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This book provides an overall view of the new and highly promising materials and thin film deposition techniques for printable solar cell applications. The book is organized in four parts. Organic and inorganic hybrid materials and solar cell manufacturing techniques are covered in Part I. Part II is devoted to organic materials and processing technologies like spray coating. This part also demonstrates the key features of the interface engineering for the printable organic solar cells. The main focus of the Part III is the perovskite solar cells, which is a new and promising family of the photovoltaic applications. Finally, inorganic materials and solution based thin film formation methods using these materials for printable solar cell application is discussed in Part IV.

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Contents

Cover

Title page

Copyright page

Preface

Part I: Hybrid Materials and Process Technologies for Printable Solar Cells

Chapter 1: Organic and Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells

1.3 Conclusion

References

Chapter 2: Solution Processing and Thin Film Formation of Hybrid Semiconductors for Energy Applications

2.1 Physical Chemical Principles of Film Formation by Solution Processes: From Suspensions of Nanoparticles and Solutions to Nucleation, Growth, Coarsening and Microstructural Evolution of Films

2.2 Solution-Processing Techniques for Thin Film Deposition

2.3 Properties and Characterization of Thin Films: Transport, Active and Electrode Layers in Thin Film Solar Cells

2.4 Understanding the Crystallization Processes in Hybrid Semiconductor Films: Hybrid Perovskite as a Model

References

Chapter 3: Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells Based on Quantum Dots

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Polymer/QD Solar Cells

3.3 Outlooks and Conclusions

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 4: Hole Transporting Layers in Printable Solar Cells

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Hole Transporting Layers in Organic Solar Cells

4.3 Hole Transporting Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

4.4 Hole Transporting Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells

4.5 Concluding Remarks

References

Chapter 5: Printable Solar Cells

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Printable Solar Cells Working Principles

5.3 Solution-Based Deposition of Thin Film Layers

5.4 Characterization Techniques

5.5 Conclusion

References

Part II: Organic Materials and Process Technologies for Printable Solar Cells

Chapter 6: Spray-Coated Organic Solar Cells

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Introduction of Spray-Coating Method

6.3 Materials for Spray Coating

6.4 Application of Spray Coating

6.5 Conclusions

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 7: Interface Engineering: A Key Aspect for the Potential Commercialization of Printable Organic Photovoltaic Cells

7.1 Introduction

7.2 SD-PSCs Based on P3HT:PCBM Active Layers

7.3 High Performance BHJ-PSCs with Favorable Molecular Orientation Resulting from Active Layer/Substrate Interactions

7.4 Strongly Bond Metal Leaves as Laminated Top Electrodes for Low-Cost PSC Fabrication

7.5 Conclusions

References

Chapter 8: Structural, Optical, Electrical and Electronic Properties of PEDOT: PSS Thin Films and Their Application in Solar Cells

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Chemical Structure of PEDOT:PSS

8.3 Optical and Electrical Characteristics of PEDOT:PSS

8.4 Electronic Characteristics of PEDOT:PSS

8.5 Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Thin Films

8.6 Hole-Transporting Materials: PEDOT:PSS Thin Films

8.7 Directions for Future Development

8.8 Conclusion

References

Part III: Perovskites and Process Technologies for Printable Solar Cells

Chapter 9: Organometal Trihalide Perovskite Absorbers: Optoelectronic Properties and Applications for Solar Cells

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Optical Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Materials

9.3 Charge Transport Properties

9.4 Electron Transporting Materials (ETM)

9.5 Hole-Transporting Materials (HTM)

9.6 Perovskite Solar Cells Architectures

9.7 Perovskite Deposition Methods

9.8 Photoexcited States

9.9 Hysteresis

9.10 Stability in Humid Environment

9.11 Stability Under UV Light Exposure

9.12 Stability at High Temperatures

9.13 Additives

9.14 Conclusions and Outlook

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 10: Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells with Scalable and Roll-to-Roll Compatible Printing/Coating Processes

