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The global recession is having a major impact on immigrant integration. With cuts in public budgets and a rise in anti-immigrant sentiment across the Atlantic, many governments have made short-term decisions responding to the economic crisis that will have long-term implications for immigrants and the broader society. This book takes stock of the impact of the crisis on immigrant integration in Europe and the United States. It assesses where immigrants have lost ground, using evidence such as levels of funding for educational programs, employment rates, trends toward protectionism, public opinion and levels of discrimination. This systematic look at where and how immigrants have been affected by the recession's pinch allows us to deeply examine how governments can use the recovery period as an opportunity for more meaningful and targeted investments in integration-ones that will boost economic competitiveness and improve social cohesion. The book concludes with a set of priorities for the integration-related investments national and local governments should be making in the coming decade.

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Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the
Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.
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ISBN : 978-3-86793-303-2
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Table of Contents
Title Page
Copyright Page
Introduction
Part I: - The Transatlantic Council on Migration
Council Statement: Immigrant Integration- Priorities for the Next Decade - May ...
Introduction and Context
The Great Recession and Immigrant Integration
Public Opinion and Politics in the Recession
Thinking Long Term Even in the Short Term: Rewriting the Political Narrative
Smarter Investments in Immigrant Integration
Conclusion
Part II: - Integration Policies in the Postrecession Era
Recovering from Recession: Immigrants and Immigrant Integration in the ...
Introduction: The Global Economic Crisis
Immigrants and the Labor Market in the Recent Economic Crisis
Immigrant Integration in the US Labor Market: The Recession and Its Aftermath
The Economic Crisis of 2007-2009
Underemployment and Labor Force Marginalization
Policy Responses: Is Doing Nothing Doing Enough?
Recession in the United Kingdom: Effects on Immigrant Workers and Integration
Introduction
The Impact of the Recession on Immigrants
UK Immigration Policy during the Recession
Conclusions
Migration, Integration and the Labor Market after the Recession in Germany
Introduction
The Global Economic Crisis and the German Labor Market: Better than Expected?
The Effect of the Crisis on the Labor Market Integration of Migrants: As Bad as Expected?
Outlook and Conclusions
Migration and the Recession in Spain
Introduction
The Economic Crisis and Its Impact on Immigrants
Spanish Immigration Policy during the Recession: Same Philosophy, Different Implementation
Migration and Recession in Ireland
Introduction and Economic Background
Immigrants’ Demographic Background
Characteristics of the Current Recession
Impact of Recession on Immigrants and Immigration
Labor Market Policies before and during the Recession
Conclusion and Recommendations
Works Cited
Immigrant Students in US Schools and the Recession of 2007-2009
Introduction
The Demography of Immigrant Students in US Schools
US Education Policy and Immigrant Students
The Economic Crisis: Adjustment and Innovation
Conclusion
Works Cited
Immigrant Students in OECD Countries during a Recession-Inspired Era of ...
Introduction
Do Immigrant Students Perform as Well as Their Native Peers?
Drivers of Educational Performance
Which Policies Can Make a Difference for Immigrant Students?
Conclusion
Appendix
Works Cited
The Economic Crisis and Funding for Immigrant Integration in the United States
Introduction
The 2009 Federal Stimulus Law and Immigrant Integration
State Executive Orders on Immigrant Integration
Conclusion
Works Cited
Government Investment in Integration and Fiscal Uncertainty: Reactions in Europe
Introduction
Funding Sources before the Crisis
Effects of the Crisis on Integration Programming
Conclusions and Recommendations
Integration Programming Postcrisis: Ireland Case Study
Introduction
Funding of Integration Initiatives before the Crisis
The Impact of the Recession on Integration Initiatives
The Future of Integration in Ireland
Works Cited
The Relationship Between Immigration and Nativism in Europe and North America
Introduction
The Main Nativist Actors
Immigration and the Radical Right
Effects of Political Extremism
Public Effects of Nativism
Antinativist Reactions
The Economic Crisis, Immigration and Nativism
Conclusion
Works Cited
Investing in School and Labor Market Preparedness: A Silver Lining to the ...
Introduction
The Tools Needed to Boost Competitiveness
Who Are the Most Vulnerable Groups in Europe?
Policy Options for Promoting School and Labor Market Preparedness
Conclusion
Appendix: International TIES Survey
Works Cited
Part III: Discussion Summary
Fourth Plenary Meeting of the Transatlantic Council on Migration
Immigrant Integration: Priorities for the Next Decade
Session I: Setting the Stage: The Recession and Immigrant Integration
Session II: Perspectives from the Reflection Group on the Future of Europe
