The monitoring of quality has been part of the educational landscape for many decades. Originally the need to monitor arose as part of an economic process whereby policy makers wanted to discern the return on investment in education. This bottom line thinking, while still prominent, has receded into the background in light of global changes and the emergence of a global economy. Now in addition to the question “what is the return on investment?”, the more important question is “are the students in schools ready to participate in the economy of a 21st century society?”. This is underpinned by the inquiry into what knowledge and competencies are required for students to participate meaningfully in nation-building. This inquiry can only be undertaken by means of monitoring, evaluating where the students are and what is required so that students reach their potential. In an ever-changing technologically-oriented world the manner in which competencies and knowledge are identified and how these need to be measured and identified is important. In this book, the theory and practice of underpinning the monitoring of the quality of education is described. This is followed by a number of practical examples, in the form of country case studies, on how theory plays out in practice. The book further provides common themes across developed and developing emerging economies underscoring the need for approaches which are locally relevant but internationally transferable.