Medical Encyclopedia XXL -  - ebook

Medical Encyclopedia XXL ebook

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The digital Medical XL Encyclopedia has been prepared by a committee of American and European scientific and medical experts. The editorial staff benefited from the co-operation of numerous university institutions and foundations such as the National Institutes of Healthand the World Health Foundation.    This encyclopedia aims to meet the growing demand of the general public for highly detailed, complete, authoritative medical information. This information includes anatomy, diagnostic tests, and medical procedures. Medical terms are defined, so that people better understand their doctors. The encyclopedia includes a complete description of over 1,500 major diseases with separate paragraphs on: - Causes - Symptoms - Diagnosis - Treatment - Prevention All major prescription and nonprescription drugs are prescribed including vital information on: - Properties - Indications, prescribed flr - Cautions and Warnings - Treatment - Possible Side Effects - Interactions Over 20,000 entries Over 3,500,000 words

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MEDICINE

A

Abilify

Properties

This medicine contains aripripazole as active ingredient. It belongs to the new class of psychoactive medicines, that has a specific effect on certain neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers in the brain. The drug works on serotonin and dopamine receptors in the brain. Unlike other newer psychoactive medicines that only decrease dopamine, it may both increase and decrease dopamine, targeting specific areas of the brain where the neurotransmitter is too plentiful or too reduced. However, the exact way it works is not known. Studies have proved its effectiveness for 6 months or beyond.

Prescribed for

The medicine is prescribed for:

• Schizophrenia (adults and adolescents)

• Bipolar disorder (adults, adolescents and children)

• Major depression (adults)

Before using this medicine

Before you use this medicine check with your doctor, or pharmacist:

• if you ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any psychoactive drug;

• if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medicine;

• if you are breast-feeding an infant;

• if you have liver or kidney disease;

• if you have a heart problem;

• if you have a history of seizures (convulsions, epilepsy).

Cautions and Warnings

• Elderly patients, diagnosed with psychosis as a result of dementia (for example, an inability to perform daily activities as a result of increased memory loss), and who are treated with antispsychotic medicines are at an increased risk of death when compared to patients who are treated with a placebo (sugar pill). This medicine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.

• Some medicines can increase suicidal thoughts and behaviors in children, teens, and young adults. Serious mental illness are themselves associated with an increase in the risk of suicide. When taking this medicine, call your doctor right away if you have new of worsening mood symptoms, unusual changes in behavior, or thoughts of suicide. Patients and their caregivers should be especially observant within the first few months of treatment or after a change in dose.

• Patients and their families or caregivers should watch for new or worsening mood symptoms, unusual changes in behavior and thoughts, as well as for the following symptoms:

• Anxiety

• Agitation

• Panic attacks

• Difficulty sleeping

• Irritability

• Hostility

• Aggressiveness

• Impulsivity

• Restlessness

• Extreme hyperactivity

• Report any sudden changes in temperature, heart rate (arrhythmias) or heart palpitations to your doctor as these may be symptoms of a serious side effect.

• Because this medicine has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, use caution when operating machinery, including automobiles, until you know how this medicine affects you. Avoid drinking alcohol. Avoid strenuous exercise, or prolonged exposure to heat, since this could contribute to a rise in core body temperature, and dehydration.

Treatment

• This medication is used for treatment of severe mental, nervous and emotional conditions. The drug is known to help the management of signs and symptoms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and major depression.

• Usual dose: The information below is based on the dosage guidelines your doctor uses. Depending on your condition and medical history, your doctor may prescribe a different regimen. Do not change the dosage or stop taking your medication without your doctor's approval.

This medicine is usually taken once a day, with or without food: 10-15 mg. The dose can be increased to 30 mg daily if needed. Treatment may be as long as 6 weeks. For children and adolescents the recommended dose is 10 mg; the initial dose is usually 2 mg. For patients who must limit their sugar intake, be aware that this medicine contains sugar.

If you forget to take a dose of this medicine, take it as soon you remember and continue with your regular dose on the next day. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you forget more than one dose of this medicine.

• Serious side effects occur with any antipsychotic medicine. Tell your healthcare professional right away if you have any conditions, including the following:

• Stroke or ministroke in elderly patients with dementia

• Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

• Tardive dyskinesia

• High blood sugar and diabetes

• Orthostatic hypotension

• Suicidal thoughts

• Dysphagia

• Do not discontinue the use of this drug without consulting your doctor. Dosage may require a gradual reduction before stopping.

• Tell your healthcare provider:

• About any medical conditions you may have

• Whether you're taking any other prescription medicines

• Whether you are taking any over-the-counter medicines

• If you or anyone in your family has seizues

• For safe and effective use of medicine: Follow your doctor's instructions if this medicine was prescribed. Follow the manufacturer's package directions if you are treating yourself.

Side Effects

Along with the needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Possible side effects include:

Drowsiness

Anxiety

Insomnia

Sleepiness

Nausea

Vomiting

Constipation

Headache

Extrapyramidal disorder

Dizziness

Uncontrolled movement disorders

Restlessness

Involuntary movements

Tremors

Muscle stiffness

Prolonged, abnormal muscle spasm

Interactions

This medicine can be taken with most drugs, however, taking this drug with some other medicines may require your healthcare professional to adjust the dosage:

• Ketoconazole

• Quinidine

• Fluoxetine

• Paroxetine

• Carbamazepine

Driving or Hazardous Work

Do not drive until you learn how the medicine affects you. Do not work around dangerous machinery. Do not climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicines affecting alertness and reflexes.

Overdose

The following symptoms may be a sign of overdose:

Extreme drowsiness

Rapid heartbeat

Faintness

Convulsions

Difficulty in breathing

Excessive sweating

Call a doctor or hospital emergency room for instructions. If necessary start first aid immediately.

Storage

Tablets and oral solution should be stored at room temperature; store away from heat and direct light. Keep out of reach of children, since this medicine may be dangerous in children.

Acetophenazine

Properties

This medicine contains as active ingredient acetophenazine, a phenothiazine derivative. Phenothiazines are a family of medicines used to treat nervous, mental, and emotional conditions.

It is thought that some forms of mental illness are caused by an increase of communication between nerve cells due to overactivity of one of more chemical messengers or neurotransmitters; in most cases of psychosis the activity level of one of these neurotransmitters, dopamine, is disregulated, but other chemical messengers, such as noradrenaline, may also show variations in their activity level.

Because a person with a psychotic illness may recover spontaneously, a drug will not always be prescribed immediately. Long-term treatment is only started when normal life is seriously interfered with. Antipsychotic drugs do not cure the underlying disorder, but they can restore normal behavior.

The drug given to a particular individual depends on the nature of his or her illness and the side effects experienced. Drugs differ in the amount of sedation that they produce; the need for sedation also influences the choice.

