Immigrant Students Can Succeed -  - ebook

Immigrant Students Can Succeed ebook

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Opis

International migration is a permanent fixture of life in the 21st century. Fostering the integration of diverse populations has become a crucial policy challenge because integration greatly impacts social cohesion. Schools are the keystone in building robust integration strategies. As in so many countries around the globe, Germany's population is growing steadily more diverse. At the same time, its institutions, especially schools, have not systematically developed the tools they need to harness the potential of this diversity. Whereas some education policies and programs are fine-tuned to meet the needs of diverse student populations, others have categorically disadvantaged certain segments. As the Pisa studies have shown, students of immigrant origin are at particular risk of attaining academic achievement below their potential. The 2008 Carl Bertelsmann Prize has sought out innovative approaches to education in select OECD countries which promote the integration of children and youth of immigrant origin. The publication also includes perspectives and strategies that could improve education policies, especially in countries like Germany.

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Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.
© 2010 E-Book-Ausgabe (EPUB)
© 2008 Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, GüterslohResponsible: Christal MorehouseCopy editor: Birte Pampel, MünchenProduction editor: Christiane RaffelCover design: Nadine HumannCover illustration: Dirk EusterbrockTypesetting and printing: Hans Kock Buch- und Offsetdruck GmbH, Bielefeld
ISBN : 978-3-86793-252-3
www.bertelsmann-stiftung.org/publications

