Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods -  - ebook

Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods ebook

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The first and only comprehensive reference/solutions manual for managing food safety in low-moisture foods The first book devoted to an increasingly critical public health issue, Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods reviews the current state of the science on the prevalence and persistence of bacterial pathogens in low-moisture foods and describes proven techniques for preventing food contamination for manufacturers who produce those foods. Many pathogens, such as Salmonella, due to their enhanced thermal resistance in dry environments, can survive the drying process and may persist for prolonged periods in low-moisture foods, especially when stored in refrigerated environments. Bacterial contamination of low-moisture foods, such as peanut butter, present a vexing challenge to food safety, and especially now, in the wake of widely publicized food safety related events, food processors urgently need up-to-date, practical information on proven measures for containing the risk of contamination. While much has been written on the subject, until now it was scattered throughout the world literature in scientific and industry journals. The need for a comprehensive treatment of the subject has never been greater, and now this book satisfies that need. * Discusses a wide variety of foods and evaluates multiple processing platforms from the standpoint of process validation of all food safety objectives for finished food products * Takes a practical approach integrating the latest scientific and technological advances in a handy working resource * Presents all known sources and risk factors for pathogenic bacteria of concern in the manufacturing environment for low-moisture/water activity products * Characterizes the persistence and thermal resistance of bacterial pathogens in both the environment and most low-moisture food products Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods is a much-needed resource for food microbiologists and food industry scientists, as well as managers and executives in companies that produce and use low-moisture foods. It also belongs on the reference shelves of food safety regulatory agencies worldwide.

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Table of Contents

Cover

Title Page

Copyright

List of Contributors

Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Definition of Low-Moisture Foods (LMF) and Water Activity Controlled Foods

1.3

Salmonella

as a Continuing Challenge and Ongoing Problem in Low-Moisture Foods

1.4 Foodborne Outbreaks of

Salmonella

spp. and Other Implicated Microbial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods

1.5 Major Safety Concerns in Low-Moisture Foods

1.6 Content and Brief Book Chapter Review

1.7 Goal of the Book

1.8 How to Use the Book

References

Chapter 2: Regulatory Requirements for Low-Moisture Foods – The New Preventive Controls Landscape (FSMA)

2.1 Introduction

2.2 FSMA Sanitation and cGMPs

2.3 FSMA Preventive Controls

2.4 Process Controls

2.5 Sanitation Controls

2.6 Supplier Controls

2.7 Summary of Requirements for Low-Moisture FSMA Regulated Products

References

Chapter 3: Potential Sources and Risk Factors

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Raw Ingredients Control and Handling

3.3 Pest Control

3.4 Salmonella Harborage in the Facility

3.5 Conclusions

References

Chapter 4: Persistence of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Factors Affecting Survival of

Salmonella

and Other Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods

4.3 Recovery of

Salmonella

Cells Stressed by Low-Moisture Foods

4.4 Mechanism of

Salmonella

Survival in Food Product and Processing Environment

4.5 Other Vegetative Pathogens

4.6 Summary

References

Chapter 5: Best Industry Practices to Control Salmonella in Low-Moisture Foods

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Sanitation Practices

5.3 Current Good Manufacturing Practice

References

Chapter 6: Heat Resistance of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Factors Affecting Heat Resistance of Foodborne Pathogens

6.3 Use of Published Heat Resistance Data to Establish Lethal Process Lethality in Low-Moisture Foods

6.4 Summary

References

Chapter 7: Validation Requirements in Heat-Processed Low-Moisture Foods

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Definitions

7.3 Tasks of Validation

7.4 Task 1: Assemble a Validation Team

7.5 Task 2: Identify the Hazard to be Controlled Through Hazard Analysis

7.6 Task 3: Identify a Validation Approach for the Control Measure

7.7 Task 4: Conduct the In-Production Validation

7.8 Task 5: Write the Results of the Validation in a Validation Report

7.10 Task 6: Implement the Control Measure, Monitors and Record Review

7.11 Task 7: Verify that the Control Measure is Operating as Intended

7.12 Task 8: Re-evaluate the Control Measure Periodically

7.13 Conclusion

References

Chapter 8: Test Methods for Salmonella in Low-Moisture Foods

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Sampling Plans

8.3 Types of Methods

8.4 Matrices Testing Challenges

8.5 Conclusion

References

Chapter 9: Techniques to Determine Thermal Inactivation Kinetics for Pathogenic Bacteria and their Surrogate Organisms in Low-Moisture Foods

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Kinetics of Microbial Destruction

9.3 Experimental Design and Execution

References

Chapter 10: Modeling and Statistical Issues Related to Salmonella in Low Water Activity Foods