Prescribed for

This medicine is prescribed for:

• Psychotic disorders

• Moderate to severe depression with anxiety or agitation

• Aggressiveness in disturbed children

• Restlessness

Before using this medicine

Before you use this medicine check with your doctor, or pharmacist:

• if you ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to phenothiazine medicines.

• if you are on a low-salt, low-sugar, or any other special diet, or if you are allergic to any substance, such as sulfites or other preservatives or dyes.

• if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medicine. Although phenothiazines have not been shown to cause birth defects, some side effects such as jaundice and muscle tremors have occurred in a few newborns whose mothers received phenothiazines during pregnancy.

• if you are breast-feeding an infant. Although this medicine has not been shown to cause problems in humans the chance does exist since some phenothiazines are known to pass into the breast milk.

• if you have any of the following medical problems:

Alcoholism

Blood disease

Difficult urination

Enlarged prostate

Glaucoma

Heart or blood vessel disease

Liver or lung disease

Parkinson's disease

Stomach ulcers

Cautions and Warnings

• Do not take this drug if you are allergic or sensitive to any of its ingredients or to any phenothiazine drug.

• Do not take it if you have:

• Very low blood pressure

• Parkinson's disease

• Blood disease

• Liver disease

• Kidney disorder

• Heart disease

• Take this drug under your doctor's strict supervision if you have:

• Glaucoma

• Epilepsy

• Ulcers

• Urinary difficulty

• Avoid exposure to extreme heat, because this drug may upset your body's temperature-control mechanism.

Treatment

• This medication is prescribed to treat the symptoms of certain types of mental illness or emotional problems.

• Usual dosage The information below is based on the dosage guidelines your doctor uses. Depending on your condition and medical history, your doctor may prescribe a different regime.

Adults: 30-500 mg or more a day; individualized according to your disease and response. Children: 0.25 mg per lb. of body weight every 4-6 hours, up to 200 mg a day, depending on disease, age, and response.

• In order to avoid stomach irritation, you can take the tablet or capsule forms of this medication with a meal or with a glass of water or milk (unless your doctor or pharmacist directs you to do otherwise).

Side Effects

Along with the needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Minor side effects are:

Blurred vision

Constipation

Decreased sweating

Diarrhea

Dizziness

Drooling

Drowsiness

Dry mouth

Fatigue

Jitteriness

Menstrual irregularities

Nasal congestion

Restlessness

Tremors

Vomiting

Weight gain.

• Tell your doctor about any side effects that are persistent or particularly bothersome. It is especially important to tell your doctor about:

Breast enlargement

Chest pain

Convulsions

Darkened skin

Difficulty in swallowing

Fainting

Fever

Involuntary movements

Palpitations

Sleep disorders

Rash

Sore throat

Uncoordinated movements

Unusual bleeding

Bruising

Visual disturbances

Yellowing of the eyes or skin

• This drug may cause an unusual increase in psychotic symptoms or may cause paranoid reactions, tiredness, lethargy, restlessness, hyperactivity, confusion at night, bizarre dreams, depression and decreased sex drive.

Interactions

This medicine may interact with several other drugs such as barbiturates, sleeping pills, narcotics, other tranquillizers, or any other medication that may produce a sedative effect. Avoid alcohol.

Driving or Hazardous Work

Do not drive until you learn how the medicine affects you. Do not work around dangerous machinery. Do not climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicines affecting alertness and reflexes.

Overdosage

Overdose symptoms include:

• Depression

• Extreme weakness

• Tiredness

• Lowered blood pressure

• Agitation

• Restlessness

• Uncontrolled muscle spasms

• Convulsions

• Abnormal heart rhythms

The victim should be taken to a hospital emergency room immediately.

Storage

Store this medication as directed on the label. Keep out of the reach of children.

Alprazolam

Properties

This medicine contains as active ingredient alprazolam, a benzodiazepine preparation. Benzodiazepines belong to the group of psychoactive medicines that influence the activity of the brain.

They can relax you and make you more tranquil or sleepier, or they can slow various system transmissions in such a way as to act as an anticonvulsant. Many doctors prefer benzodiazepines to other drugs that can be used in similar circumstances because they tend to be safer, have fewer side effects, and are usually as effective, if not more so.

Prescribed for

This medicine is prescribed for:

• Anxiety disorder

• Anxiety associated with depression

• Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia

Before using this medicine

Before you use this medicine check with your doctor:

• if you ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to benzodiazepines.

• if you are on a low-salt, low-sugar, or any other special diet, or if you are allergic to any substance, such as sulfites or other preservatives or dyes.

• if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medicine. Some benzodiazepines have been reported to increase the chance of birth defects when used during the first 3 months of pregnancy.

• if you are breast-feeding an infant. Benzodiazepines may pass into the breast milk and cause drowsiness, unusually slow heartbeat, shortness of breath, or troubled breathing in infants of mothers taking this medicine.

• if you have any of the following medical problems: asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, or other chronic lung disease; epilepsy or history of convulsions; hyperactivity (in children); kidney or liver disease; mental depression or illness; myasthenia gravis, porphyria.

Treatment

This medication is used to relieve or prevent the symptoms of your medical problem. Take the medicine as directed. Do not take more of them and do not take them more often than recommended on the label, unless otherwise directed by your doctor.

• The information below is based on the dosage guidelines your doctor uses. Depending on your condition and medical history, your doctor may prescribe a different regime.

Anxiety disorder The usual dosage for adults amounts to 0.25-0.5 mg three times a day. The dosage must be tailored to your individual needs with a maximum dose of 4 mg a day. The medicine is not recommended for children under 18.

Panic disorderThe usual dosage for adults amounts to 1-10 mg a day. The dosage must be tailored to your individual need. The medicine is not recommended for children under 18.

• Benzodiazepine drugs can be abused if taken for long periods of time and it is possible to develop withdrawal symptoms if you discontinue the therapy abruptly. This medicine can cause drug withdrawal symptoms if suddenly discontinued. Withdrawal symptoms include:

• Tremors

• Muscle cramps

• Insomnia

• Agitation

• Diarrhea

• Vomiting

• Sweating

• Convulsions

Cautions and Warnings

• Do not take this drug if you are allergic or sensitive to any of its ingredients.

• The drug has been associated with memory loss, especially when higher doses are taken. This effect, known as "traveller's amnesia," is most common among people who take this medicine to adjust to time zone changes during travel.

• If you abruptly stop taking this medicine, you may experience rebound sleeplessness, where sleeplessness is worse during the first 1-3 nights, after you stop the drug that it was before you started it.

• People with reparatory disease may experience sleep apnea (intermittent cessation of breathing during sleep) while taking this medicine.

• People with kidney or liver disease would be carefully monitored while taking this medicine. Take the lowest possible dose to help you sleep.

• Clinical depression may be increased by this medicine, which can depress the nervous system. Intentional overdose is more common among depressed people, who take sleeping pills that among those who do not.

Side Effects

Along with the needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects.

