All European countries are facing a lack of skilled workforce and a rather high rate of youth unemployment rate. Often the qualification of the young talents does not match the actual needs of the labour market. One possibility too better align the qualifications to the real needs of the companies is to apply a work-based learning method like the dual system from Germany. It provides a high level of training on the spot, in the company. The publication sums up experiences of introducing the dual vocational training system in Hungary, Lithuania and Poland, including curricula and evaluation reports. The book puts an emphasis on vocational training in the Baltic Sea Region and shares also experiences of VET from other, non-EU countries like Russia.
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The project “Dual Vocational Training for the Qualification and Integration of Young people and the Strengthening of Innovation in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises” (WBL) was carried out by the following consortium:
Baltic Sea Academy, Germany
Chamber of Crafts Dresden, Germany
Kontiki Vocational Ltd., Hungary
Vilnius Builder Trainings Center, Lithuania
Panevezys College, Lithuania
Hanseatic Institute for Support of Small and Medium Enterprises, Poland
Chamber of Crafts and SME in Szczecin, Poland
Part I Results of the project “Dual Vocational Training for the Qualification and Integration of Young people and the Strengthening of Innovation in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises”
Approaches for the introduction of the dual vocational training in Hungary, Poland and Lithuania
1.1 | Realisation concept for dual vocational training in Hungary
1.2 | Implementation plans for the future introduction of dual vocational training in Poland
1.3 | Concept of the implementation of dual vocational training in Lithuania
Preparation, implementation and evaluation of the dual vocational training
2.1 | Finisher (Builder) dual training program
2.2 | Evaluation concept and results and recommendations for future applications
Curricula and further concepts for implementation of the training for trainers
3.1 | Program of the course for trainers/instructors of the training in enterprises
3.2 | Concept of the evaluation of the training for trainers
3.3 | Evaluation report – experiences with the pilot test of the training of trainers
3.4 | Conclusions and recommendations after the evaluation of the training of trainers
Part II Results of the multiplier events “Dual Vocational Training for the Qualification and Integration of Young people and the Strengthening of Innovation in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises”
Dr. Jürgen Hogeforster
Objectives and strategies for vocational training in the countries of the Baltic Sea Region
Implementation of the work based learning concept in Lithuania
Experiences with Work-based learning methods: new ways in the Hungarian vocational training
Dr. Jürgen Hogeforster
Segregation and inclusion in the vocational training
Vocational training and support of innovations in vocational training for Polish SMEs
Dr. Chetyrbock Natallia, Dr. Prarouski Andrei
Youth employment in Belarus: conditions, problems and prospects for solution
Dr. Elena Viktorova, Tatiana Shevchenko
Practice-oriented Professional Training in Russia – The Experience of Educational Institutions in Saint-Petersburg
Dr. Jarosław Oczki, Dr. Ewa Wędrowska
Employment activation of young graduates in the Polish labour market
Dr. Jürgen Hogeforster
Working groups' results - Work-based learning and dual vocational training
Publications of the Baltic Sea Academy
Members of the Hanse Parlament
Members of the Baltic Sea Academy
Vocational education and training (VET) has lost much of its attractiveness in the last decades. Especially in EU countries with predominantly school-based vocational training (e.g. Poland, Lithuania, Latvia) the participation is low and it has dropped to a considerably low level. By many young people participation in VET is even perceived as a dead end of for their professional career. At the same time companies complain about the graduates’ lack of skill. The consequences are unbearable high unemployment rates, e.g. up to 20% in Lithuania, Latvia and Poland of the 15-24-year olds in 20161.
Due to the demographic change, the number of school leavers is dropping significantly in all countries in the Baltic Sea Region, with the exception of Sweden. By 2030 the number of 15-44-year olds labor force will decrease by to 25%2. Already today in most countries a shortage of skilled workers exists that increasingly affects the future and limits any growth development.
In a world of rapid technological developments, demographic change and economic restructuring, VET faces a particular challenge to ensure that young people are prepared for tomorrow’s work places3. The increase of qualifications and at the same time eliminating the shortage of skilled labor is the most important task and key to sustainably strengthen innovation, competitiveness and growth of SMEs.
The german dual VET, a work-based learning method, leads to comparatively low youth unemployment can make substantial contributions with lasting impact to meet these challenges. For this reason, the project „Dual Vocational Training for the Qualification and Integration of Young People and the Strengthening of Innovation in SMEs“, that is presented in this book publication, has the following overall objectives:
greatly improved integration of young people in vocational training and reduction of youth unemployment and
preparation of manpower and thus promotion of innovation and competitiveness in SMEs.
The following action objectives serve this purpose:
On the basis of the German dual VET principles, specific concepts for the realization of work-based learning for three countries with predominantly school-based vocational training (Poland, Lithuania and Hungary) are developed.