10.1 An Introduction to Modeling

Salmonella

in Low Water Activity Foods

10.2 Developing a Predictive Model for Salmonella in Low Water Activity Foods

10.3 Model Validation

10.4 Models in Risk Assessment

10.5 Summary

References

Chapter 11: Spoilage Microorganisms in Low-Moisture Foods

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Microorganisms Associated with the Spoilage of Low-Moisture Foods

11.3 Factors Influencing Heat Resistance of Fungi in Low-Moisture Foods

11.4 Heat Resistance of Fungi in Low-Moisture Foods

11.5 Heat Resistance of Yeasts in Low-Moisture Foods

11.6 Preventing and Reducing Spoilage in Low-Moisture Foods

11.7 Conclusions

References

Index

End User License Agreement

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Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

Begin Reading

List of Illustrations

Chapter 3: Potential Sources and Risk Factors

Figure 3.1 Facility program elements that prevent pathogen infiltration. (Concept printed with permission from Joe Stout.)

Chapter 7: Validation Requirements in Heat-Processed Low-Moisture Foods

Figure 7.1 Lifecycle approach to validation.

Chapter 8: Test Methods for Salmonella in Low-Moisture Foods

Figure 8.1 Zone definitions.

Chapter 9: Techniques to Determine Thermal Inactivation Kinetics for Pathogenic Bacteria and their Surrogate Organisms in Low-Moisture Foods

Figure 9.1 Description of the D-value.

Figure 9.2 Description of the z-value.

Figure 9.3 Example of TDT retorts.

Figure 9.4 Packaging material used to contain samples for TDT studies (TDT can, glass tube, plastic pouch).

Figure 9.5 Example of a wire thermocouple that may be used to measure product temperature during a TDT study.

Figure 9.6 Example of survival curves for the average population of the target organism recovered from artificially-inoculated product.

Figure 9.7 Thermal resistance curve calculated from the D-values described in Table 9.3. The z-value is calculated based upon the slope of the linear regression line.

Figure 9.8 Examples of (a) an upward concavity survival curve and (b) a downward concavity survival curve.

Chapter 10: Modeling and Statistical Issues Related to Salmonella in Low Water Activity Foods

Figure 10.1 Survival of

Salmonella

on raw peanuts at (○) −24, (Δ) 4, and (□) 22°C for 365 days (Brar

et al

. (2015), reprinted with permission of the authors).

Figure 10.2 Flow diagram for roasted peanuts process.

List of Tables

Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview

Table 1.1

Salmonella

serotypes implicated with outbreaks in low-moisture foods.

Table 1.2 Selected international outbreaks of

Salmonella

spp. during the period 1970–2014 linked with low-moisture food products.

Table 1.3 Selected international outbreaks between 2007 and 2015 of food pathogens other than

Salmonella

spp. associated with low-moisture food products.

Table 1.4 Characteristics of bacterial and viral pathogens of concern in low-moisture food.

Chapter 3: Potential Sources and Risk Factors

Table 3.1 Examples of web resources for pest control.

Table 3.2 List of recent product recalls caused by inadequate cleaning and sanitation practices (2007–2015).

Chapter 4: Persistence of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods

Table 4.1 Examples of survival of foodborne pathogens in low water activity foods and ingredients.

Chapter 5: Best Industry Practices to Control Salmonella in Low-Moisture Foods

Table 5.1 Sanitizers used in low-moisture food processing facilities.

Chapter 6: Heat Resistance of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods

Table 6.1 Example of comparative analysis for target food using (mock) D-value.

Table 6.2 Heat resistance of

Salmonella

Typhimurium in model system at different water activities (a

w

).

Table 6.3 Thermal resistance (D- and z-values) of

Salmonella

spp. in chocolate and chocolate products (table adopted in part from Podolak

et al

., 2010 and Doyle and Mazzotta, 2000).

Table 6.4 D-values at 60°C for

Listeria monocytogenes

in chocolate milk and chocolate-peanut spread.

a

Table 6.5 Thermal resistance (D- and z-values) of

Salmonella

spp. in peanut butter at different temperatures based on the first-order kinetics.

Table 6.6 Minimum time to achieve 5- and 7-log reduction of

Salmonella

spp. in peanut butter at different temperatures, based on the Weibull model.

Table 6.7 Influence of milk solids concentration on the heat resistance

of Escherichia coli

O104:H7,

Salmonella

Typhimurium and

Salmonella

Alachua

a

grown in Trypticase soy broth at 37°C.