• Minor side effects are:

Bitter taste in the mouth

Dizziness

Drowsiness

Depression

Constipation

Dry mouth

Excessive salivation

Fatigue

Flushing

Headache

Heartburn

Loss of appetite

Nausea

Nervousness

Sweating

Vomiting.

As your body adjusts to the medicine, these side effects should disappear.

• Tell your doctor about any side effects that are persistent or particularly bothersome. It is especially important to tell your doctor about:

Blurred or double vision

Chest pain

Difficulty in urinating

Fainting or falling

Fever or hallucinations

Joint pain

Mouth sores

Nightmares

Palpitations

Severe depression

Shortness of breath

Slurred speech

Uncoordinated movements

Unusual tiredness

Yellowing of the skin

Interactions

This medicine may interact with several other drugs. This medicine will add to the effects of alcohol, and CNS depressants.

• Be sure to tell your doctor about any medications you are currently taking.

Overdosage

The most common symptoms of overdose are:

• Confusion

• Sleepiness

• Loss of muscle coordination

• Slurred speech

Overdose victims must be made to vomit, with ipecac syrup, to remove any remaining drug from the stomach. Call your doctor or a poison control center before doing this. If 30 minutes have passed since the overdose was taken or if symptoms have begun to develop, the victim must immediately be taken to a hospital emergency room.

Storage

Store at room temperature in tightly closed, light-resistant containers. Keep out of the reach of children since overdose may be especially dangerous in children.

Ambien

Properties

This medicine contains as active ingredient zolpiden, a non-benzodiazepine sleeping medicine that works in much the same way as do benzodiazepine sleeping pills and sedatives. Non-benzodiazepine hypnotics and sedatives belong to the group of psychoactive medicines that influence the activity of the brain, in general by way of a specific effect on chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) that are responsible for transmitting signals between nerve cells.

Unlike the benzodiazepines, however, this medicine has little muscle-relaxing or antiseizure effects. It is meant for short-time use – 7-10 days – and should not be taken regularly for longer periods than that without your doctor's knowledge.

The controlled-release (CR) formation was created to address the problem of people not getting a full night's sleep when taking the older, immediate-release product. It does not act as quickly as the older formulation because the drug enters the bloodstream much more slowly.

Prescribed for

The drug is prescribed for:

• Insomnia (sleep disorders)

• Trouble falling asleep

• Waking up too early

• Sleep problems in Alzheimer patients

Sleep problems often result from physical or psychological illnesses, including worsening of sleep problems, abnormal thinking, and behavioral changes, including hallucinations, bizarre behavior, agitation, and depersonalization. This medicine does not affect the underlying causes of insomnia. It should be taken only with your doctor's knowledge. If you cannot sleep after 7-10 days taking this medication, contact your doctor.

Before using this medicine

Before you use this medicine check with your doctor:

• if you ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to benzodiazepines.

• if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medicine. Some hypnotics have been reported to increase the chance of birth defects when used during the first 3 months of pregnancy.

• if you are breast-feeding an infant. Hypnotics may pass into the breast milk and cause drowsiness, unusually slow heartbeat, shortness of breath, or troubled breathing in infants of mothers taking this medicine.

• if you have any of the following medical problems: asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, or other chronic lung disease; epilepsy or history of convulsions; hyperactivity (in children); kidney or liver disease; mental depression or illness; myasthania gravis.

Treatment

• This medication is used to relieve or prevent the symptoms of your medical problem. Take them as directed. Do not take more of them and do not take them more often than recommended on the label, unless otherwise directed by your doctor.

• Usual dosage: The information below is based on the dosage guidelines your doctor uses. Depending on your condition and medical history, your doctor may prescribe a different regime.

Immediate-release tablets: The usual dosage for adults is 10 mg immediately before bedtime. Seniors: 5 mg immediate before bedtime. The medicine is not recommended for children.

Controlled-release tablets: The usual dosage for adults is 12.5 mg immediately before bedtime. Seniors: 6.25 mg immediate before bedtime. The medicine is not recommended for children.

• For the most rapid effect, take this medication on an empty stomach at least two hours after a meal.

Warnings and Cautions

• The medicine can be abused if taken for long periods of time and it is possible to develop withdrawal symptoms if you discontinue the therapy abruptly.

• Suddenly stopping this medication after having taken it for some time may produce drug withdrawal syndrome, including:

• Fatigue

• Nausea

• Flushing

• Lightheadedness

• Crying

• Vomiting

• Stomach cramps

• Panic

• Nervousness

• General discomfort

People with a history of substance abuse may be more likely to develop drug dependence on this medication.

Side Effects

Along with the needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Minor side effects are: bitter taste in the mouth, dizziness, drowsiness, depression, constipation, dry mouth, excessive salivation, fatigue, flushing, headache, heartburn, loss of appetite, nausea, nervousness, sweating or vomiting. As your body adjusts to the medicine, these side effects should disappear.

• Tell your doctor about any side effects that are persistent or particularly bothersome. It is especially important to tell your doctor about:

Headache

Drowsiness

Lightheadedness

Nausea

Diarrhea

Fatigue

Unusual dreams

Memory loss

Anxiety

Nervousness

Appetite loss

Vomiting

Runny nose

Overdose

Symptoms of overdose are: drowsiness, tremor, stupor, coma. Apply, if necessary, cardiac massage and mouth-to-mouth breathing.

Interactions

• This medicine may interact with several other drugs. This medicine will add to the effects of alcohol, and CNS depressants.

• Taking a benzodiazepine with this medication may result in excessive depression, tiredness, sleepiness, breathing difficulties, or similar symptoms.

• Be sure to tell your doctor about any medications (including over-the--counter drugs) you are currently taking.

Driving or Hazardous Work

Do not drive until you learn how the medicine affects you. Do not work around dangerous machinery. Do not climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol.

Storage

Store at room temperature in tightly closed, light-resistant containers. Keep out of the reach of children since overdose may be especially dangerous in children.

Amitriptyline

Properties

This medicine contains amitriptyline as active ingredient. It belongs to the group of medicines known as tricyclic antidepressants or "mood elevators." It is used to relieve mental depression and depression that sometimes occurs with anxiety. The medication gradually relieves, but does not cure, symptoms of depression.

The medication Influences the passage of certain brain chemicals – serotonin and/or norepinephrine – in and out nerve endings, producing an alteration of the excitatory levels of nerve cells. They also counteract the effects of the neurohormone or neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

The medicine works by causing long-term changes in the way the neurotransmitters in the central nervous system work. The medicines of this type can elevate mood, increase physical activity and mental alertness, and improve appetite and sleep patterns after 2-4 weeks of use.

Prescribed for

The medication is prescribed for:

• Depression with or without symptoms of anxiety

• Neurotic or psychotic depressive disorder

• Narcolepsy

• Bulimia

• Panic attacks

• Cocaine withdrawal syndrome

• Attention deficit disorder

Before using this medicine

Before you use this medicine check with your doctor, or pharmacist:

• if you ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to any tricyclic antidepressant, maprotiline or trazodone.

