the Service‐Learning Program for Pre‐Service Teachers, winner of the national 2012 Award of Excellence in Education from the Canadian Race Relations Foundation and has been recognized with a number of awards and honors, including the Alberta Teachers’ Association’s 2015 Educational Research Award, the inaugural 2013 Alberta Hate Crimes Awareness Award, and the 2012 Scholar‐Activist Award from the American Educational Research Association (Critical Educators for Social Justice). He was also named a Reader’s Digest National Leader in Education.

Jaime E. Martinez is an associate professor in the Interdisciplinary Studies program, at New York Institute of Technology. He makes extensive use of technology, performance, and service‐learning pedagogy in his teaching. His research interests include STEAM education and Vygotskian approaches to human development and learning. He earned his PhD in Urban Education at The Graduate Center, of The City University of New York (CUNY). Before his current academic appointment, he was a public school teacher, an entrepreneur, and corporate information technology professional. He also holds a BA in Computer Science from Hunter College at CUNY. He is the author of A Performatory Approach to Teaching, Learning and Technology and most recently The Search for Method in STEAM Education, published by Palgrave Macmillan.

Janice McMillan is a senior lecturer and director of the University of Cape Town’s (UCT) global citizenship program (GCP), which she co‐founded in 2010. She has a PhD (Sociology) from UCT, focused on analyzing service learning as a form of boundary work in higher education. From 1999 to 2001, she was UCT representative on a national service‐learning project funded by the Ford Foundation. From 2010 to 2014 she was also service‐learning Coordinator of Stanford University’s program in Cape Town where she led a required seminar on service, citizenship, and social justice. Her teaching and research interests focus on community‐engaged learning, active citizenship, critical pedagogy and reflective practice, and the identity and role of educators in higher education. She is passionate about teaching and engaging students and colleagues in thinking about current issues and challenges facing South Africa and the Global South. She sits on a number of university committees linked to community engagement.

Leroy F. Moore Jr. is a Black writer, poet, hip‐hop/music lover, community activist, and feminist with a physical disability, and founder of Krip‐Hop Nation (an international network of disabled hip‐hop and other musicians; www.kriphopnation.com). He is currently writing a book on Krip‐Hop Nation and his poetry/lyrics book, The Black Kripple Delivers Poetry & Lyrics, was published in 2015 by Poetric Matrix. He has a poetry CD, Black Disabled Man with a Big Mouth & A High I.Q., and another entitled The Black Kripple Delivers Krip Love Mixtape. He is a long‐time columnist, writing one of the first columns on race and disability from the early 1990s for Poor Magazine (www.poormagazine.org) in San Francisco, and is one of the leading voices around police brutality and wrongful incarceration of people with disabilities.

Emily A. Nusbaum is an assistant professor at the University of San Francisco. Her current research is focused on developing critical, qualitative research methods related to disability. She has also used ethnographic methods to uncover the tenuous commitments of teachers to inclusive schooling within accountability pressures, concluding with the need for inclusive education to be taken up as an ideological stance.

Cody Morris Paris is the deputy director of Middlesex University Dubai and an associate professor in the School of Law. He holds a PhD in Community Resource Development from Arizona State, and is a senior research fellow with the University of Johannesburg. He has published widely in top peer‐reviewed journals and his research has been recognized through several prestigious awards. He is a social scientist with varied research and teaching interests within the areas of tourism, experiential learning, technology, sustainable development, mobilities, geopolitics, and global security. He has traveled to more than 115 countries, and has developed and/or led international study abroad, service learning, and other forms of experiential learning programs to the Caribbean, Australia, Fiji, United Arab Emirates, Europe, Singapore, Ghana, and North America.

David Peacock is the executive director, CSL, in the Faculty of Arts at the University of Alberta, Canada. His PhD from the University of Queensland (2014) was in the Sociology of Education and involved an institutional ethnography of university outreach practices to students from disadvantaged schools. He researches and publishes on student equity and higher education, global service‐learning, curriculum theory, community‐based research and university–community engagement.

Nasim Peikazadi is a doctoral student in the department of Educational Studies at the University of British Columbia. She works as an educator and a researcher. Her current research is on refugee integration services in Canada, with a focus on employability preparation services for resettled refugees. Her research is deeply informed by commitment to a holistic conception of social justice in human development contexts. She is interested in exploring the potentials of community‐engaged practices in creating inclusive spaces for marginalized populations, including new immigrants and refugees.