In two of these countries dual vocational training is introduced. The dual vocational training is tailored to the specific conditions of the countries and includes the experiences from all countries around the Baltic Sea.
Development of adapted curricula for training for trainers (in-company trainers who educate trainees in enterprises) and implementations in Poland, Lithuania and Hungary.
Development of coordinated concepts and for 13 countries establishment of international network for permanent promotion and implementation of work based learning approach.
Transfer of the project results to 67 education providers from 13 countries and promoting broad-based implementations.
The project was launched and led by the Baltic Sea Academy – an association of 17 universities and universities of applied sciences – that has successfully developed dual bachelor's degree programs in recent years (vocational training in SMEs while studying at a university of applied sciences) and implemented these in different countries.
Another renowned expert of the German dual system, the Chamber of Crafts Dresden is represented in the project consortium to share materials and experiences for dual vocational training and the train-the-trainers training for SMEs.
With the Chamber of Crafts and SME in Szczecin in Poland that operates two large vocational schools and two further project partners Kontiki Vocational Ltd. in Hungary and Vilnius Builder Trainings Center in Lithuania altogether four vocational schools are involved in the project. These partners are interested and capable to realize vocational trainings according to the work-based learning principles. Both latter schools cooperate strongly with the regional chambers that introduce SMEs to the operational parts of the training.
Panevezys College from Lithuania and Hanseatic Institute for Support of Small and Medium Enterprises from Poland contribute with region-specific concepts and curricula; monitor, evaluate and give advice while the pilots of the dual vocational trainings are completing. In addition, both partners are responsible of the development of concepts and curricula for the train-the-trainers training and together with chambers are capable to realise those long-term.
Through permanent involvement of 67 educational actors from 13 countries in the project process continuous support network for the implementation of work based learning is established.
The project was carried out between September 2014 and August 2017. All results with extensive materials have been published separately online at the project website: http://www.work-based-learning.eu/.
This manual contains
with summaries of the project results,
with presentations and results from multiplier events organised as international consultations’ and transfer conferences that were carried out within the framework of the project.
1http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Unemployment_statistics (July 2017)
2 Biermann, Ulrike, Dr. Boll, Christina et al. in Hogeforster, Max (ed.) (2013): Economic Perspectives, Qualification and Labour Market Integration of Women in the Baltic Sea Region, Hamburg, p. 34
3 Calleja, Joachim James (2015): Stronger VET for better lives. Cedefop’s monitoring report on vocational education and training policies 2010 – 14, Cedefop Reference series 98, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/publications/3067 (July 2017)
1. Legal regulations
The legal regulations in Hungary, in its current form, offer the possibility of adapting the German dual vocational training system. However, in this regard there can be identified the following difficulties:
The state-run vocational schools are in process to be centralised; the institutions monitored “from above” are very inflexible.
There are annual changes which professions vocational schools may offer that is decided by for education responsible institutions. After that each school can freely decide which professions it wants and is able to offer. However, it is always up to the government to determine the number of pupils who can be enrolled in the individual schools.
In vocational schools, there is a lack of teachers who actually have comprehensive know-how of individual occupations.
The skills of the trainers working in the workshops of the vocational schools are usually not up-to-date.
At the moment only greater companies can satisfy the necessary conditions for carrying out dual vocational training part dedicated in company.
The involvement of SMEs in vocational training is difficult; SMEs have no financial means to create their own modern conditions necessary to have for training.
There are no research and development capacities in Hungary which would support the development of dual vocational training and further vocational training to equip instructors and trainers in companies.
In the current financing system of education, there are often conflicts of interest between schools and enterprises, and access to financing programs is mainly secured for large companies.
2. The structure of the Hungarian education system
In Hungary, children aged from 6 – 16 have compulsory school attendance. In general, pupils can attend daily classes until they reach the age of 21. After that only distance learning or evening classes in the context of adult education are possible.
The compulsory education lasts for 8 school years and afterwards there are only three possibilities to learn further: grammar school (gymnasium) offers programs of general education for 4 years (partly 5 years) at the ISCED 3A level; graduation from grammar school ensures admission to studies. Another education pathway is the participation in the secondary vocational education. The secondary vocational education offers 4-(partly 5) years’ education programs. It consists of general education and basic professional knowledge (ISCED 3) and at the same time prepares pupils to obtain qualification for higher education. After that graduates can decide to attend post-secondary vocational education and training for 1 – 3 years (ISCED 4C) or entry higher education.
In 2011, the new Vocational Training Act introduced the dual vocational training model. Vocational schools are only allowed to start vocational training in the dual system from the 2013/14 school year, but in some institutions such training has already been introduced as from September 2012. As of the first year, the new 3-years dual vocational training courses offer general education and vocational training. The share of practice increases significantly, as opposed to theory and general education.