• if you are on a low-salt, low-sugar, or any other special diet, or if you are allergic to any substance, such as sulfites or other preservatives or dyes.

• if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medicine. There have been reports of newborns suffering from heart, breathing, and urinary problems when their mothers had taken tricyclic antidepressants before delivery.

• if you are breast-feeding an infant. Some tricyclic antidepressants pass into the breast milk.

Treatment

• Take this medicine only as directed by your doctor, to benefit your condition as much as possible. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer period of time than your doctor ordered.

• Usual dosage: The information below is based on the dosage guidelines your doctor uses. Depending on your condition and medical history, your doctor may prescribe a different regime. Adults and children (age 12 and over): starting dose of 25 mg 3 times a day, then increased as needed to a maximum daily dose of 150 mg. Hospitalized patients may take up to 300 mg a day if needed. Lower doses are recommended for seniors.

• To lessen stomach upset, take this medicine with food, even for a daily bedtime dose, unless your doctor has told you to take it on an empty stomach. If you forget your once-a-day bedtime dose, do not take it more than 3 hours late. If more than 3 hours, wait for next scheduled dose.

• Sometimes this medicine must be taken for several weeks before you begin to feel better.

Cautions and Warnings

• Do not take this type of antidepressants if you are allergic or sensitive to any of their ingredients.

• Antidepressants have been associated with an increased risk of suicide, especially in teenagers tasking them. Suicide is always a risk in severely depressed people, who should only be allowed to have minimal quantities of medicines in their possession.

• These drugs should be taken with caution if you have a history of:

• Convulsive disorders

• Seizures

• Difficulty urinating

• Glaucoma

• Hearty disease

• Liver disease

• Hyperthyroidism

Side Effects

Along with the needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Side effects that usually do not require medical attention: difficult or frequent urination; decreased sex drive; muscle aches; abnormal dreams; nasal congestion; weakness and faintness when arising from bed or chair; back pain.

• Other side effects that should be reported to your doctor immediately are:

Hallucinations

Shakiness

Confusion

Disorientation

Muscle spasms

Tremors

Worsening glaucoma

Sensitivity to bright light

Seizures

Constipation

Difficulty urinating

Convulsions

Dizziness

Fainting

Blurred vision

Eye pain

Irregular heartbeat or slow pulse

Inflamed tongue

Abdominal pain

Jaundice

Hair loss

Rash

Fever

Chills

Joint pain

Palpitations

Driving or Hazardous Work

Do not drive until you learn how the medicine affects you. Do not work around dangerous machinery. Do not climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicines affecting alertness and reflexes.

Interactions

This medicine may interact with several other drugs such as:

• Anticoagulants

• Anticholinergics

• Cold remedies

• Oral contraceptives

• Estrogens

• Seizure medicines

• Sleeping medicines

• Thyroid medicines

• Other antidepressants

• Be sure to tell your doctor about any medications you are currently taking.

Storage

Tablets, capsules, etc. should be stored at room temperature in tightly closed, light-resistant containers as directed by your pharmacist. Keep out of reach of children since overdose is especially dangerous in young children. Do not store in the bathroom medicine cabinet because the heart or moisture may cause the medicine to break down. Keep the liquid form of the medicine from freezing.

Amoxapine

Properties

This medicine contains amoxapine as active ingredient. It belongs to the group of medicines known as tricyclic antidepressants or "mood elevators." It is used to relieve mental depression and depression that sometimes occurs with anxiety. The medication gradually relieves, but does not cure, symptoms of depression.

The medication Influences the passage of certain brain chemicals – serotonin and/or norepinephrine – in and out nerve endings, producing an alteration of the excitatory levels of nerve cells. They also counteract the effects of the neurohormone or neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

The medicine works by causing long-term changes in the way the neurotransmitters in the central nervous system work. The medicines of this type can elevate mood, increase physical activity and mental alertness, and improve appetite and sleep patterns after 2-4 weeks of use.

Prescribed for

The medication is prescribed for:

• Depression with or without symptoms of anxiety

• Neurotic or psychotic depressive disorder

• Narcolepsy

• Bulimia

• Panic attacks

• Cocaine withdrawal syndrome

• Attention deficit disorder

Before using this medicine

Before you use this medicine check with your doctor, or pharmacist:

• if you ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to any tricyclic antidepressant, maprotiline or trazodone.

• if you are on a low-salt, low-sugar, or any other special diet, or if you are allergic to any substance, such as sulfites or other preservatives or dyes.

• if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medicine. There have been reports of newborns suffering from heart, breathing, and urinary problems when their mothers had taken tricyclic antidepressants before delivery.

• if you are breast-feeding an infant. Some tricyclic antidepressants pass into the breast milk.

Treatment

• Take this medicine only as directed by your doctor, to benefit your condition as much as possible. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer period of time than your doctor ordered.

• Usual dosage: The information below is based on the dosage guidelines your doctor uses. Depending on your condition and medical history, your doctor may prescribe a different regime. Adults and children (age 18 and over): 100-400 mg a day. Hospitalized patients may take up to 600 mg a day if needed. Lower doses are recommended for seniors; generally 30-50 mg a day.

• To lessen stomach upset, take this medicine with food, even for a daily bedtime dose, unless your doctor has told you to take it on an empty stomach. If you forget your once-a-day bedtime dose, do not take it more than 3 hours late. If more than 3 hours, wait for next scheduled dose.

• Sometimes this medicine must be taken for several weeks before you begin to feel better.

Cautions and Warnings

• Do not take this type of antidepressants if you are allergic or sensitive to any of their ingredients.

• Antidepressants have been associated with an increased risk of suicide, especially in teenagers tasking them. Suicide is always a risk in severely depressed people, who should only be allowed to have minimal quantities of medicines in their possession.

• These drugs should be taken with caution if you have a history of:

• Convulsive disorders

• Seizures

• Difficulty urinating

• Glaucoma

• Hearty disease

• Liver disease

• Hyperthyroidism

Side Effects

Along with the needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Side effects that usually do not require medical attention: difficult or frequent urination; decreased sex drive; muscle aches; abnormal dreams; nasal congestion; weakness and faintness when arising from bed or chair; back pain.

• Other side effects that should be reported to your doctor immediately are:

Hallucinations

Shakiness

Confusion

Disorientation

Muscle spasms

Tremors

Worsening glaucoma

Sensitivity to bright light

Seizures

Constipation

Difficulty urinating

Convulsions

Dizziness

Fainting

Blurred vision

Eye pain

Irregular heartbeat or slow pulse

Inflamed tongue

Abdominal pain

Jaundice

Hair loss

Rash

Fever

Chills

Joint pain

Palpitations

Driving or Hazardous Work

Do not drive until you learn how the medicine affects you. Do not work around dangerous machinery. Do not climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicines affecting alertness and reflexes.