Yvonne Poitras Pratt (Métis) traces her family lineage to ancestral involvement in the fur trade and in the Provisional Government of 1869, and to several First Nations. As an associate professor at the Werklund School of Education, she teaches in the graduate and undergraduate programs, and publishes in the area of decolonizing media, critical service‐learning, and reconciliatory pedagogy. In 2016, she collaborated with a group of colleagues to develop a graduate program focused on responding to Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s calls to action. She is working on a future publication entitled Educating with Digital Storytelling: A Decolonizing Journey for an Indigenous Community as a contemporary example of how Indigenous communities might work to revitalize oral traditions and intergenerational learning.

David Alan Sapp is vice provost for Academic Affairs at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles. As a specialist in technical writing with expertise in civic engagement, social justice, and educational program development, he has conducted fieldwork in Brazil, China, Cuba, Nicaragua, and Spain. His work explores the ongoing struggles of disenfranchised populations, including civic development projects and environmental activism. His recent research includes a book on teaching English Language Learners, published by Bedford/St. Martin’s Press in 2014, and a special issue on human rights of the Journal of Rhetoric, Professional Communication, and Globalization, that he co‐edited in 2013. In 2016, he received a Fulbright grant to support his research and consultancies at the Universidad del Norte in the República de Colombia.

Michelle Scott is the director of Indigenous Initiatives at St. Mary’s University, and graduate student in the University of Saskatchewan’s Master of Education: Lifelong Learning Cohort with a strong Indigenous focus. Her ancestry is English/Irish/Mi’kmaq and her passion for decolonizing spaces for Indigenous learners keeps her fully engaged with community. She serves as co‐chair of Calgary Indigenous Learners Domain, Calgary Learns Advisory Council Member, and Advisory Circle Member – Aboriginal Upgrading Program at Bow Valley College. She enjoys spending time on the land with her boys and is blessed to be welcomed in the Calgary Indigenous community which enriches her life and her spirit daily.

Lisa Semple is a registered nurse with over 30 years’ experience, associate professor in the School of Nursing and Midwifery, and member of the Indigenous Health Community of Practice at Mount Royal University. She teaches students across the program with special interest in children’s health and service‐learning. Research interests relate to impact of early diagnosis on families, parent education needs, supportive nursing actions important to families, and innovative teaching and learning strategies for classroom learning. She is involved with service‐learning initiatives including chairing a faculty task force to offer resources, leadership, and build capacity.

Kathleen C. Sitter is an assistant professor at Memorial University in the School of Social Work. Her research and scholarship focus on the theoretical and practical implications of participatory visual media, which includes the use of still and moving images in collaborative and participatory frameworks. Through her research, she has worked with a variety of adults and youth in the areas of disablement, sex work, employment, education, mental and physical health, and homelessness.

Elder “Grandmother” Doreen Spence is from Saddle Lake, Cree Nation, and now resides in Calgary. She is a traditional healer, retired Registered Nurse, author, and presiding Elder for the United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations to support the United Nations Declaration of Rights for Indigenous Peoples (2007). Grandmother founded the Plains Cultural Survival School Society and Canadian Indigenous Women’s Resource Institute. Her many honors include a Nobel Peace Prize nomination for the 1000 Women of Peace Project, and receiving, along with his holiness the Dalai Lama, an international award at the New Zealand Spiritual Elders Conference. Grandmother has dedicated her life to service with local‐to‐global communities as a human rights and peace activist, to build understanding, collaboration and reconciliation between all peoples.

Kupuna “Aunty” Francine Dudoit Tagupa comes from a lineage of Native Hawaiian healers who taught her skills that are valued both in the Native Hawaiian and general community. She is director, Traditional Hawaiian Healing, at Waikiki Health, Honolulu, Hawai`i. She has over 35 years’ experience as a registered nurse and native Hawaiian practitioner. She develops health programs to promote and preserve Hawaiian healing traditions through education, research and apprenticeship, including integrating Hawaiian healing with Western medicine, and is a member of Na Hululei Kupuna Council, serving native Hawaiian practitioners. She has received many awards, including recognition from Moloka`i General Hospital, the U.S. Department of Health, and the American Business Women’s Association.

Scharie Tavcer is an associate professor in the Department of Justice Studies at Mount Royal University. Her academic endeavors revolve around social justice issues particular to violence against women. From a community‐based perspective and feminist criminological theory, research projects have centered on poverty‐related offending, prostitution and sex trafficking, and sexual victimization and sexual offending, and relationship violence. She is also active in the justice community. She has served on the Board of Directors of the Elizabeth Fry Society of Calgary and has participated in various capacities with the United Way, the Prostitution Awareness & Action Foundation of Edmonton, Shift at AIDS Calgary, Servants Anonymous Society, and various other organizations which address criminalized women.