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Optoelectronic Properties

10.3 History

10.4 Device Configurations

10.5 Functional Materials

10.6 Spin Coating

10.7 Roll-to-Roll Processing

10.8 Substrate Limitation

10.9 Printing and Coating Methods

10.10 Future Outlook

References

Chapter 11: Inkjet Printable Processes for Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells and Modules Based on Advanced Nanocomposite Materials

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Inkjet Printing Process

11.3 Conclusions

References

Part IV: Inorganic Materials and Process Technologies for Printable Solar Cells

Chapter 12: Solution-Processed Kesterite Solar Cells

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Fundamental Aspects of Kesterite Solar Cells

12.3 Keterite Absorber Deposition Strategies

12.4 Electrodeposition

12.5 Direct Solution Coating

12.6 Conclusion

References

Chapter 13: Inorganic Hole Contacts for Perovskite Solar Cells: Towards High-Performance Printable Solar Cells

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Transition Metal Oxides

13.3 Non-Oxide Copper Compounds

13.4 Other Inorganic HTMs

13.5 Towards Printable Solar Cells

13.6 Conclusions and Perspectives

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 14: Electrode Materials for Printable Solar Cells

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Transparent Conjugated Polymers

14.3 Carbon-Based Nanomaterials

14.4 Metallic Nanostructures

14.5 Multilayer Thin Films

14.6 Printable Metal Back Electrodes

14.7 Carbon-Based Back Electrodes

14.8 Summary and Outlook

Acknowledgment

References

Chapter 15: Photonic Crystals for Photon Management in Solar Cells

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Fundamentals of PCs

15.3 Fabrication Strategies of PCs for Photovoltaics

15.4 Different Functionalities of PCs in Solar Cells

15.5 Summary and Outlook

Acknowledgment

References

Index

End User License Agreement

Guide

Cover

Copyright

Contents

Begin Reading

List of Tables

Chapter 2

Table 2.1

Classification of semiconductor fabrication techniques (reprinted from [15]).

Table 2.2

Summary of devices partially developed using solution-based methods.

Table 2.3

Thin film basic characterization techniques.

Chapter 6

Table 6.1

Processing time of

in-situ

annealing and post-annealing treatment at one fabrication cycle [35].

Chapter 7

Table 7.1

J

sc, optical and morphological properties of the nanostructured SD-PSCs. (Adapted with permission from [33]; Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Chemistry)

Table 7.2

Photovoltaic performances of laminated and evaporated top metal electrode P3HT:PCBM BHJ-PSCs.

Chapter 8

Table 8.1

Free carrier density, carrier mobility and local conductivity of the PEDOT chains in the PEDOT:PSS thin films. (Adapted with permission from [25])

Table 8.2

Photovoltaic performance of the mixed-organic-cation perovskite-based solar cells under 1 sun illumination (AM 1.5G, 100mW/cm

2

). (Adapted with permission from [15])

Table 8.3

Properties of the solvent additives and the modified PEDOT:PSS thin films (Adapted with permission from [28]).

Chapter 10

Table 10.1

Overview of scalable printing and coating methods employed in PeSC research as of Sep 15, 2016. All cells were characterized under 100 mW cm

-

2

at AM 1.5G. Abbreviations and chemical formulas are expanded in the footnote.*

Chapter 12

Table 12.1

Comparison of the different electrodeposition strategies.

Chapter 13

Table 13.1

Summary of the performances of the reported NiO

x

-based organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells. The word “non” means the parameter was not presented in the paper.

Chapter 14

Table 14.1

Summary of optoelectronic properties of PEDOT:PSS transparent electrode and its application in solar cells.

Table 14.2

Photovoltaic performance of solar cells with graphene or rGO as transparent electrode.

Table 14.3

Photovoltaic performance of solar cells with CNT as transparent electrode.

Table 14.4

Photovoltaic performance of OPVs with metal grids as the transparent electrode.

Table 14.5

Comparison of life circle analysis and cost analysis between ITO and Ag nanowire. Note that these values do not contain the embodied energy or cost of the PET substrate with the exception of the cost of ITO film, which contains the cost of PET [94].