The majority of pupils (98-99%) completes primary and lower secondary education by age of 16 (ISCED 1-2). At the beginning of the 1990s a large expansion of the schools began that offer graduation examination or Abitur. Meeting these social needs this became to be the goal of education policy. The number of pupils rose in those schools sharply (ISCED 3-3A) since Abitur (university-entrance diploma) has become a prerequisite to entry tertiary level education. The vocational schools (ISCED 3C, rarely 2C), however, do not offer Abitur. For this reason, and because of lower average income and social status, the reputation and the number of pupils in the vocational schools decreased compared to school forms that offered Abitur.
1. Table. Number of pupils in different types of schools in the school year 20011/12
General education (grades 9-10)
Vocational education school
Vocational training (grades
11, 11-12, 11-13)
Early vocational training
General education (grades
Vocational training (post-
Grammar school (ISCED 3A)
General education (grades 9-12/13)
Total with post-secondary level
The trend has changed rapidly in the 1990s - the proportion of pupils in the various schools after completing primary and lower secondary education (ISCED 1-2), the claim for forms which offer Abitur has increased and at the same time pupils avoided VET education that could not offer qualification for university entrance. This trend has stabilized in the past 10 years, even more; it has been transformed over the next 10 years. Thanks to the new guidelines of the policy, not only the proportion of pupils in the vocational schools increases, but even the number - despite the lower total number of pupils.
The structure of the Hungarian education system has changed somewhat in 2013 with the new regulations of public education, vocational training and higher education.
The centralised governmental actions (regulation) have been extended (ownership of schools, development of the content-related programs, etc.).
The restructuring of the educational system has been accompanied by the following changes in the number of pupils in different educational schools’ types:
Although one of the most important objectives was to increase the number and at the same time share of pupils in vocational schools, it can be seen that this was achieved in the 9th grade only in the school year 2012/13; restructuring of the education system didn’t have brought forth further changes. It cannot be ruled out that increasing the number and proportion of pupils in vocational training is the result of the involvement of representatives of the economy and the individual professions and the strengthening of dual vocational training.
As observed in the 2. table, the educational programs that provide qualification for higher education entrance dominate, but the figures also clearly show that there are no other educational programs besides the "Híd I." ("Bridge I") that supports pupils who do not manage the crossover from the compulsory education to a school of secondary general or secondary VET education. Since the results of the investigations clearly prove that the risk of drop-outs is very high exactly at this stage when transitioning from compulsory education to the next education level. This is why the overcoming of this problem has to be treated as a priority.
In 2012 in Hungary, the rate of the school dropout with 11.3% was lower than the EU average of 12.9%. According to data from the year 2013, the number is, however, with 12.5% rising, on the contrary to the trend of the EU, where the number has been reduced for many years.
Unfortunately, in Hungary, the number of pupils who finished secondary level schools has not been increased, and the drop-out rates have only declined for the last 8-10 years. In any case, the government wants to reduce the drop-out rate to 10% by 2020.
The drop-out rates are the major problem in the vocational schools (ISCED 2 / 3C). As the results of various studies underline, the Hungarian education system has become very selective and polarized. The disadvantaged students are more likely to "land" in vocational schools that cannot compensate those disadvantages, which causes high drop-out rates, reproducing the inequalities5.
The dual vocational training, where practice plays an important role, can lead to success in the case of students with learning difficulties who, however, have good manual skills, and the work can lead to new learning experiences. The "Híd I." program, or the regulations of practice in the ninth grade of the vocational schools, expects from the pupils who did not succeed in primary school to achieve success in the school environment, rather than to take advantage of the opportunities for re-socialization within the dual education.
The government intends to reduce the dominance of theoretical education on the basis of the German example and to increase the share of work-based learning.
In the opinion of the author of this article, pupils cannot succeed in acquiring their profession, and the drop-out rates cannot be reduced, if vocational schools continue the same pedagogic methodology as in elementary school, where the young people failed. This is the biggest problem behind the high drop-out rates. As a further reason for dropouts that can only be reduced with conscious intervention, are poor behavior of pupils’ families and society of adults, which cause long-term effects in the mental status of pupils and which ones can be compensated by educational means only very seldom. The author is convinced that one of the possible means for the success of vocational schools and whole education system, concerning the drop-out issue, is the experience of pupils in work environment. However, this is only possible with the aid of dual vocational education.
Concerning the success of young workers on the labor market, it is also of great importance, for example, whether the young people have acquired their practical experience in the work environment of their profession, or in the school environment, or whether they have been able to work together with colleagues also from other professions. There are already researches in Hungary regarding the effect of dual vocational education. First results show that the young people, who have participated in the dual education system, appear to be more successful throughout their professional carrier. However, there should be considered important sub - questions (for example, large firms or micro-enterprises). On the whole, the results of the research of the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry can be used when arguing pro introduction of the German dual system in Hungary.