Session III: Extremism and Discrimination: Status Quo or Razor’s Edge
Session IV: Current Evidence on Immigrant Employment
Session V: Understanding Education Trends
Session VI: Public Perceptions, the Recession and Immigrant Integration
Session VII: Investments in Immigrant Integration: What Do We Know That Works ...
Session VIII: Charting a Forward Course: The Major Policy and Strategic ...
Immigration and Integration Resources
About the Transatlantic Council on Migration
About the Authors
Introduction
The Transatlantic Council on Migration
First convened in 2008, the Transatlantic Council on Migration is a unique deliberative and advisory body that aims to have a tangible, measurable impact on migration and immigrant integration policy on both sides of the Atlantic. The Council’s principal policy partner in this effort is the Bertelsmann Stiftung. The Council, an initiative led by the Migration Policy Institute and convened by MPI President Demetrios G. Papademetriou, is generously supported by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Open Society Institute, the Bertelsmann Stiftung, the Rockefeller Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Barrow Cadbury Trust, the Luso-American Development Foundation, the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation and the governments of Germany, the Netherlands and Norway. More information about the Council’s membership, operations and publications can be found at: www.migrationpolicy.org/transatlantic.
In the wake of the “Great Recession,” countries on both sides of the Atlantic must confront two competing realities: increased integration needs and vastly reduced spending capacity. What’s more, there is little public appetite for investing in immigrants at a time when many native-born citizens are experiencing soaring unemployment and there is ever greater competition for society’s resources. Yet, as immigration continues to shape our societies, better integration is a critical component for future economic growth.
At its fourth plenary meeting, held in Bellagio, Italy, in May 2010, the Transatlantic Council on Migration deliberated on how to make smart investments in immigrant integration at a time of reduced budgets by assessing where the greatest needs and opportunities are. Where have immigrants been hit the hardest? At what point in the immigration arc are investments most effective? How should politicians speak about immigrant integration in order to garner public support? And what effect will reduced funding have on the laws and practices that shape immigration and immigrant integration?
To answer these questions, the Council convened senior policymakers and experts from Europe and North America to come up with a series of strategies and recommendations that can help farsighted policymakers rebuild robust economies and improve social cohesion during the long recovery ahead. The Council also convened a high-level education symposium in advance of its plenary meeting to hone in on specific recommendations for optimizing mainstream school reforms.
This volume-the fourth major publication of the Transatlantic Council on Migration-is based on these discussions and the research commissioned for the Council’s May 2010 meeting. All the contributions are original work. The book joins the first three Transatlantic Council books-Delivering Citizenship (November 2008), Talent, Competitiveness and Migration (April 2009) and Migration, Public Opinion and Politics (November 2009)-in offering an evidence-based, pragmatic approach to the most complex and controversial policy debates surrounding migration.
There are three sections to this volume. Part One begins with the Council Statement on “Immigrant Integration-Priorities for the Next Decade,” which synthesizes the primary recommendations to emerge from the fourth meeting of the Transatlantic Council on Migration from May 5-7, 2010 in Bellagio, Italy. Although the Statement reflects the deliberations of the Council, the final responsibility for its contents rests with its authors.
Part Two analyzes where and how immigrants have been affected by the economic crisis. On both sides of the Atlantic, deep recession and the threat of a protracted recovery with ongoing high unemployment are having profound implications for immigration, immigrants and whole communities. This section maps out what we know about the recession’s impact on immigrants, covering areas such as employment outcomes, educational performance, government investments in integration and political extremism.
Demetrios G. Papademetriou, Madeleine Sumption and Aaron Terrazas begin Part Two with their chapter on “Recovering from Recession: Immigrants and Immigrant Integration in the Transatlantic Economy.” In many countries, the years of economic expansion prior to the recession witnessed a greater openness toward immigration. In particular, some countries saw large inflows of immigrants into lower-skilled occupations, policies that are now being thrown into question. With contributions from Carola Burkert, Stephen Loyal and Ruth Ferrero-Turrión, this chapter explores five country case studies-Germany, Ireland, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States-and illustrates the very wide variation among advanced industrialized nations, both in terms of macroeconomic impacts and outcomes for different immigrant groups. At the same time, immigration-receiving countries in the transatlantic sphere face many of the same integration challenges as they move beyond the global economic crisis.