www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/verlag

Inhaltsverzeichnis
Titel
Impressum
Einleitung
An International Perspective on Student Achievement
Select Country Approaches to Education and Integration
Classic Countries of Immigration
Canada Diversity as an Expression of the Modern Canadian Education System
United States of America Educating Children of Immigrants in the United States: ...
Australia Building on Diversity
New Zealand Furthering that Spirit of Collaboration
Former Colonial Powers in Europe
The United Kingdom Education as a Path to Integration
The Netherlands Integration through Education
Countries of Post-War Labor Migration in Europe
Switzerland International Benchmarking as a Motor for Reform
Norway Fostering a More Inclusive Society
Sweden Multilingualism as a Key to Integration in Schools
Integration through Education- Promising Practices, Strategies and Initiatives ...
Contributors
Introduction
“I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today!”
Martin Luther King, Jr. Delivered 28 August 1963
Forty-five years ago, Martin Luther King delivered his famous “I have a dream” speech. Today, most societies still struggle to achieve his vision of equal opportunity, social cohesion and integration. Equal learning opportunities for children and young people are crucial for achieving this goal. In Germany, students’ ethnic origin and socioeconomic background continue to play a decisive role in school attainment. In OECD countries, students of minority ethnic origin and from underprivileged socioeconomic backgrounds on average perform more poorly than other students.
This well-known fact is alarming. It suggests there are widespread and systemic flaws in schools’ ability to provide students with equal education opportunities across the OECD. This challenge requires a comprehensive and well-considered response from national governments.
Especially in knowledge-based societies, educational attainment is a major determinant of an individual’s further opportunities in life. Essentially, education policies can either reinforce or diminish inequalities in society. They can foster or hamper societal integration. If policies provide students with unequal learning opportunities, they can seriously limit an individual’s long-term social mobility and deepen existing social cleavages. The consequences in terms of systematically wasting the human potential of groups of students will, therefore, be more than just economic. Societal integration and social cohesion are dependent on equal opportunity and non-discrimination. Ultimately, this is a moral issue because the right to inclusive education is a human right. Therefore, fostering the integration of diverse populations through equal education opportunities must be a policy priority.
In Germany, students’ unequal access to learning opportunities is particularly apparent. With regards to school attainment, fifteen year-old second generation students of immigrant origin lag more than two years behind native students. That is why the 2008 Carl Bertelsmann Prize has sought out innovative approaches to fair education in select OECD countries that promote the integration of children and youth of immigrant origin. This volume captures the main findings of a yearlong research process that spanned ten OECD countries. The research process incorporated expert input in the form of a workshop and entailed over 100 expert interviews as well as on-site investigations. This book presents new comparative research and analysis on policies and programs in these OECD countries, which provide students of immigrant origin with equal education opportunities. It aims to raise awareness about the urgent necessity to provide students with fair learning opportunities. The findings in this volume seek to inspire more enlightened education policy and practice worldwide, especially in countries where attainment gaps are large, such as in Germany.
Chapter One begins with an analysis of international student attainment by Gayle Christensen and Michael Segeritz based on 2006 and prior PISA study results. The authors present an overview of how first and second generation students of immigrant origin perform as compared to non-immigrant origin students. The comparative analysis provides the reader with a snapshot of immigrant student performance and the role of socioeconomic status in immigrant achievement gaps. It finds that student achievement gaps have consistently correlated to the ethnic origin of students. This is the case even when accounting for students’ socioeconomic background.
Chapter Two of this volume presents education policy strategies in nine OECD countries. The nine countries were selected based on the relatively high performance of their second generation students of immigrant origin as compared to Germany in the PISA studies. In traditional immigration countries, the diversity inherent in the student population is anchored in education policies. Veronica Lacey demonstrates how diversity is an expression of modern education policy in Canada. Marcelo Suárez-Orozco and Carolyn Sattin detail the impact of migration on the US education system and the importance of incorporating the global context in education curricula. Judith Chapman explains how the Australian education system builds on a tradition of immigration and diversity that is rooted in the nation’s history. Australian education policies are based on respecting diversity and the individual right to one’s cultural traditions and beliefs. Cynthia White discusses education policies in New Zealand. There, the founding concepts of biculturalism have been a driving force for multicultural education policies that further a spirit of social cohesion.
The second half of Chapter Two explores national approaches to integration through education in the UK and the Netherlands as well as in three countries with post-war labor migration: Switzerland, Norway and Sweden. Roisin Donachie outlines how the British education system has focused on measuring and closing achievement gaps in student attainment, especially among students of immigrant origin. Maurice Crul highlights the Dutch experience of systematically devoting government resources to schools with large populations of immigrant-origin students. He also provides an overview of effective programs that bridge and counterbalance inequalities in student attainment once they are detected. Rosita Fibbi investigates how international benchmarking of student attainment has impacted the Swiss education system and how Swiss education policies have evolved due to international benchmarking. Barbro Bakken analyses how the Norwegian government has taken a proactive approach to making education opportunities more equal in Norway with the goal of fostering a more inclusive society. Monica Axelsson explains the role of mother tongue tuition as a cornerstone of Swedish education policy. This policy provides mother tongue tuition as the right of a multilingual student and reinforces multilingualism not as a problem, but as an asset to Swedish society.
Chapter Three of this volume concludes with a comparative analysis of promising programs in ten OECD countries that foster integration through education. Hans Barth, Andreas Heimer and Iris Pfeiffer provide a detailed assessment of such programs.
International migration is a permanent fixture of life in the 21st century. In countries around the globe, student populations are becoming steadily more diverse. Yet education policy and practice have not systematically developed the tools they need to harness the potential of this diversity in the vast majority of OECD countries. Education policy and practice must correct current disparities so as to provide equal learning opportunities for all students. Martin Luther King’s dream is still inspiring us to achieve equal opportunity, social cohesion and integration, especially in the field of education.
We would like to thank all the authors who contributed to this publication. This volume would not have been possible without the excellent work of this year’s Carl Bertelsmann Prize team. The 2008 team was headed by Ulrich Kober and included Petra Rutkowsky, Christal Morehouse, Claudia Walther, Anja Hülsken, Christina Brickenkamp, Kristina Neumann, Orkan Kösemen and Anke Knopp.
Dr. Johannes MeierExecutive Board Member Bertelsmann Stiftung
Christal MorehouseProject Manager Bertelsmann Stiftung
An International Perspective on Student Achievement
Gayle Christensen, Michael Segeritz
Schools are key institutions that can foster or hinder societal integration. As immigration becomes a norm in our global world, schools are increasingly challenged to provide equal education opportunities for diverse student bodies. Education systems cannot expect their student bodies to adapt to teaching methods of the past; education policy and practice must accurately assess and meet the needs of their student bodies. Success of immigrant children in school plays an important role in supporting social and economic integration by providing young people with the opportunity to learn vital skills, the language and the culture of the host country. However, immigrant students in many countries are not as successful in school as their native peers, indicating that special attention must be paid to ensure that these students have the support they need to succeed (Stanat and Christensen 2006). This brief summary paper examines immigrant student achievement across 16 immigrant-receiving countries in 2003 and 2006. It also looks at how socioeconomic status is associated with both student achievement and immigrant status.

Immigrant Students and the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA)

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