„Young people who worked in a company during training could find a job easier. 41% of pupils who acquired their practical knowledge exclusively in the school workshop were able to find job within 9 months. This share is 46% of those who have acquired their practical knowledge in the company, with 49% having both possibilities. Even students who had better theoretical grades had an advantage in the job search (average of those who found a job was 3.68, on the contrary to those who did not find a job with an average of 3.6)”6.
All these aspects must be taken into account when adapting the dual VET system. Hungarian regulation, within the framework of the Vocational Training Act, enables the dissemination of the dual vocational training and creates the necessary framework conditions.
2. Table: The situation of young people pursuing their profession in which they acquired their practical knowledge (2009-2012)
(light green – school workshop, medium green - company, dark green – school workshop and company); Left: working, Middle: unemployed, right: used profession
The § 2 of the Act states: „11. Vocational education and training: practical training is part of vocational training, which takes place in the school workshop, in the workshop of a state institution for adult education, or in other institutions, with the aim of learning in practice the skills necessary for vocational training, preparing for the practical part of examination, which is determined in the case of school-based education by VET curriculum”.
The adaptation of the German experience and best practices is therefore possible, but it is very important that the representation is effective.
An ideal scene of the transfer of the German experiences with regard to the dual vocational training can be discourses, which are well-oriented with provision and discussion of German research results and methodology. All the possible methods and actions for experience exchange and effective adapting and thus developing own practice should be used: travel or research project, or development workshop in which practical questions are answered, organizational solutions elaborated and applied.
3. Educational methodological areas
There are two educational segments - vocational training and classes of vocational schools offering post-graduate vocational training and in total three educational methodological areas where, after in-depth analysis of Hungarian government, the adaptation of the German dual vocational training system is possible:
First, within the framework of the 3-year vocational training, after successful completion of the primary school (occupations with code 34).
This education period lasts for 3 years; 1/3 comprises general education, the remaining two years of vocational training are suitable to be organized in a dual form. Second, for pupils who received qualification for university entrance in secondary vocational school, there is also the possibility to acquire a profession within the scope of vocational training (occupations with code 54). This training lasts for 2 years, where only specialist knowledge is provided, and this period of education is suitable in dual form.
Third, within vocational training for drop-out students of the secondary level schools; for this, the grades of pupils' general education subjects are credited and only professional knowledge is imparted. The whole training period is for 2 years and this period of education is suitable in dual form.
4. Participation in the implementation of the German dual vocational training system
In the case of the adaptation of the German dual vocational education and training system, first and foremost - of the education segments mentioned in the third paragraph - particularly interesting are the professional training courses in which regulation and examination define a share of practical training of at least 60%. There are enough professions in all fields of education to meet this requirement, but we – the representatives of the Kontiki Vocational Ltd., propose the following profession for the adaptation of the German dual vocational training system: bricklayer / tiler (code: 34 582 08) within the project WBL.
The special about the occupation bricklayer / tiler is that graduates can be employed by both - SMEs and large companies. This is why those pupils must be helped during the training to be able to integrate in both working environments. For years there is a lack of skilled workers in the professions bricklayer / tiler in the middle part of Hungary so the young people with this qualification have good chances to find a job.
Participation in the implementation of the German dual vocational training system is possible according to the Vocational Training Act for all vocational schools, secondary vocational schools and enterprises of the construction sector.
The construction companies can be divided into two very different groups. Some of them have high capital and management capacities and, in the case of larger contracts, often involve SMEs as subcontractors in the execution of the work. Their participation in vocational education and training is important, for example, in the construction of structural engineering or high-rise construction, which form part of the curriculum of the bricklayers.
Their participation in the education can be ensured by their representatives – for example, the national association of the construction companies or the building material suppliers, which already participate in the education field, for example XELLA or CEMEX.
However, direct participation in the education cannot be expected. Instead of it involvement of subcontractors of large companies or SMEs can be a real goal. In order to activate the companies and to establish reliable cooperation structures between enterprises and schools, representatives of enterprises should be involved like IP-OSZ, National Association of Micro and Small businesses and Craftsmen in the construction industry, National Association of Craftsmen.
In practice, the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry cannot be included as an organizer, since it acts as the authority of the state in audit of the companies and granting of authorizations, and can only partially represent interests of the enterprises and have no established contacts with schools.