Aaron Terrazas, Michael Fix and Margie McHugh explore effects on US education in chapter two, entitled “Immigrant Students in US Schools and the Recession of 2007-2009.” They find emerging evidence that the economic crisis has prompted a period of both painful adjustment and promising innovation in the nation’s elementary and secondary schools due to state-level fiscal crises and an unprecedented fiscal stimulus package. This chapter also focuses on how immigrant and limited English proficient (LEP) students were faring in US schools prior to the recession and how primary and secondary school education policies have evolved over the last few years.
The third chapter, by Miho Taguma and entitled “Immigrant Students in OECD Countries during a Recession-Inspired Era of Resource Constraints,” compares the educational outcomes of immigrant children to those of natives in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. The chapter highlights the importance of a whole-school approach-engaging teachers, school leaders, parents, communities and students-to improve equal opportunity and standards of excellence in schools and the long-term benefits of careful investments in education. This paper concludes with several points of action on how to improve education outcomes for students of immigrant origin.
Chapter four, entitled “The Economic Crisis and Funding for Immigrant Integration in the United States,” was co-authored by Randy Capps and Margie McHugh, with contributions by Monica Arciga, Michael Fix and Laureen Laglagaron. This chapter explores the impact of the crisis on funding for key services and programs that support the integration of immigrants and their families in the United States. It focuses on the five most populous US states-California, Texas, New York, Florida and Illinois-to understand their potential impact on prospects for furthering the integration of immigrants and their children.
The fifth chapter, the work of Elizabeth Collett and Sheena McLoughlin, is entitled “Government Investment in Integration and Fiscal Uncertainty: Reactions in Europe.” It takes a first look at government reactions to integration policy-making, financing and programming in select countries across Europe, with a particular study of integration programming in post-crisis Ireland, and finds that governments have responded in a variety of ways to new and potential fiscal constraints. It concludes by identifying areas of potential concern over the coming decade with respect to maintaining sustainable investments in integration.
Chapter six, entitled “The Relationship between Immigration and Nativism in Europe and North America,” was authored by Cas Mudde. The chapter highlights the complex and frequently unclear relationship between immigration and extremism. Higher levels of immigration in the three regions examined in this chapter-North America, Western Europe and Central and Eastern Europe-do not automatically correlate to more votes for radical-right parties, though nativist parties in government have affected immigration policies. This chapter concludes by demonstrating what sort of impact nativist and radical-right parties have had on immigration debates and policies.
The final chapter in Part Two is called “Investing in School and Labor Market Preparedness: A Silver Lining to the Economic Crisis?” This chapter, by Maurice Crul, examines how second-generation migrants in seven European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland) have been faring in education and jobs, based on a Europe-wide survey called TIES. It concludes with recommendations on how governments can prioritize policies that will allow second-generation migrants to improve their skill levels and employment prospects, especially during the slow economic recovery.
Part Three of this book is a summary of the discussion at the Council’s meeting in May 2010. It contains the key deliberations of the Council members and experts who attended the meeting. It is written in accordance with the Chatham House Rule-intended to foster free and uninhibited discussion-and, hence, does not reveal the speakers’ identities.
All chapters contained in this book are original contributions from leading academics and thinkers on international migration. Readers will also find a summary of Council-related migration and integration resources on the Web as well as information about the Transatlantic Council on Migration.
The Council believes that recent rates of immigration growth, which are projected to increase further, demand that governments, employers, civil society and immigrants themselves make investments that create stronger families, contribute to economic growth and build stronger communities. With this book, the Transatlantic Council on Migration aims to provide practical strategies and tools to help these actors invest wisely.
Demetrios G. Papademetriou
Gunter Thielen
Migration Policy Institute
Bertelsmann Stiftung
Part I:
The Transatlantic Council on Migration
Council Statement: Immigrant Integration- Priorities for the Next Decade
May 5-7, 2010, Bellagio Conference Center, Italy
Demetrios G. Papademetriou and Annette Heuser