Interactions

This medicine may interact with several other drugs such as:

• Anticoagulants

• Anticholinergics

• Cold remedies

• Oral contraceptives

• Estrogens

• Seizure medicines

• Sleeping medicines

• Thyroid medicines

• Other antidepressants

• Be sure to tell your doctor about any medications you are currently taking.

Storage

Tablets, capsules, etc. should be stored at room temperature in tightly closed, light-resistant containers as directed by your pharmacist. Keep out of reach of children since overdose is especially dangerous in young children. Do not store in the bathroom medicine cabinet because the heart or moisture may cause the medicine to break down. Keep the liquid form of the medicine from freezing.

Anafranil

Properties

This medicine contains clomipramine as active ingredient. It belongs to the group of medicines known as tricyclic antidepressants or "mood elevators." It is used to relieve mental depression and depression that sometimes occurs with anxiety. The medication gradually relieves, but does not cure, symptoms of depression.

The medication Influences the passage of certain brain chemicals – serotonin and/or norepinephrine – in and out nerve endings, producing an alteration of the excitatory levels of nerve cells. They also counteract the effects of the neurohormone or neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

The medicine works by causing long-term changes in the way the neurotransmitters in the central nervous system work. The medicines of this type can elevate mood, increase physical activity and mental alertness, and improve appetite and sleep patterns after 2-4 weeks of use.

Prescribed for

The medication is prescribed for:

• Depression with or without symptoms of anxiety

• Neurotic or psychotic depressive disorder

• Narcolepsy

• Bulimia

• Panic attacks

• Cocaine withdrawal syndrome

• Attention deficit disorder

Before using this medicine

Before you use this medicine check with your doctor, or pharmacist:

• if you ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to any tricyclic antidepressant, maprotiline or trazodone.

• if you are on a low-salt, low-sugar, or any other special diet, or if you are allergic to any substance, such as sulfites or other preservatives or dyes.

• if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medicine. There have been reports of newborns suffering from heart, breathing, and urinary problems when their mothers had taken tricyclic antidepressants before delivery.

• if you are breast-feeding an infant. Some tricyclic antidepressants pass into the breast milk.

Treatment

• Take this medicine only as directed by your doctor, to benefit your condition as much as possible. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer period of time than your doctor ordered.

• Usual dosage: The information below is based on the dosage guidelines your doctor uses. Depending on your condition and medical history, your doctor may prescribe a different regime. Adults: 25-250 mg a day; children: 25-250 mg a day or 1.4 mg per lb. a day, whichever is less. This drug may be taken at bedtime to minimize daytime sedation. Lower doses are recommended for seniors; generally 30-50 mg a day.

• To lessen stomach upset, take this medicine with food, even for a daily bedtime dose, unless your doctor has told you to take it on an empty stomach. If you forget your once-a-day bedtime dose, do not take it more than 3 hours late. If more than 3 hours, wait for next scheduled dose.

• Sometimes this medicine must be taken for several weeks before you begin to feel better.

Cautions and Warnings

• Do not take this type of antidepressants if you are allergic or sensitive to any of their ingredients.

• Antidepressants have been associated with an increased risk of suicide, especially in teenagers tasking them. Suicide is always a risk in severely depressed people, who should only be allowed to have minimal quantities of medicines in their possession.

• These drugs should be taken with caution if you have a history of:

• Convulsive disorders

• Seizures

• Difficulty urinating

• Glaucoma

• Hearty disease

• Liver disease

• Hyperthyroidism

Side Effects

Along with the needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Side effects that usually do not require medical attention: difficult or frequent urination; decreased sex drive; muscle aches; abnormal dreams; nasal congestion; weakness and faintness when arising from bed or chair; back pain.

• Other side effects that should be reported to your doctor immediately are:

Hallucinations

Shakiness

Confusion

Disorientation

Muscle spasms

Tremors

Worsening glaucoma

Sensitivity to bright light

Seizures

Constipation

Difficulty urinating

Convulsions

Dizziness

Fainting

Blurred vision

Eye pain

Irregular heartbeat or slow pulse

Inflamed tongue

Abdominal pain

Jaundice

Hair loss

Rash

Fever

Chills

Joint pain

Palpitations

Driving or Hazardous Work

Do not drive until you learn how the medicine affects you. Do not work around dangerous machinery. Do not climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicines affecting alertness and reflexes.

Interactions

This medicine may interact with several other drugs such as:

• Anticoagulants

• Anticholinergics

• Cold remedies

• Oral contraceptives

• Estrogens

• Seizure medicines

• Sleeping medicines

• Thyroid medicines

• Other antidepressants

• Be sure to tell your doctor about any medications you are currently taking.

Storage

Tablets, capsules, etc. should be stored at room temperature in tightly closed, light-resistant containers as directed by your pharmacist. Keep out of reach of children since overdose is especially dangerous in young children. Do not store in the bathroom medicine cabinet because the heart or moisture may cause the medicine to break down. Keep the liquid form of the medicine from freezing.

Aricept

Properties

This psychoactive medicine contains donepezil as active ingredient. It belongs to the group of cholinesterase inhibitors. These drugs work by increasing the function of certain receptors in the brain that are stimulated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. They do this by interfering with cholinesterase, the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine. Most people with dementia (including Alzheimer's disease) develop a shortage of this brain chemical early in the disease.

Prescribed for

The drug is prescribed for:

• Dementia

• Alzheimer's disease

• Lewy body dementia

• Vascular dementia

• Dementia associated with Parkinson's disease

• Poststroke aphasia

• Improvement of memory in multiple sclerosis

There is no evidence that cholinesterase inhibitors reverse the degenerative effects of dementia, but they may slow the rate at which the disease worsens.

Before using this medicine

Before you use this medicine check with your doctor, or pharmacist:

• if you ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to any psychoactive medicine;

• if you have a heart disease;

• if you have a gastric ulcer of stomach bleeding;

• if you have liver problems;

• if you have kidney insufficiency.

Treatment

Take this medicine only as directed by your doctor, to benefit your condition as much as possible. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer period of time than your doctor ordered.

Dosage:The information below is based on the dosage guidelines your doctor uses. Depending on your condition and medical history, your doctor may prescribe a different regimen.

The usual starting dose is 5 mg once a day at bedtime for at least 4 to 6 weeks. Do not increase the dose during this period unless directed. The doctor may then change the dose to 10 milligrams once a day if response to the drug warrants it.

Side Effects

Along with the needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects.

• Common side effects include:

Headache

General pain

Accidents

Nausea

Diarrhea

Sleeplessness

Dizziness

Tiredness

Vomiting

Appetite loss

Muscle cramps

• Less common and rare side effects include:

Arthritis

Depression

Abnormal dreams

Fainting

Black-and-blue marks

Weight loss

• Contact your doctor if you experience any side effects not listed above.

Warnings and Cautions

• People with heart disease should use this medicine with caution because it may slow heart rate and cause fainting.