It may be special for Hungarian that, in the 1990s, many companies have been set up as the main job of vocational training in various occupations (among them in the construction industry), which are largely based on the work done by pupils during their training, and thanks to the state sources, the orders are executed at lower cost. The legal regulation of vocational education and training offers the possibility of organizing the participation of the enterprises by specialized companies which connect the enterprises with schools and pupils. Thanks to these intermediaries, pupils learn and practice basic techniques in the workshops of the big companies, and they only come to the craftsmen, where the quality of education is guaranteed by these companies. These intermediate companies help craftsmen to create jobs for graduates through state programs for unemployed young people.
The participation of schools in the dual vocational training is legally regulated. A part of the schools has constant contact with the companies as the summer practice takes place in enterprises in most cases.
During the project, it must be communicated to the teachers of the school that the pupils have to spend much more time than before in the working environment, because the building professions require a lot of cooperation. Cooperation that does not allow isolated learning of profession.
The difficulties of introducing a similar system as in Germany lie not only in subjective conditions, but also in financial issues. Currently, there are financial conflicts of interest in Hungary. When a pupil gets the practical education in a company, the school receives less funding for education of a pupil from the state. In many cases, the reduced financing is not proportional to the quantity of the school's work.
5. Current practice of financing vocational training in Hungary
5.1. Financing of schools:
The cost of education is partly covered by state in both cases – state and private institutions. The amount of funding depends on the number of participating pupils and the chosen profession. This contribution covers more or less the salaries of teachers and other direct assistant staff.
In the case of state schools, the municipal administration finances the operating and maintenance costs of the real estate. From the non-governmental schools, the institutions, which are supported by the church or the minorities, receive an additional financing of operating and maintenance costs of the real estate of 500 euro / pupil / year. Other institutions like foundations, non-profit companies, such as Kontiki Vocational Ltd. does not receive this additional financing.
In the case of private schools, which participate in the dual system, the contribution of the state is reduced to the extent on that training part that takes on the enterprise.
As the dual form of funding for state schools is concerned, one important task in the project (represented in this book – ed.) is to clarify and to explore the financing practices that would encourage the dissemination of the dual education system in Hungary: how are state schools financed within the dual system? What further financing models stimulate the dissemination of the German dual system in Hungary?
5.2. Financing of companies in dual vocational training
All non-state economic operators pay a so-called vocational training contribution, which is 1.5% of the gross salary of the employees. The original goal was to distribute the costs of the enterprises with regard to vocational training. So companies that have trained students have received money from companies that have not participated in education. The distribution of the contribution was conducted by the state together with chambers of commerce.
Today it is a tax, and economic actors and state participants in vocational education and training can request covering of the expenses for carrying out vocational training. The conditions of this requirement are governed by laws and government regulations. In the use of these deposits, and in the development of regulation, chambers have no longer any role.
It should be noted, however, that the payment to training companies to reimburse their costs in respect of vocational training is generally higher than the amount deducted from the school for the same reason. The training company must pay a scholarship from this state contribution to trainees, complete an insurance policy and provide a medical doctor. Companies are entitled to request for funding, which has the authorization of the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry to participate in vocational training.
The Hungarian legal regulation allows the implementation of the German dual education system. Still, it is necessary to clarify the German regulations concerning the vocational training of economic operators in order to see whether the Hungarian regulations should be amended in order to allow the dissemination of the German dual system.
It is necessary to examine the German and Hungarian environment of vocational education and training in order to find out why cooperation between schools and companies can be of interest to both participants. The interests of Hungarian schools and enterprises with regard to dual vocational education and training have to be coordinated on the basis of German experience. It is necessary to examine the educational, motivation and other conditions to prepare persons involved in education sector for the tasks related to the dual vocational training.
It has to be examined which support schools and enterprises need which want to participate in the dual vocational training.
The monitoring system for efficient dual vocational training must be established, the indicators must be defined, and a virtual area and the communication channels must be established, making it possible to get to know the best practices of dual vocational training.
1. Past history
More effective Hungarian vocational training is essential. This statement is supported by the developments in the last years, even decades. So, the lack of qualified specialists prevents the realisation of the development goals of the economy. The opportunities for young people have worsened recently in the Hungarian labour market, and the number of unemployed young people has increased. Additionally, the number of young people who want to learn an occupation after the lower secondary school (ISCED 2) is falling sharply. The majority of craftsmen, for example, in small towns and villages is getting older and the succession of enterprises is not solved.
However, despite these developments the demand for qualified craftsmen is increasing. The gap between the demand and existing skilled craftsmen is additionally enlarged by the fact that young people who successfully complete the vocational training do often not know the work processes and the working conditions in their chosen professions, so that a large part of them do not look for job in the professional field in which the qualification is gained. Another aspect is that the practical training in vocational schools does not integrate young people in a company’s environment, in cooperation structures and does not prepare for resolution of conflicts in companies. The German companies investing in Hungary are very important participants in the Hungarian economy. In previous years, the transfer of the experience of German vocational training has contributed very much to the planning and realization of the economic objectives. In many cases, German specialists, or projects were involved in adapting best practices.