Alison Taylor is a professor in the Educational Studies department at the University of British Columbia. Her research over the past decade has focused primarily on experiential learning and youth transitions from school to work. She completed a study of high school apprentices, documented in her 2016 book, Vocational Education in Canada (Oxford University Press). Her current work explores community service‐learning in higher education.

Alan Tinkler is an assistant professor in the Department of Education at the University of Vermont. He completed his PhD in English at the University of Denver. In addition to studying teacher education, he is interested in school remodeling, particularly in line with proficiency‐based learning and assessment, with attention to student voice.

Barri Tinkler is an associate professor and accreditation coordinator in the Department of Education at the University of Vermont. She completed her PhD in Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Denver. Her research focuses on the impact of service‐learning on preservice teachers’ perceptions of diversity. Most recently she has had students work with adult refugees preparing for the citizenship exam.

Margot Underwood is an assistant professor in the School of Nursing and Midwifery at Mount Royal University. Her research focuses on global health partnerships and explores global host partners’ perspectives regarding partnership and collaboration, nursing students’ personal and professional learning in international community health field schools, and peer mentorship in global service‐learning. Her teaching interests are in the areas of community health, equity and social action, and transformative learning through immersion learning experiences. She serves on the Faculty of Health, Community and Education task force for CSL, and leads a CSL field school in the Dominican Republic each year.

Cynthia Ward‐Edwards is program manager for the Baldwin County Recreation Department. She grew up in the Harrisburg neighborhood and attended both public and private schools. She graduated from Georgia Military College and Middle Georgia State University. She not only organizes and supervises activities and special events for the Recreation Department, she is also seen as a community leader in general. Some of the programs she supervises include summer camps both athletic and nonathletic. She also runs an after‐school tutoring program in Harrisburg and is one of the first community fellows for the ENGAGE program at Georgia College & State University. She advises faculty and students who are new to community engagement and collaborates with Sandra E. Godwin and other faculty who bring students to the Harrisburg weekly neighborhood revitalization meetings. She describes her job as being a part of the entire community and helping to enhance the quality of community life.

Patricia A. Whang is a professor in the Liberal Studies Department at California State University Monterey Bay. She feels fortunate to teach a lower division service‐learning course that offers a potent opportunity to challenge how students, from a variety of majors, think about schooling in modern society. Part of the challenge is to disrupt the taken‐for‐granted, make the simplistic complex, and inspire a reimagining of possibilities. To this end, she relentlessly pursues pedagogical practices that ignite the will to see, question, act, and connect.

Kathleen S. Yep is associate dean of faculty in Academic Affairs and a professor of Asian American Studies at Pitzer College (of the Claremont Colleges) and researches cultural politics, feminist/antiracist pedagogies, and critical public health. She is the author of Outside the Paint: When Basketball Ruled at the Chinese Playground (Temple University Press, 2009) and co‐authored Dragon’s Child: The Story of Angel Island (HarperCollins, 2008) with Laurence Yep. A specialist in oral historiography, she advised a community digital archive funded by the California Council of the Humanities called “API Women, Faith, Action: Fourteen Oral Histories of Asian Pacific Islander Women and Their Faith‐based Activism.” Raised in Northern California, she received her BA, MA, and PhD in Ethnic Studies from the University of California, Berkeley. With an interest in digital humanities and culturally relevant palliative care, she is currently researching community wellness beside Asian and Pacific Islander communities in Southern California and Hawai`i.

Part IIntroduction

The Social Justice Turn in Service‐Learning: Cultivating “Critical Hope” and Engaging with Despair