• The medicine may be expected to cause increased stomach acid and increased activity of the gastrointestinal tract. Possible complications include ulcers and bleeding. Alcohol may worsen this effect.

• Using this medicine may also lead to urinary blockage, increase the risk of generalized seizures, and worsen asthma or other pulmonary diseases. Use with caution if you have these conditions.

• People with severe liver disease should not take this medicine.

Driving or Hazardous Work

Do not drive until you learn how the medicine affects you. Do not work around dangerous machinery. Do not climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicines affecting alertness and reflexes.

Interactions

This medicine can be expected to increase the effects of:

• Cevimeline

• Surgical anesthetic drugs

• Drugs that irritate the stomach and intestines

• Aspirin

• Ibuprofen

The breakdown of this medicine in the liver can be slowed by:

• Ketoconazole

• Itraconazole

• Quinidine

• Ritonavir

• Cimetidine

• Ciprofloxacin

• Diltiazem

• Erythromycin

• Fluconazole

• Clomipramine

• Fluoxetine

• Haloperidol

• Paroxetine

• Ranitidine

• Be sure to tell your doctor about any medications you are currently taking.

Overdosage

An overdose of this medicine can be very serious. Symptoms include:

• Severe nausea

• Vomiting

• Salivation

• Sweating

• Slow heart rate

• Low blood pressure

• Slow breathing rate

• Convulsions

• Muscle weakness

• Collapse

Take the overdose victim to a hospital emergency room at once. Always bring the prescription bottle or container.

Storage

Tablets, capsules, etc. should be stored at room temperature in tightly closed, light-resistant containers as directed by your pharmacist. Keep out of reach of children since overdose is especially dangerous in young children. Do not store in the bathroom medicine cabinet because the heat or moisture may cause the medicine to break down. Keep the liquid form of the medicine from freezing.

Aripripazole

Properties

This medicine contains aripripazole as active ingredient. It belongs to the new class of psychoactive medicines, that has a specific effect on certain neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers in the brain. The drug works on serotonin and dopamine receptors in the brain. Unlike other newer psychoactive medicines that only decrease dopamine, it may both increase and decrease dopamine, targeting specific areas of the brain where the neurotransmitter is too plentiful or too reduced. However, the exact way it works is not known. Studies have proved its effectiveness for 6 months or beyond.

Prescribed for

The medicine is prescribed for:

• Schizophrenia (adults and adolescents)

• Bipolar disorder (adults, adolescents and children)

• Major depression (adults)

Before using this medicine

Before you use this medicine check with your doctor, or pharmacist:

• if you ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any psychoactive drug;

• if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medicine;

• if you are breast-feeding an infant;

• if you have liver or kidney disease;

• if you have a heart problem;

• if you have a history of seizures (convulsions, epilepsy).

Cautions and Warnings

• Elderly patients, diagnosed with psychosis as a result of dementia (for example, an inability to perform daily activities as a result of increased memory loss), and who are treated with antispsychotic medicines are at an increased risk of death when compared to patients who are treated with a placebo (sugar pill). This medicine is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis.

• Some medicines can increase suicidal thoughts and behaviors in children, teens, and young adults. Serious mental illness are themselves associated with an increase in the risk of suicide. When taking this medicine, call your doctor right away if you have new of worsening mood symptoms, unusual changes in behavior, or thoughts of suicide. Patients and their caregivers should be especially observant within the first few months of treatment or after a change in dose.

• Patients and their families or caregivers should watch for new or worsening mood symptoms, unusual changes in behavior and thoughts, as well as for the following symptoms:

• Anxiety

• Agitation

• Panic attacks

• Difficulty sleeping

• Irritability

• Hostility

• Aggressiveness

• Impulsivity

• Restlessness

• Extreme hyperactivity

• Report any sudden changes in temperature, heart rate (arrhythmias) or heart palpitations to your doctor as these may be symptoms of a serious side effect.

• Because this medicine has the potential to impair judgment, thinking, or motor skills, use caution when operating machinery, including automobiles, until you know how this medicine affects you. Avoid drinking alcohol. Avoid strenuous exercise, or prolonged exposure to heat, since this could contribute to a rise in core body temperature, and dehydration.

Treatment

• This medication is used for treatment of severe mental, nervous and emotional conditions. The drug is known to help the management of signs and symptoms of schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and major depression.

• Usual dose: The information below is based on the dosage guidelines your doctor uses. Depending on your condition and medical history, your doctor may prescribe a different regimen. Do not change the dosage or stop taking your medication without your doctor's approval.

This medicine is usually taken once a day, with or without food: 10-15 mg. The dose can be increased to 30 mg daily if needed. Treatment may be as long as 6 weeks. For children and adolescents the recommended dose is 10 mg; the initial dose is usually 2 mg. For patients who must limit their sugar intake, be aware that this medicine contains sugar.

If you forget to take a dose of this medicine, take it as soon you remember and continue with your regular dose on the next day. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you forget more than one dose of this medicine.

• Serious side effects occur with any antipsychotic medicine. Tell your healthcare professional right away if you have any conditions, including the following:

• Stroke or ministroke in elderly patients with dementia

• Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

• Tardive dyskinesia

• High blood sugar and diabetes

• Orthostatic hypotension

• Suicidal thoughts

• Dysphagia

• Do not discontinue the use of this drug without consulting your doctor. Dosage may require a gradual reduction before stopping.

• Tell your healthcare provider:

• About any medical conditions you may have

• Whether you're taking any other prescription medicines

• Whether you are taking any over-the-counter medicines

• If you or anyone in your family has seizues

• For safe and effective use of medicine: Follow your doctor's instructions if this medicine was prescribed. Follow the manufacturer's package directions if you are treating yourself.

Side Effects

Along with the needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Possible side effects include:

Drowsiness

Anxiety

Insomnia

Sleepiness

Nausea

Vomiting

Constipation

Headache

Extrapyramidal disorder

Dizziness

Uncontrolled movement disorders

Restlessness

Involuntary movements

Tremors

Muscle stiffness

Prolonged, abnormal muscle spasm

Interactions

This medicine can be taken with most drugs, however, taking this drug with some other medicines may require your healthcare professional to adjust the dosage:

• Ketoconazole

• Quinidine

• Fluoxetine

• Paroxetine

• Carbamazepine

Driving or Hazardous Work

Do not drive until you learn how the medicine affects you. Do not work around dangerous machinery. Do not climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicines affecting alertness and reflexes.

Overdose

The following symptoms may be a sign of overdose:

Extreme drowsiness

Rapid heartbeat

Faintness

Convulsions

Difficulty in breathing

Excessive sweating

Call a doctor or hospital emergency room for instructions. If necessary start first aid immediately.

Storage

Tablets and oral solution should be stored at room temperature; store away from heat and direct light. Keep out of reach of children, since this medicine may be dangerous in children.