In Hungary, as a result of restructuring the vocational training system in 2012, new legislation has entered into force which enables representatives of the economy to participate more actively in vocational education and training. The Hungarian education policy calls the dual vocational education as a direction of development possibilities.
Kontiki Vocational Ltd. believes that this is a possible way to renew Hungarian vocational training, to spread the dual vocational training model that has already been successful in Germany, which can be adapted to the Hungarian traditions and circumstances.
Having the lead by the Baltic Sea Academy, a consortium was formed to support the development of a program for more effective vocational training in Hungary and the adaption of the German ducal vocational training in Hungary. Based on a detailed analysis of the adaptation environment, the legal and professional situation of Hungarian vocational training, the objectives of the implementation were defined in the first phase of the project. This plan includes the necessary tasks to achieve the objectives of the project in Hungary.
2. Objectives of the implementation of dual vocational training in Hungary
2.1. Development of an effective system for vocational school’s enrolment
Development of effective professional orientation activities with the participation of SMEs.
A well-founded choice of practice-oriented professions and reduction of drop-outs in vocational training.
More intensive involvement of SMEs in the training of professions and the development of relations between pupils and enterprises.
Learning about the practice of professional orientation in German dual vocational training.
2.2. Overview of the contents of the professions painter and tiler (3-years vocational training in the Hungarian education system), adaption of the German content, synchronisation with a curriculum for Lithuania, developed on the basis of German experiences in the project, as well as the development of the final content for Hungary.
3. Framework for the realisation of the adaption
Organisation of the profession painter/upholsterer (2-years vocational training in the Hungarian education system) as a dual vocational training in cooperation with SMEs as partner for practical training.
Development of the vocational education and training program of the professional painter / upholsterer in the dual system, where 70% of the complete education is realized in SMEs. The theory at school makes only share of 30% of the whole training program.
4. Uncovering the lack of conditions for the spread of dual vocational training in Hungary, development of support methods for SMEs with which they can participate in dual education.
5. Realisation of the dual vocational training at the TANEXT Academy Vocational school and at a vocational school offering secondary vocational programs in two school years beginning from 01.09.2015 (school years 2015/2016 and 2016/2017) in the professions painter/upholsterer with at least 20 pupils.
Transfer of the experiences of the dual vocational training to the heads and teachers of the TANEXT Academy Vocational school.
Involvement of SMEs in the dual programs of the TANEXT Academy Vocational school in the professional painter / upholsterer, and in the development of the final educational content.
Dissemination of the benefits of dual education among pupils and parents in order to achieve the necessary number of participants in dual vocational training.
6. Development and implementation of training for trainers/ instructors in companies
Participation in the development of the Train the Trainer program,
Adaptation of the Train the Trainer course,
Testing the train the train course in Hungary for trainers in companies with at least 15 participants,
Analysis of the experiences of the Train the Trainer course,
Development of the final version of the educational program for trainers in Hungary.
7. Establishment of a monitoring system to monitor and support activities when introducing dual training, including involved actors and evaluating experiences.
8. Development of a system for the dissemination of experiences and results in the Hungarian language.
9. Implementation plan of the project objectives in Hungary:
9.1. Time frame 01.09.2014 – 31.05.2015
Establishment of the Hungarian management of the project; establishment of expert groups with the task of developing the concept and planning of the introduction of dual education in Hungary.
Analysis of the Hungarian education system and development of the following professional documents:
Presentation of the Hungarian education system,
Analysis of the Hungarian legal frameworks that influence the Hungarian education system,
Analysis of the professional content of the Hungarian education system, or regulation of vocational training (school forms, presentation of theoretical and practical training in Hungary),
Presentation of the content structure of Hungarian vocational training and the National Education Register,
Presentation of the need for the further development of Hungarian vocational training,
Presentation of government measures in the interests of the development of Hungarian vocational training.
To learn about the experiences of the German dual education, to process the German documents, to transfer the information to experts in workshops and meetings.
Translation of documents in Hungarian.
Development of the implementation concept of dual education in Hungary
Identification of characteristics of dual education in Germany,
Comparative analysis of dual vocational training in Germany and vocational training in Hungary,
Legal framework for adaption in Hungary,
Lack of conditions for the successful adaption of dual vocational training in Hungary,
Proposal concerning the tasks for the preparation of the missing conditions,
Development of a concept of the implementation of dual vocational training in Hungary (1st draft),
Consultation of the design and development of a final version.
Dissemination of information on the benefits of dual vocational training among pupils of the 8th grade and their parents, in the interests of training in the dual education at the TANEXT Academy Vocational school in the professions painter/upholster.