Introduction and Context

Immigrant integration is both very complex and costly. To succeed, it must be constantly evaluated and adapted to the ever-changing realities on the ground. Yet, while the true benefits of successful integration emerge gradually-over decades and even generations-our political culture demands virtually instant results from our public investments. And, despite rhetoric about integration as a “two-way street,” what most people and all but the most thoughtful of politicians actually expect is near-assimilation rather than the mutual accommodations true integration entails.
As countries grapple with the legacy of the Great Recession-in most instances, soaring unemployment for immigrants, minorities and youth; competition for society’s resources; and spikes in anti-immigrant sentiment-the consequences of our actions today will be felt for decades during the long recovery that lies ahead. Considering the continuing-and, in many instances, rising-need for immigrants, losing momentum on integration is not an option.
The goal of this meeting of the Transatlantic Council on Migration, held in May 2010, was to show how to shift our focus back onto integration as a continuous and interactive process-and to do so amidst the tumult of a persistent economic crisis. In doing so, participants considered the critical question of how to invest smartly in a new world that confronts two competing realities: increased integration needs with reduced spending capacity. The Council convened senior political leaders, seasoned policymakers and global experts to deliberate on how to make investments-including whom to target and when to invest-that promise to deliver the best outcomes.

The Great Recession and Immigrant Integration

The recession’s most distinctive feature has been the diversity of its effects across countries. Unemployment rates have ranged from 3 percent in Norway to nearly 20 percent in Spain, where over 30 percent of nonnationals are unemployed. But while some categories of immigrants have fared poorly-particularly men (reflecting the recession’s decimation of workforces in the manufacturing sectors), youth (who are always the most marginally attached to the labor force and, hence, are the most expendable workers) and minorities (especially African-born ones)-immigrants as a group have actually outperformed natives in some Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. And immigrant women have fared much better than men, as they have been disproportionately represented in the growing health and care-giving sectors.
Those on temporary work permits and less-regulated worker channels have served as welcome “flexible valves” in the labor market, with flows responding most directly to the decreased demand for jobs. In some countries, these workers and many immigrants have also been more willing to relocate and switch sectors in order to find work. However, most of those who lack an explicit right to return (e.g., unauthorized immigrants, European Union [EU] Member State nationals with temporary work restrictions or permanent residents penalized for long stays abroad) have chosen to stay put, even during the most severe phase of the economic crisis. This is an unintended natural experiment that clearly argues for greater flexibility to be built both into labor markets and immigration systems so they are able to react more nimbly to business-cycle fluctuations.
Looking forward, the Council’s analyses and discussions made clear that policymakers must be prepared for more funding shortfalls ahead. National and subnational budget crises are far from over, and extraordinary and sustained job creation will be necessary before unemployment begins to approach pre-Great Recession levels. The economy will also be appreciably different, with many employers in the manufacturing sector demanding workers with better skills relative to those needed prior to the recession (a product of capital investments and other production-process adjustments made during the downturn) and with construction (among other sectors) claiming a smaller share of the job market in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain and Ireland.
What does this mean for immigrants in the labor market? As noted, unemployment has been particularly vicious for minority and immigrant youth, and the danger of substantial and long-term “economic scarring” is great; that is, workers who either attempt to enter the labor market or who lose their jobs during a recession are likely to suffer permanent income and mobility disadvantages relative to the rest of the workforce. Yet there is little appetite for increased investments to bridge these gaps; the winding-down of stimulus funds and growing concern in many countries about high levels of public debt are likely to exacerbate concerns that immigrants compete with natives for diminishing public expenditures designed to cushion the effects of the recession for workers and families.