Atarax

Properties

This medicine contains hydroxyzine as active ingredient. It is an psychoactive drug that has a specific effect on certain areas of the brain. This medicine is an antihistamine with antianxiety, muscle-relaxing, antiemetic (antivomiting), bronchial-dilating, pain-relieving, and antispasmodic properties. This medicines had been used to treat a variety of problems including stress related to dental or other minor surgical procedures, acute emotional problems, and behavioral difficulties in children.

Prescribed for

This medicine is prescribed for:

• Nausea

• Vomiting

• Anxiety disorder

• Tension

• Agitation

• Sedation

Before using this medicine

Before you use this medicine check with your doctor, or pharmacist:

• if you ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any psychoactive drug;

• if you are allergic to any medicines, foods or other substances;

• if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medicine; high doses of this medicine have caused birth defects in newborns whose mothers took this medicine during pregnancy; women who are or might be pregnant should not take this medicine unless its possible benefits have been carefully weighted against its risks;

• if you are breast-feeding an infant; this medicine passes into breast milk. Nursing mothers who must take this drug should consider using infant formula;

• if you have kidney or liver disease.

Treatment

The information below is based on the dosage guidelines your doctor uses. Depending on your condition and medical history, your doctor may prescribe a different regime.

Adults:the recommended dose is 25-100 mg 3-4 times a day for anxiety and allergic reactions; 50-100 mg for sedation.

Children (age 6 and over):the recommended dose is 50-100 mg 3-4 times a day for anxiety and allergic reactions; 0.3 mg per lb. of body weight for sedation.

Children (under age 6):the recommended dose is 50 mg 3-4 times a day for anxiety and allergic reactions; 0.3 mg per lb. of body weight for sedation.

Seniors retain almost twice as much of this medicine as younger adults and should use the lowest effective dose.

If you forget a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the one you forgot and continue with your regular schedule. Do not take a double dose.

Warnings and Cautions

• Changes in heart rhythm have occurred in people taking this drug to relieve anxiety.

• People with porphyria should not take this medicine, because it may worsen the condition.

• Because this medicine controls nausea and vomiting, it may hide the symptoms of appendicitis or overdoses of other drugs.

• The dry mouth associated with this medicine may increase your risk of dental cavities and decay. Pay attention to dental hygiene while taking this drug.

• Call your doctor if you develop a drug-sensitive reaction to this medicine (symptoms include wheezing, chest tightness, and breathing difficulties).

Side Effects

Along with the needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Possible side effects include:

Dry mouth

Drowsiness

Tremors

Fatigue

Sedation

Sleepiness

Driving or Hazardous Work

Do not drive until you learn how the medicine affects you. Do not work around dangerous machinery. Do not climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicines affecting alertness and reflexes.

Interactions

• This medicine should not be taken with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressant.

• This medicine depresses the nervous system, producing drowsiness and sleepiness.

• Do not take this medicine with alcohol, sedatives, or other antihistamines or central nervous system depressants. When this medicine is taken with one of these drugs, the dose of the latter should be cut in half.

Overdosage

The most common sign of overdose is sleepiness. Overdose victims should be taken to a hospital emergency room for treatment.

Storage

The tablets should be stored at room temperature. Keep out of reach of children, since this medicine may be dangerous to children.

Ativan

Properties

This medicine contains as active ingredient lorazepam, a benzodiazepine preparation. Benzodiazepines belong to the group of psychoactive medicines that influence the activity of the brain.

They can relax you and make you more tranquil or sleepier, or they can slow various system transmissions in such a way as to act as an anticonvulsant. Many doctors prefer benzodiazepines to other drugs that can be used in similar circumstances because they tend to be safer, have fewer side effects, and are usually as effective, if not more so.

Prescribed for

This medicine is prescribed for:

• Anxiety disorder

• Anxiety associated with depression

• Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia

Before using this medicine

Before you use this medicine check with your doctor:

• if you ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to benzodiazepines.

• if you are on a low-salt, low-sugar, or any other special diet, or if you are allergic to any substance, such as sulfites or other preservatives or dyes.

• if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medicine. Some benzodiazepines have been reported to increase the chance of birth defects when used during the first 3 months of pregnancy.

• if you are breast-feeding an infant. Benzodiazepines may pass into the breast milk and cause drowsiness, unusually slow heartbeat, shortness of breath, or troubled breathing in infants of mothers taking this medicine.

• if you have any of the following medical problems: asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, or other chronic lung disease; epilepsy or history of convulsions; hyperactivity (in children); kidney or liver disease; mental depression or illness; myasthenia gravis, porphyria.

Treatment

This medication is used to relieve or prevent the symptoms of your medical problem. Take the medicine as directed. Do not take more of them and do not take them more often than recommended on the label, unless otherwise directed by your doctor.

• The information below is based on the dosage guidelines your doctor uses. Depending on your condition and medical history, your doctor may prescribe a different regime.

Anxiety disorder The usual dosage for adults amounts to 2 to 3 mg divided in two to three doses. The dosage must be tailored to your individual needs with a maximum dose of 4 mg a day. The medicine is not recommended for children under 18.

For elderly patients, an initial dose of 1 mg to 2 mg per day in divided doses is recommended to reduce the side effects.

Panic disorderThe usual dosage for adults amounts to 2 to 4 mg a day divided in two doses. The dosage must be tailored to your individual need. The medicine is not recommended for children under 18.

• Benzodiazepine drugs can be abused if taken for long periods of time and it is possible to develop withdrawal symptoms if you discontinue the therapy abruptly. This medicine can cause drug withdrawal symptoms if suddenly discontinued. Withdrawal symptoms include:

• Tremors

• Muscle cramps

• Insomnia

• Agitation

• Diarrhea

• Vomiting

• Sweating

• Convulsions

Cautions and Warnings

• Do not take this drug if you are allergic or sensitive to any of its ingredients.

• The drug has been associated with memory loss, especially when higher doses are taken. This effect, known as "traveller's amnesia," is most common among people who take this medicine to adjust to time zone changes during travel.

• If you abruptly stop taking this medicine, you may experience rebound sleeplessness, where sleeplessness is worse during the first 1-3 nights, after you stop the drug that it was before you started it.

• People with reparatory disease may experience sleep apnea (intermittent cessation of breathing during sleep) while taking this medicine.

• People with kidney or liver disease would be carefully monitored while taking this medicine. Take the lowest possible dose to help you sleep.

• Clinical depression may be increased by this medicine, which can depress the nervous system. Intentional overdose is more common among depressed people, who take sleeping pills that among those who do not.

Side Effects

Along with the needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects.

• Minor side effects are:

Bitter taste in the mouth

Dizziness

Drowsiness

Depression

Constipation

Dry mouth

Excessive salivation

Fatigue

Flushing

Headache

Heartburn

Loss of appetite

Nausea

Nervousness

Sweating

Vomiting.

As your body adjusts to the medicine, these side effects should disappear.