9.2. Time frame June 2015 – August 2016
Planning the dual grades at the TANEXT Academy Vocational school.
Planning and completion of the dual education program of the profession of painter / upholsterer with the involvement of business representatives,
Enrolment in the school year with dual program in the professions painter/upholsterer,
Preparation of contacts between pupils and SMEs,
Final technical planning of the first school year with dual programs (September 1, 2015 – August 31, 2016).
Involvement of practical training partners, SMEs in the execution of the dual education and preparation of the trainers of the practical training partners to carry out the training in the enterprises.
Implementation of the first dual year at the TANEXT Academy Vocational school between September 1, 2015 and August 31, 2016.
Synchronising the timetables of the school’s and the practical training’s parts,
Development of the evaluation system of student participation and progress, and support activities,
Summary of the experiences of the first quarter, with the participation of the theory teachers and the practical trainers,
Assessment of the performance of the pupils in the first half year. Assessment of the theory by the school and assessment of the practical activities by the instructor with the help of evaluation forms and the issuing of the testimony by the school,
Review of the training program of the second half-year based on the experience already gained,
Evaluation of the experiences of the third quarter with the participation of the theory teachers and the practical trainers,
Comprehensive assessment of students at the end of the year with the participation of theory teachers and practical trainers,
Development of educational programs for the necessary retraining in summer,
Preparation and completion of the summer internship,
Assessment of the summer internship and issuing certificates.
Learn and work out the concept and content of the train the trainer course for trainers in the company as well as develop the Hungarian adaptation of the trainer the trainer training program, based on the educational program for Poland and Lithuania developed in the project and the experiences of the practical training partners.
Preparation of the Train the Trainer course in Hungary.
Implementation of the first Hungarian Train the Trainer course.
Evaluation and analysis of the experiences of the first Train the Trainer course in Hungary.
Revision and completion of the Train the Trainer course for further realization in Hungary.
Evaluation and summary of the professional activities of the first dual year in the professions painter / upholsterer at the TANEXT Academy Vocational school.
To get to know the experiences of the first school year and the professional content during the implementation in Lithuania.
9.3. Time frame August 2016 – August 2017
Preparation of the second year of dual education in the professions painter/upholsterer at the TANEXT Academy Vocational school from September 2016, 1 – June 15, 2017.
Synchronising the timetables of the school’s and the practical training’s parts,
Revision of the evaluation system of the participation and progress of the pupils and the support activities,
Preparation of trainers in the company using the Train the Trainer training program.
Performing the second dual year in the professions painter/upholsterer at the TANEXT Academy Vocational school from September 1, 2016 to June 15, 2017.
Summary of the experiences of the first quarter with the participation of the theory teachers and the practical trainers.
Assessment of the performance of the students in the first half-year: assessment of the theory by the school and assessment of the practical activities by the instructor with the help of evaluation forms, and issuing of the testimony by the school,
Selection of the students who are allowed to take part in the examination, based on the proposal of the practical training partners,
Development of the individual preparation program for a successful specialist examination.
Preparing students for the exam,
Activities to support students' job search based on the proposals of the training companies.
Conduct the examination with the participants, who have already completed the first year of training.
Review and adjustments to the educational program of the second semester of the pupils who are unable to take part in the examination.
Summary of the experiences of the third quarter with the participation of the theory teachers and the practical trainers,
Comprehensive assessment of students at the end of the year with the participation of theory teachers and practical trainers,
Development of educational programs for post-summer training,
Preparation and completion of the summer internship,
Assessment of the summer internship and issuing certificates.
Preparation of the second year's training plan at the TANEXT Academy Vocational school in a dual educational framework, from September 1, 2016.
Complement the contents of the professions painter / upholsterer with contents for tiler.
Incorporation of the content and educational experience of vocational training to Finisher from Lithuania into the Hungarian education program.
Enrolment in the vocational training of the TANEXT Academy Vocational school in the profession Finisher.
Involvement and preparation of further SMEs as new training partners, as well as a summary of the experiences of previous training partners.
Summary of the experiences of the Hungarian Train the Trainer course and development of the final training program for the trainers of the companies.
Summary of the experience of the first and second year of the dual training at the TANEXT Academy Vocational school and the identification of the necessary support activities to spread the dual vocational training in Hungary.
Involvement of other vocational training institutions in the dual vocational training system. Supporting the preparation of further dual education in Hungarian partnerships in the 2017-2018 school years in various professions.
Preparation of the educational programs of the dual grades in the school year 2017-2018 at the TANEXT Academy Vocational School and school enrolment.
Dissemination of the experiences of the dual vocational training project in Hungary and the qualification of trainers of enterprises.
Development of a support system to spread the experience of the project in Hungarian.