Kari M. Grain, Assistant Editor, and Darren E. Lund, Editor

Recent global headlines about suicide attacks, xenophobic rhetoric, systemic gun violence, and the continued displacement of those fleeing civil war and environmental catastrophe have foregrounded social justice issues pertaining to race, nationality, socioeconomic status, religion, and a host of other factors. In our view, the pervasive despair of our current historical moment has necessitated the urgent development of the conceptual “social justice turn” in service‐learning. We suggest that our field can neither afford to avoid difficult conversations about social justice, nor ethically stand aside because of a “hope deferred” (Duncan‐Andrade, 2009, p. 4) that deems such issues too overwhelming for a small field such as ours to address. This Handbook represents for us an emblematic stand against – and engagement with – despair. The social justice turn and our introductory notes use as a foundational starting point three trends that have been consistently marginalized but are gaining momentum in our field: (a) critique of the field’s roots in charity; (b) a problematization of White1 normativity, paired with the bolstering of diverse voices and perspectives; and (c) the embrace of emotional elements including tension, ambiguity, and discomfort (Grain & Lund, 2016). By enacting a social justice approach, service‐learning has the potential to empower communities, resist and disrupt oppressive power structures, and work for solidarity with host and partner communities. Although themes related to power and privilege are far from new in service‐learning, we suggest an immediate need for a shift from their marginalized position to a more central focus, thereby laying a foundation for an emergent social justice turn. Subsequently, we also offer “critical hope” (Bozalek, Carolissen, Liebowitz, & Boler, 2014; Freire, 2007) as a conceptual space in which service‐learning as a field may simultaneously acknowledge the historical and contextual roots of despair, while using this affective element as a pedagogical and curricular means to engage service‐learning more intentionally as a vehicle for social justice goals. We complete this introductory chapter by outlining some of the rigorous research and innovative approaches to social justice service‐learning that our contributing authors have made to this Handbook. It is only with the unrelenting work of these pedagogues, community partners, researchers, practitioners, and other colleagues that the social justice turn may in some small way facilitate a more hopeful direction for our field.

Engaging with Despair

It was grounds for despair. On September 2, 2015, a three‐year‐old Syrian boy named Alan Kurdi2 washed ashore on a Mediterranean beach. The drowning was not an unusual occurrence in the region, as news articles and witness reports had many times made second‐page international headlines, warning of the exodus out of Syria, and calling alarm to the deplorable conditions of human trafficking boats. What made Alan’s story front‐page news, however, was the graphic imagery that quickly invoked in citizens around the world an emotional connection to this victim of civil war and structural inequality. Alan, one child of thousands lost to a circumstance positioned firmly in a larger web of structural restrictions and political conflict, became every person’s child in the global imaginary. Countless public figures saw in Alan a child they knew and loved; former Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper recalled the moment he and his wife saw the photo, and it evoked memories of their own son at that age (The Canadian Press, 2015). Social media forums erupted with the hashtag #Alankurdi, mourning his death and the circumstances leading up to it, forming support groups for Syrian refugees, and organizing protests. The notorious photograph rendered the Syrian conflict and its consequences more than a distant political story; for many, Alan became an intimate personification of a civil war, and the face that ignited ethical debates about – among other things – who is granted the privilege of mobility, who has the power to patrol borders, what it means to work for social justice, and to what degree each individual, organization, and government is responsible for taking action when humans suffer.

These questions, catalyzed by the death of a child, echoed the work we were doing in putting together this Handbook. In tandem with the hateful rhetoric of far right parties in Europe and elsewhere, and popularized xenophobic responses to the global refugee crisis, the death of Alan Kurdi implored us to ask what the field of service‐learning and community engagement can and ought to do in light of this emotionally charged, highly divisive historical moment. Service‐learning is ideally positioned to put a human face to issues of inequality and human suffering; notions of mobility, power, privilege, and responsibility are especially vital to this field in a time when the global events of recent years have caused a heightened sense of urgency and a widening political divisiveness between constructed binaries of Black and White, migrant and refugee, police officer and citizen, right and left politics, Republican and Democrat, and more broadly, “us and them.” High‐profile suicide attacks in Brussels, Lahore, London, Nice, Ouagadougou, and Manchester (to name only a few), escalating racialized police brutality, mass gun violence, the polarizing rhetoric of political campaigns here and abroad, and the rising rate of political and environmental refugees, have all profoundly shifted the landscape in which service‐learning in higher education operates, and therefore must influence how we respond as educators, scholars, practitioners, and citizens within a field that continually navigates border crossings of all sorts.

It bears accentuating that the challenging nature of our current historical moment is not a new phenomenon, and indeed, marginalized communities have faced myriad struggles for many generations. In fact, although the current political climate seems new partly because it has only recently gained momentum within popular media, issues of racism, Islamophobia, xenophobia, misogyny, colonialism, exploitation, and oppression have been unrelenting for many years. Current injustices underlined by stories such as Alan Kurdi’s, in other words, are far from new, but rather have been in continuous development, each issue of injustice gaining quiet momentum until a photo, a video, or a story finally grips the attention of mainstream media and a broader public. This recent shift – one of increased attention and intensity – demands that educators, practitioners, and institutions take stock; we argue that this has necessitated an organized, conceptual turn in higher education service‐learning – one that is acutely aware of and responsive to inequality and dangerous rhetoric, and one that actively problematizes its own roots and blind spots. The contributors to this Handbook have done just that in their various contributions to this field.