Public Opinion and Politics in the Recession

The public’s views on immigration are neither simple nor linear. While the crisis has not yet led to acute negative reactions, it has created space in the public discourse for more hostile political rhetoric and has strengthened the political fortunes of parties that are more explicitly skeptical about immigration, in some instances propelling anti-immigration parties to electoral success. The growing prominence of anti-immigration sentiment in some countries is aided by the fact that immigration-related views tend to be intensely held. For instance, in the United States, 80 percent of the public considers illegal immigration to be a problem, and three-quarters of those consider it to be a “very serious” one; in the United Kingdom, 77 percent of the public says net immigration should decrease or that no immigration should be allowed at all.
Public opinion on immigration is also marked by ample ambiguity: Voters might oppose reform while simultaneously abhorring the status quo. In the same vein, people might enjoy the benefits of legal and illegal immigration while expecting others to deal with its adverse consequences. This paradox lies at the heart of the political challenge. Public attitudes speak to the reality that many of the fears about immigration are not, in fact, about the immigrants themselves: Anti-immigration sentiment is frequently a proxy for the pace of social, economic and cultural change more broadly, to which immigration contributes mightily, and the growing sense of lack of control over that change. The composition of recent flows, that is, the perception of “distance” and “difference,” further contributes to the discomfort.
Public attitudes might be managed better if leaders understand the importance of “priming” public opinion. This may require emphasizing the importance of orderly immigration, including immigration controls and enforcement. Furthermore, the public must be assured that economic-stream immigrants are admitted only in response to measurable labor market needs and/or as part of explicit economic-growth and competitiveness policies. Both the challenge and the opportunity is to present orderliness and strict selection criteria in immigration as the means through which immigrants become the economic (and social) assets they typically are rather than the liabilities they are often (and somtimes correctly) portrayed to be.
Adding to the issue’s complexity is that widespread discrimination continues to plague many immigrant-receiving countries, a phenomenon not conclusively tied to the recession, although it may be exacerbated by it. This is particularly troublesome because minorities often do not report discriminatory incidents or even violence due in great part to the belief that filing a complaint will change nothing. This level of resignation among minorities and immigrants suggests they themselves believe public attitudes toward visible difference are deeply rooted.
But what is the effect on politics? Many far-right politicians have exploited an alternative narrative based on a “clash of civilizations,” discussing immigration in the context of the supposed unassimilability of certain groups and the “ownership” of a country based on history and blood ties. However, it is difficult to assess how much extremist groups are capitalizing on real fears concerning jobs or whether they are simply employing savvy-though short-sighted- politicking strategies. There is also evidence that some mainstream politicians, finding themselves rather powerless to effectively manage the financial and economic maelstrom unleashed by the recession, are seizing on immigration as a way to prove that they can be in control of at least one large phenomenon: immigration-induced social change. This is evident most starkly in the American state of Arizona, with its new immigration law, and in the recent statements (for instance) of UK Labour Party leadership candidate Ed Balls.

Thinking Long Term Even in the Short Term: Rewriting the Political Narrative

While the economic crisis preoccupies governments, less visible long-term trends and needs must be incorporated into public thinking. Demographic change and aging workforces are on a collision course with the high living standards and social protections of modern life. Thus, focusing squarely on labor market needs and reforms- through a combination of policy actions, such as encouraging more women (and others who are not in the workforce, most notably immigrants) to work; lengthening work lives; increasing productivity through better education and training programs; and increasing immigration levels in orderly fashions-is critical to continuing prosperity and future growth. This realization is hard to act on at the best of times; but, in a context of high unemployment and uncertainty, it may be particularly difficult to implement.
How can this new political discourse be framed? The narrative told by politicians is very important. While the current narrative, including a focus on deportations, resonates with many in the public, it misjudges the complexity of public concerns about immigration while also promising much more than it can deliver. The result is the further erosion of public trust in governments. Thus, it is critical to articulate a compelling new story about immigration that resonates with the public, is based on the facts and sets forth a realistic vision for the way forward. The Council believes that a focus on immigrant integration is an indispensable component of such an approach, especially if it sets realistic and hence achievable goals.