Table 14.6

Photovoltaic performance of solar cells with metal nanowire networks as the transparent electrode.

Table 14.7

Photovoltaic performance of OPVs with ultrathin metal film as the transparent electrode.

Table 14.8

Photovoltaic performance of solar cells with dielectric/metal/dielectric MTFs as the transparent electrode.

Table 14.9

Photovoltaic performance of OPVs with graphene-based MTFs as the transparent electrode.

Table 14.10

Average OPV module performance of 10 different kinds of commercial inks. (Reproduced with permission from [170])

Table 14.11

Photovoltaic performance of P3HT:PCBM-based OPVs with printed silver electrode.

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Scrivener Publishing100 Cummings Center, Suite 541JBeverly, MA 01915-6106

Advances in Solar Cell Materials and Storage

Series Editors: Nurdan Demirci Sankir and Mehmet Sankir

Scope: Because the use of solar energy as a primary source of energy will exponentially increase for the foreseeable future, this new series on Advances in Solar Cell Materials and Storage will focus on new and novel solar cell materials and their application for storage. The scope of this series deals with the solution-based manufacturing methods, nanomaterials, organic solar cells, flexible solar cells, batteries and supercapacitors for solar energy storage, and solar cells for space.

Submission to the series: Please submit book proposals to Nurdan Sankir [email protected]

Publishers at ScrivenerMartin Scrivener ([email protected])Phillip Carmical ([email protected])

Printable Solar Cells

 

 

 

 

Edited by

Nurdan Demirci Sankir

Mehmet Sankir

 

 

 

 

 

This edition first published 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA and Scrivener Publishing LLC, 100 Cummings Center, Suite 541J, Beverly, MA 01915, USA © 2017 Scrivener Publishing LLC For more information about Scrivener publications please visit www.scrivenerpublishing.com.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as permitted by law. Advice on how to obtain permission to reuse material from this title is available at http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Demirci Sankir, Nurdan, editor. | Sankir, Mehmet, editor. Title: Printable solar cells / edited by Nurdan Demirci Sankir and Mehmet Sankir. Description: Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017. | Includes index. Identifiers: LCCN 2017005570 (print) | LCCN 2017010422 (ebook) | ISBN 9781119283713 (cloth) | ISBN 9781119283737 (Adobe PDF) | ISBN 9781119283744 (ePub) Subjects: LCSH: Solar cells--Research. | Solar cells--Design and construction. | Photovoltaic cells. | Photovoltaic power generation. | Perovskite. Classification: LCC TK2960 .P75 2017 (print) | LCC TK2960 (ebook) | DDC 621.31/244--dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017005570

Preface

The sun provides energy for the immense diversity of life forms found on earth. Conversion of this energy into electricity by means of photoelectric effect with an acceptable efficiency and price may provide all the energy needs for humankind. New materials and manufacturing techniques are key issues for increasing the efficiency and reducing the cost of photovoltaic devices. Hence, this book series focuses on materials and manufacturing techniques as well as the storage applications for solar cells. The first volume of the series, Printable Solar Cells, compiles the objectives related to the new materials from solution processing and manufacturing techniques for solar cell applications. The chapters are written by distinguished authors who have extensive experience in their fields. A broader point of view and coverage of the topic are provided due to the multidisciplinary contributor profile, including physics, chemistry, materials science, biochemical engineering, optoelectronic information, photovoltaic and renewable energy engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical and manufacturing engineering. Therefore, readers will absolutely have a chance to learn about not only the fundamentals but also the various aspects of materials science and manufacturing technologies for printable solar cells. The book contains information which could be presented in energy and materials science-related courses at both undergraduate and graduate levels.