With this increased attention to injustice in mind, we suggest in this Introduction that a social justice turn has (only just) begun in the field of service‐learning, led by critical scholars and pedagogues; if developed intentionally and robustly, this turn will keep the field relevant amid the divisive politics of our current times. Without the social justice turn and its continued bolstering, service‐learning, steeped in a history of White normativity and charity, risks becoming an outdated pedagogy; it could simply lapse into an approach that inadvertently exacerbates intolerance, leaves the heavy lifting to marginalized activists, and omits criticality in favor of naïve hope. This naïve hope, as Freire (2007) forecasted, leads only to despair because it lacks a foundation of political struggle:

Without a minimum of hope, we cannot so much as start the struggle. But without the struggle, hope, as an ontological need, dissipates, loses its bearings, and turns into hopelessness. And hopelessness can become tragic despair. Hence the need for a kind of education in hope. (p. 3)

Service‐learning is thus poised, via the social justice turn, as a pedagogy that encounters injustice and divisiveness as it occurs in local and global communities, and using as a catalyst these disheartening and enraging events that could comprise grounds for despair, instead fuels itself to engage in political action toward social and economic justice.

Theoretical Framework

Using a theoretical framework inspired by critical social justice pedagogy (Freire, 1970; Kumashiro, 2009; Sensoy & DiAngelo, 2012) and critical race feminism (Bannerji, 2000; hooks, 2003; Razack, 1998), we outline social justice service‐learning scholarship that has pushed the field toward this conceptual turn, describe the key tenets of the proposed transition that have already begun to take place, and suggest further developments that our field must consciously enhance if it is to remain relevant in a politically divided global atmosphere. We acknowledge that higher education institutions perpetuate inequality through hegemony, patriarchy, classism, and White normativity (Bannerji, 2000; hooks, 2003; Razack, 1998), all of which must be countered by higher education service‐learning practices and scholarship (Verjee, 2012). Central to the extension of the social justice turn, we advocate for a continued diversification of voices in the field, and adopt a firm anti‐oppressive stance toward the hate speech highlighted by outspoken politicians and social media groups. We offer the notion of “critical hope” (Bozalek et al., 2014; Freire, 2007) as a helpful tool for thinking about and moving through some of the “difficult knowledge” (Britzman, 1998) that service‐learning participants (community partners, students, faculty, and staff) often encounter. When inequality is foregrounded in service‐learning programs and in the broader society in which they are situated, it is these “pedagogies of crisis,” as Kumashiro (2009) described them, with which service‐learning participants and affected communities must grapple.

Literature Review: Evidence of a Social Justice Turn in Service‐Learning

The discussion of social justice is not new in the field of service‐learning, as practitioners and scholars in the past decade or so have called for justice‐learning (Butin, 2007a), a pedagogy of interruption (Bruce, 2013), critical service‐learning (Mitchell, 2008), social justice sense‐making (Mitchell, 2013), global service‐learning (Hartman & Kiely, 2014; Hartman, Kiely, Friedrichs, & Boettcher, 2013) and antifoundational service‐learning (Butin, 2007a), among others. According to Reynolds and Horvat (in press), the shift toward global service‐learning in particular “explicitly focuses on power, privilege, and community, acknowledges our increasingly interconnected world, and draws attention to the ways in which global ethical engagement must be at the center of domestic experiences as well as experiences abroad” (n.p.). Some volumes have focused on the intersection of social justice and service‐learning (e.g., Calderón, 2007; Cipolle, 2010; Tinkler, Tinkler, Jagla, & Strait, 2016) and various publications have pointed to the goal of using this approach as a project in the development of a citizenship oriented in, expressing commitment to, and highly valuing social justice (Battistoni, 2013; Mitchell, 2013). Other scholars are beginning to pair service‐learning and community engagement together, given the significant overlap (e.g., Dolgon, Mitchell, & Eatman, 2017). Regardless of the titles we choose, some of our colleagues who lead this murkily defined field are charging ahead with bold new directions; as Dolgon, Mitchell, and Eatman eloquently declare, “students are refusing to be coddled by community service and volunteerism that smacks of feel‐good activism or noblesse oblige.” They inspire us to use this volume to “embrace community‐engaged practice as political education” (p. xvii).