9.4. Time frame July - August 2017
Summary and analysis of the activities and experiences of the project.
Further use of the training programs developed in the project, development of further necessary activities to achieve sustainable results.
Dissemination activities to achieve sustainable results of the dual vocational training in Hungary.
4 László Kajos, Kontiki Vocational Ltd.
5 Berufsbildung in Ungarn – ReferNet 2012.
1. The nature of dual vocational training – Polish experience as compared to other EU countries
The dual vocational training involves on-the-job training organized by the employer in a company and the theoretical education provided by school or gained outside school. This kind of training is very popular in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Norway and France. In Germany "more than two thirds of young people leaving compulsory school choose as a further educational path the dual system" then usually finding the employment in the training company8.
Model of professional education called dual system involves a combination of practice with theoretical education. The practice was defined as employment under the contract of employment concluded between the employer and the employee as is the case with the training of young workers in Poland. It should be noted that the practical training in Poland within the meaning of the Apprenticeship Regulation is wrongly equated with professional practice in Germany, which is de facto apprenticeship by working in the company.
In a document published by the Minister of Education entitled "Education in the Polish model of dual vocational education. Cooperation with companies with special emphasis on the changes resulting from the Act of the 20th of February 2015 amending the Act on the education system and other acts"9 the dual vocational training is defined as theoretical training provided by school and vocational training by the employer. According to the current legal solutions concerning Polish education system there are two types of dual education:
Fulfillment of the obligation of learning in the form of employer-provided vocational training as a juvenile employee;
Practical training implemented in whole or in part by an employer within the framework of the cooperation between schools and employers (without conclusion of a contract between a student and an employer) - students of vocational schools, technical schools and post-secondary schools.
In Europe the system of dual vocational training in all the vocational and technical schools, plays an important, if not dominant, role, in particular in the following countries10:
Switzerland - 87% of students of vocational and technical schools benefit from the dual system of vocational training, and only 13% is educated based on the professional school system;
Germany - 69% of students of vocational and technical schools learn their profession in the dual education system, 31% studies in the professional school system;
Czech Republic - 58% of students of vocational and technical schools study in the dual system of vocational training, 42% in the professional school system;
Hungary - over one third of students participate in the dual system of the vocational training (37%), while 63% studies in the school system of apprenticeship;
Netherlands - 33% of the participants of the vocational training is taught the profession in the dual education system; 67% of students participates in the school education system.
There are several types of schools in the German dual education system, namely:
primary school: for students aged 6-10;
lower secondary school - the equivalent of a Polish junior high school: for students aged 10-15 / 16;
vocational schools providing education in the dual system: half of the time (about 51%), full time (about 12%) and
upper secondary schools - equivalent to the Polish high schools (about 37%) – for students aged 15-19
Persons over the age of 19 may continue their education within the higher education system (university) or may enter the labor market and continue vocational education. A very important part of the dual education system is the practice in enterprises.
In addition to the various types of schools, the German upper secondary vocational education system is based on the cooperation of many partners. Various entities involved in this process assume different roles and responsibilities. Moreover, the practice of seeking traineeship by graduates and participation in practical training play a special role. 11
German model of the vocational education, so-called dual system (double check system) combines the theoretical learning with the practical vocational training which constitutes a preliminary vocational training. Trainees in dual education most often undergo a three-year apprenticeship at school and in the workplace according to the chosen profession or in specialized vocational schools being subject to an exclusive supervision of the State. In the dual education system in Germany both federal and state level partners are involved. There are the following stakeholders in the process: the state, social partners (representatives of employers and employees) and chambers of industry and commerce or craft chambers.
State bodies involved in dual vocational training at federal level are primarily the Ministry of Research and Education and the Ministry of Labor and the Economy. State responsibility at the federal level is to establish general rules concerning the organization of the process of upper-secondary education. These principles assumed the form of the Vocational Training Act (Berufsbildungsgesetz). According to the provisions of this act, regulations of the learning set by representatives of all groups involved in the process are implemented by the competent minister at the federation level - most often the minister of economy. Professions classification being in force is an essential attachment to the Act which in 2001 numbered 360 professions. The dual system doesn't include the civil service, partly also the professions performed in the department of health. It is noteworthy, that when the Vocational Training Act came into effect over 30 years ago, the service sector had a lower significance than it has today and therefore the professions typical for the service sector are not included therein. According to the discussed act the condition of learning under the dual system is the completion of a ten-year secondary modern school.
In characterizing federal legislation in the field of the lifelong education, one should mention The Vocational Training Act, which regulates education of young persons leaving the system of the compulsory learning. This document determines that the vocational training combines preliminary education, lifelong education and retraining programs. According to the German constitution, the regulations arising from this act do not influence the functioning of vocational schools which are left in the discretion of individual Lands12
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