This book is organized into four parts. Part I (Chapters 1–5) covers the organic and inorganic hybrid materials and solar cell manufacturing techniques. In this section, descriptions of the operational principles and types of hybrid solar cells, physical and chemical principles of film formation by solution processes, polymer/quantum dot hybrid solar cells, hole transporting layers and solution processing techniques are described. Part II (Chapters 6–8) is devoted to organic materials and processing technologies. Details of the spray-coating technologies and the organic materials used in these methods are given in this section. Part II also demonstrates the key features of interface engineering for printable organic solar cells. This phenomenon is very important to increase the device performance and decrease the production cost of printable solar cells. Finally, structural, optical, electrical and electronic properties are presented as well as the fabrication parameters of thin films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS), which is one of the most commonly used organic polymers for photovoltaic applications. The main focus of Part III (Chapters 9–11) is perovskite solar cells, which is a new and promising family for photovoltaic applications. Working principle, device architectures, deposition methods and stability of the perovskite solar cells are given in this section. In addition, the optical properties and photovoltaic performance of organometal trihalide perovskite absorbers are also addressed. Finally, information on dye-sensitized solar cells, the inkjet printing process and modules based on advanced nanocomposite materials are described.

This book concludes with Part IV (Chapters 12–15), inorganic materials and process technologies for printable solar cells. Structural, optical and electrical properties of kesterites, device architecture and deposition strategies are extensively summarized in this part. As described in Part III, tremendous progress has been made in perovskite solar cells over the last few years and the efficiency of these devices has exceeded 20%. Inorganic hole transport materials for transition metal-oxide perovskite solar cells, including Cu2O, CuSCN, CuInS2 and Cu2ZnSnS4, are discussed in Part IV. These materials inevitably affect the device performance and stability. Electrode materials and photonic crystals for solar cell applications are the last two topics covered in this book. Top and bottom electrodes used in thin film solar cells implement the transmission of sunlight through the absorber layer and the electron collection. In other words, optical, electrical and mechanical properties of the electrode materials are important to ensure good photovoltaic performance as well as compatibility with substrate materials and printing techniques. In this respect, transparent conjugated polymers, carbon-based nanomaterials, metallic nanostructures and ultrathin metal films are summarized in Part IV. Finally, new and promising developments of photon management in solar cells based on photonic crystals are given. Fundamentals of photonic crystals, fabrication strategies and utilization of these materials in photovoltaic devices as reflector and absorber layers are summarized in the last section.

In conclusion, we would like to emphasize that the first volume of the Advances in Solar Cell Materials and Storage series provides an overall view of new and highly promising materials and their fabrication technologies for printable solar cell applications. In addition, the materials property–manufacturing method–photovoltaic performance relationship of the organic, inorganic and hybrid structures have been extensively discussed in this book. Therefore, readers from diverse fields, such as chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, and mechanical and chemical engineering, will definitely take advantage of this book to comprehend the impacts of the new materials and solution-based manufacturing on the inevitable rise of solar power.

Series Editors Nurdan Demirci Sankır, PhD and Nurdan Mehmet Sankır, PhD Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology January 2017

Part IHYBRID MATERIALS AND PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRINTABLE SOLAR CELLS

Chapter 1Organic and Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells

Serap Güneş1* and Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci2

1Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Physics, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey

2Johannes Kepler University Linz, Institute for Physical Chemistry, Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS), Linz, Austria

*Corresponding author:[email protected]

Abstract

The dream of conversion of sunlight into electricity via cheap and cost-effective routes has led researchers to develop the so-called third generation organic and hybrid solar cells in the last two decades. The hybrid solar cells combine the advantages of the organic semiconductors, such as easy tuning of the chemical and physical properties and desirable thin film-forming properties, with that of the inorganic semiconductors such as well-defined electronic structure, high charge mobilities and thermal stabilities. Many research studies have been performed to find the ideal organic/inorganic hybrid material combinations and device architectures, which has resulted in significant progress being achieved. During the last three years a new family of photovoltaic compounds called “perovskites” have been the focus of attention. Such organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells based on ionic salts of organic compounds with lead halides show efficiencies up to 22%. In this chapter, we will analyze the progress of research in hybrid solar cells, and the limitations and routes to be followed for their further improvement will be discussed.

Keywords: Organic solar cells, hybrid solar cells, polymer solar cells, conjugated polymers, inorganic nanoparticles, third generation photovoltaics, bulk heterojunction solar cells, conducting polymers

1.1 Introduction