• Tell your doctor about any side effects that are persistent or particularly bothersome. It is especially important to tell your doctor about:

Blurred or double vision

Chest pain

Difficulty in urinating

Fainting or falling

Fever or hallucinations

Joint pain

Mouth sores

Nightmares

Palpitations

Severe depression

Shortness of breath

Slurred speech

Uncoordinated movements

Unusual tiredness

Yellowing of the skin

Interactions

This medicine may interact with several other drugs. This medicine will add to the effects of alcohol, and CNS depressants.

• Be sure to tell your doctor about any medications you are currently taking.

Overdosage

The most common symptoms of overdose are:

• Confusion

• Sleepiness

• Loss of muscle coordination

• Slurred speech

Overdose victims must be made to vomit, with ipecac syrup, to remove any remaining drug from the stomach. Call your doctor or a poison control center before doing this. If 30 minutes have passed since the overdose was taken or if symptoms have begun to develop, the victim must immediately be taken to a hospital emergency room.

Storage

Store at room temperature in tightly closed, light-resistant containers. Keep out of the reach of children since overdose may be especially dangerous in children.

Aventyl

Properties

This medicine contains nortriptyline as active ingredient. It belongs to the group of medicines known as tricyclic antidepressants or "mood elevators." Tricyclic antidepressants block the passage of stimulant chemicals – norepinephrine and/or serotonin – in and out of nerve endings, producing a tranquillizing or sedative effect. They also counteract the effects of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

Such medicines work by causing long-term changes in the way nerve endings release specific neurotransmitters, that are responsible for the transmission of nerve signals. Tricyclic antidepressants can elevate mood, increase physical activity and mental alertness, and improve appetite and sleep patterns after 2-4 weeks of use.

Prescribed for

The medicine is prescribed for:

• Relieve of mental depression

• Depression that sometimes occurs with anxiety

• Narcolepsy

• Bulimia

• Panic attacks

• Cocaine withdrawal syndrome

The medication gradually relieves, but does not cure, symptoms of depression.

Before using this medicine

Before you use this medicine check with your doctor, or pharmacist:

• if you ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to any tricyclic antidepressant, maprotiline or trazodone.

• if you are on a low-salt, low-sugar, or any other special diet, or if you are allergic to any substance, such as sulfites or other preservatives or dyes.

• if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medicine. There have been reports of newborns suffering from heart, breathing, and urinary problems when their mothers had taken tricyclic antidepressants before delivery.

• if you are breast-feeding an infant. Some tricyclic antidepressants pass into the breast milk.

Treatment

• Take this medicine only as directed by your doctor, to benefit your condition as much as possible. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer period of time than your doctor ordered.

• Usual dosage: The information below is based on the dosage guidelines your doctor uses. Depending on your condition and medical history, your doctor may prescribe a different regime. Adult: 25 mg 3-4 times a day; increased to 125 mg a day if necessary. Senior and child (age 14 and over): 30-50 mg a day.

• Sometimes this medicine must be taken for several weeks before you begin to feel better.

Side Effects

Along with the needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Side effects that usually do not require medical attention: difficult or frequent urination; decreased sex drive; muscle aches; abnormal dreams; nasal congestion; weakness and faintness when arising from bed or chair.

• Other side effects that should be reported to your doctor immediately are:

Hallucinations

Shakiness

Dizziness or fainting

Blurred vision, eye pain

Irregular heartbeat or slow pulse

Inflamed tongue

Abdominal pain

Jaundice

Hair loss, rash

Fever, chills

Joint pain

Palpitations

Interactions

This medicine may interact with several other drugs such as anticoagulants, anticholinergics, cold remedies, oral contraceptives, seizure medicines, sleeping medicines, thyroid medicines, etc.

• Be sure to tell your doctor about any medications you are currently taking.

Driving or Hazardous Work

Do not drive until you learn how the medicine affects you. Do not work around dangerous machinery. Do not climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicines affecting alertness and reflexes.

Storage

Tablets, capsules, etc. should be stored at room temperature in tightly closed, light-resistant containers as directed by your pharmacist. Keep out of reach of children since overdose is especially dangerous in young children. Do not store in the bathroom medicine cabinet because the heat or moisture may cause the medicine to break down. Keep the liquid form of the medicine from freezing.

Aventyl

Properties

This medicine contains buproprion as active ingredient. It is an psychactive drug that has a specific effect on certain areas of the brain. The medicine works primarily on dopamine and noradrenaline, essential neurotransmitters of nerve cells in the brain. The neurotransmitters are of vital importance in transmitting neural signals. The medicine may not act until you have taken it for 2-4 weeks. The medicine clears your system about two weeks after you stop taking it.

Indications

This medicine is prescribed for:

• Depression

• Seasonal affective disorder

• Nicotine addiction

Before using this medicine

Before you use this medicine check with your doctor, or pharmacist:

• if you ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any psychoactive drug;

• if you are allergic to any medicines, foods or other substances;

• if you are pregnant or intend to become pregnant while using this medicine (animal studies have shown toxic effects to developing fetuses);

• if you are breast-feeding an infant;

• if you have thought of suicide;

• if you have kidney or liver disease.

Treatment

Usual dosage:The information below is based on the dosage guidelines your doctor uses. Depending on your condition and medical history, your doctor may prescribe a different regime. The recommended starting dose for adults is 200-450 mg a day; normal daily dosage is 300 mg. The medicine is not recommended for children.

Warnings and Cautions

• Antidepressants have been associated with an increased risk of suicide, especially in children and teenagers. Suicide is always a risk in depressed people, who should only be allowed to have minimal quantities of medication in their possession. Clinical worsening of a depressed person's condition may also occur in therapy with antidepressants.

• People with seizure disorders, people who have had a seizure in the past and people with bulimia or anorexia nervosa, should be very careful about taking this medication because they are at higher risk of having a seizure.

• People with unstable heart disease or those who have had a recent heart attack should take this medicine with caution because of possible side effects.

Side Effects

Along with the needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Possible side effects include:

Headache

Nervousness

Dizziness

Increased sweating

Nausea

Insomnia

Sedation

Agitation

Sleeplessness

Tremors

Upset stomach

Increased appetite

Menstrual complaints

Decreased sex drive

Impotence

Dry mouth

Driving or Hazardous Work

Do not drive until you learn how the medicine affects you. Do not work around dangerous machinery. Do not climb ladders or work in high places. Danger increases if you drink alcohol or take medicines affecting alertness and reflexes.

Overdosage

The following symptoms may be a sign of overdose:

Seizures

Hallucinations

Loss of consciousness

Abnormal heart rhythm

• Call a doctor or hospital emergency room for instructions. If necessary, give first aid immediately.

Interactions

The effect of this medicine may be increased by other psychoactive medicines. Be sure to tell your doctor about any medications you are currently taking.

Storage

The tablets should be stored at room temperature. Keep out of reach of children, since this medicine may be dangerous to children.