Smarter Investments in Immigrant Integration

Just as the crisis impacted different countries in different ways and to differing degrees, its effects on government budgets-and the fiscal reactions of governments-have been equally diverse. While some countries have slashed spending on integration for newly arrived immigrants, others have redoubled their focus on language training and on facilitating immigrant access to the labor market. Regardless of their initial responses, however, one thing is clear: The bulk of the fiscal tightening on both sides of the Atlantic is yet to come. Governments-city, regional and national-will be looking for more and more ways to save money.
Integration policies can easily become the soft target. Pressure to focus public investments first and foremost on citizens, particularly the most vulnerable ones, is strong and likely to get stronger. Yet, failure to also invest in immigrants and their families at such a crucial time will have a generational impact with much larger long-term fiscal and societal consequences. Put simply: Governments can neither afford to play “beggar thy neighbor” games with their public investments nor to “save” money on immigrant integration if for no other reason than they will need strong and well-prepared workers in order to be ready for (and react to) the onset of robust economic growth.
However, money must be spent smartly. As detailed in the strategies below, the Council believes that how governments prioritize limited resources and how they structure necessary reforms-as well as how they communicate these changes to the public-can have as much of an impact as the policies they pursue.

Reconceptualizing Integration Strategies

• A new immigration framework. Developing a new, fact-based narrative on the role of immigration in modern society and the policies that can support it is necessary to reduce the frequently dramatic access and achievement gaps between immigrant groups (and their progeny) and natives. From education and employment rates to income and mobility projections, these gaps are wide in many countries. Immigration, well-conceived and carried out, can become a central element of the economic future of countries on both sides of the Atlantic, whether in boom times or in downturns. Investing in anti-discrimination policies-and informing vulnerable groups of their rights-must be an integral part of this plan. At the same time, any narrative must honestly and forthrightly address fears of immigration’s consequences.
• Mainstream services. Although many immigrants are more vulnerable during a recession, the challenges they face-particularly in the areas of education and skills development-are similar to those faced by all disadvantaged natives and, typically, minorities. This means that while certain services and programs have to be designed to address the unique needs of immigrants and other vulnerable groups, they should be made available to all who need and qualify for them. For example, including the needs of immigrant children under mainstream, systemic education reforms-and thus making schools accountable for the performance of immigrants-is an effective way to improve outcomes. Such efforts can also “fly under the political radar,” thus disarming those opposed to targeting resources to immigrants in times of crisis. So that funding for immigrants does not get lost if placed in a bigger purse, accountability structures are needed to ensure that resources are allocated fairly and effectively.
• Willingness and built-in capability to adapt. Governments must become more open to learning proper lessons from others’ experiences and much more nimble in adopting innovative new ideas. Clearinghouses that can undertake meaningful evaluation of ideas and establish which are clearly effective-and transferable to different contexts-are a critical investment. Governments must also commence and/or make significant progress in monitoring how their investments are impacting vulnerable groups and be always ready to adapt programs accordingly. This requires building flexibility into programs that allow public and private service-delivery groups to rethink and adapt their strategies in the face of new knowledge and ideas.

Worthwhile Priorities

• Invest early. Too often, human capital is needlessly wasted in the early stages of immigration, when newcomers’ education, skills and experiences are most up-to-date and hence relevant. Early interventions in the economic integration of immigrants-via orientation classes, language programs, skills identification and augmentation, and assistance with essential labor market information-will facilitate early entry into the labor market at a level that reflects and builds upon existing skills. This can be more cost-effective in the long term, even if the stay in the destination country turns out to be a short one. For those who return home, the investment will continue to pay dividends in terms of opening up better personal opportunities and reducing the need to reemigrate.
• Improve access to the labor market. Successful long-term integration hinges upon the adoption of policies that ease immigrants’ early access (and reentry) into the labor market. This applies to all immigrants, regardless of nationality or generation. Some effective policies in this regard are:
• Individualized assessments. Interviewing immigrants upon arrival to assess their existing skills, language proficiency and the most helpful and cost-effective additional education and training needed can help determine the appropriate integration support and can facilitate effective entry into the labor market. And, while such assessments are easier for countries with such systems already in place for natives-and with relatively small numbers of immigrants-the concept is one that deserves careful emulation.
• Apprenticeships and wage subsidies. Programs designed to offer immigrants a chance to get work experience in-country while also allowing employers to assess and build skills on-site can be critical policy tools. Such programs, which target those who need support in entering or reentering the labor market, are relevant to immigrants and natives alike.
• Vocational training. Many immigrants arrive with skills and experiences needed in the labor market but require “bridging” education and training assistance in order to match the specific requirements of the host country’s labor market. Employers and government agencies alike need to include immigrants in their programs to develop and improve upon existing skills.
• Optimize recognition of skills. Developing and investing in systems for recognizing existing skills and qualifications is critical; no country currently manages to do this well, and there is a systematic underutilization of skills among immigrant populations on both sides of the Atlantic. Investments in common standards for skills recognition would not only bring economies of scale for governments but also ensure that immigrants can contribute to the host economy and society in the fullest way possible.
• Engage civil society and the private sector. Effective public-private cooperation on skills development for immigrants can act as a multiplier for public budgets, generating better outcomes with fewer resources. Similarly, partnering with civil society in imaginative ways can lubricate the process of integration and complete the whole-of-society approach that is at the heart of societies that succeed with immigration-and thus change the narrative about it. When governments work hand-in-glove with the private sector and civil society, they can ease and facilitate the social and economic integration of immigrants while also mitigating discrimination and anti-immigrant sentiment.
• Focus on the next generation. Smart investments in the education of immigrant children will create multiplier effects and avoid creating a “lost generation.” Priorities should include improving early childhood education, parental engagement and teacher quality. Specifically:
• Teacher quality. Countries must first elevate the status of teaching in society and assign the most qualified teachers to work with the neediest children, an approach that does not require more resources but, rather, simply a smarter allocation of them.
• School content. Curricula should strike a balance between the needs of society and those of immigrant children. As with most aspects of integration, this is a two-way street: Children need to be integrated into the culture of the host country, but curricula should also be responsive to the specific needs, values and assets that immigrant children bring with them. Furthermore, curricula should integrate language-learning with subject-matter content so that nonnative speakers do not fall behind in school.
• A greater focus on skills. Innovative methods should be explored, including focusing on apprenticeships or vocational training, so that students graduate with the skills they need to succeed in the labor market.

Conclusion

While the recession might be over, the economic crisis for individuals, families and communities continues-and threatens to get worse as stimulus funds are withdrawn. The Transatlantic Council on Migration underscores not only the critical role integration plays in helping families weather the economic crisis, but also the role that smart investments in integration will play in helping immigrant-destination countries be better prepared to grow and compete once the economic recovery takes off.
The Council thus urges governments to make sustained, focused investments in five key areas:
• Making early and sustained integration investments in language training;
• Improving newcomers’ access to the labor market, for example, through workforce training and skills-bridging programs;
• Optimizing recognition of skills, credentials and experiences;
• Focusing on the next generation by improving education for immigrant youth;
• Engaging often overlooked actors, such as civil society and the private sector in all aspects of integration.
Reshaping immigration policies based on a positive, but fact-based, political narrative is the first step toward realistically achieving these goals. At the same time, building flexibility and adaptability into the immigrant-integration system and targeting all disadvantaged groups will improve the effectiveness of these efforts.
Part II:
Integration Policies in the Postrecession Era
Recovering from Recession: Immigrants and Immigrant Integration in the Transatlantic Economy
Demetrios G. Papademetriou, Madeleine Sumption and Aaron Terrazas with Carola Burkert, Steven Loyal and Ruth Ferrero-Turrión

Introduction: The Global Economic Crisis

From Boom to Bust: A Dramatic and Unexpected Economic Crisis

Few observers imagined in 2007 that the bursting of the construction bubble in the United States, Spain, the United Kingdom and Ireland during the course of that year would create ripple effects large enough to shake the very foundations of the global financial system and plunge the industrial world into its severest economic crisis since World War II. Yet, with the demise of Lehman Brothers in September 2008, a full-throated economic crisis ensued and spread quickly from the United States to much of Europe and the developing world- although its impact in emerging economies proved to be much less virulent and lasting.

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