Table 6.8 Thermal resistance (D- and z-values) of

Salmonella

Tennessee in cereals, cookies and crackers at different water activity and temperatures based on the thermal death time (TDT) test.

a, b

Table 6.9 Heat resistance of

Salmonella

Weltevreden in wheat flour influenced by water activity.

a

Chapter 7: Validation Requirements in Heat-Processed Low-Moisture Foods

Table 7.1 Limitations of water activity and pH for growth of several foodborne pathogens

a

based on interaction of product pH and a

w

(Table 2 of NACMCF, 2010)

b

.

Table 7.2 Time–temperature combinations for dry roasting almonds (from the Almond Board of California Guidelines for Validation of Dry Roasting Processes, ABC, 2007b).

Table 7.3 Pasteurization temperature versus time for milk or milk products (from Mandatory pasteurization for all milk and milk products in final package form intended for direct human consumption, PMO (FDA, 2013b) and US CFR (1992)

a

.

Table 7.4 Examples of US government regulations performance standards.

Table 7.5 Examples of US government guidance performance standards.

Table 7.6 Examples of published industry processing guidelines.

Table 7.7 Example pathogen modeling programs.

Table 7.8 Examples of validation parameters to confirm in production (from published industry processing guidelines).

Chapter 8: Test Methods for Salmonella in Low-Moisture Foods

Table 8.1

Salmonella

food categories.

Chapter 9: Techniques to Determine Thermal Inactivation Kinetics for Pathogenic Bacteria and their Surrogate Organisms in Low-Moisture Foods

Table 9.1 Summary of LMF inoculation methods published in the scientific literature and associated LMF product applications.

Table 9.2 Treatment temperature and times evaluated in an example final TDT study.

Table 9.3 Measured D-value of the target organism at each temperature based upon the slope of the survival curves in Figure 9.6.

Table 9.4 Collected temperature of the samples heat treated at 140°F (60°C) for up to four minutes.

Chapter 10: Modeling and Statistical Issues Related to Salmonella in Low Water Activity Foods

Table 10.1 Statistical parameter fit results of the log-linear, Weibull and double Weibull models for

Salmonella

survival on raw peanuts, where day 7 was considered time 0, at −24, 4, and 22°C by adjusted R

2

(R

2

adj)

,

Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Best statistical parameter values are shown in bold.

Table 10.2

δ

and

ρ

values of the Weibull model fits for

Salmonella

survival on raw peanuts at −24, 4, and 22°C.

Table 10.3 Different criteria for definitions of fail-safe, accurate, and fail-dangerous model predictions as proposed by Mohr

et al

. (2015) based on the values of the residual (observed minus predicted value).

Chapter 11: Spoilage Microorganisms in Low-Moisture Foods

Table 11.1 Minimal water activities required for growth of foodborne fungi associated with low water activity foods (partially adapted from Samson

et al

., 2010).

Table 11.2 D-values at 55°C for 10-day old conidiospores of

A

.

flavus

and

A

.

parasiticus

produced at Moyer’s medium containing various amounts of sodium chloride (adapted from Doyle and Marth, 1975b).

Table 11.3 D-values at 55°C for 10-day old conidiospores of

A

.

flavus

and

A

.

parasiticus

produced at Moyer’s medium containing various amounts of sucrose (adopted from Doyle and Marth, 1975b).

Table 11.4 Thermal resistance (D-values) of fungi in low water activity foods.

Table 11.5 Thermal resistance (D- and z-values) of vegetative cells of yeast in low water activity foods.

Table 11.6 Fungal species associated with spoilage of low-moisture food products.

a

Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods

 

Edited by

 

Richard Podolak

Grocery Manufacturers Association, Washington DC, USA

 

Darryl G. Black

US Food and Drug Administration, Bedford Park, USA

 

 

 

 

This edition first published 2017 © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

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The right of Richard Podolak and Darryl G. Black to be identified as the authors of the editorial material in this work has been asserted in accordance with law.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Podolak, Richard, editor. | Black, Darryl G., editor.

Title: Control of salmonella and other bacterial pathogens in low-moisture foods / [edited by] Richard Podolak, Grocery Manufacturers Association, Darryl G. Black, Grocery Manufacturers Association.

Description: Chichester, West Sussex, UK ; Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2018. | Includes bibliographical references and index. |

Identifiers: LCCN 2017011192 (print) | LCCN 2017013125 (ebook) | ISBN 9781119071068 (pdf) | ISBN 9781119071075 (epub) | ISBN 9781119071082 (cloth)

Subjects: LCSH: Food-Microbiology. | Food-Water activity. | Food industry and trade. | BISAC: TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Food Science.

Classification: LCC QR115 (ebook) | LCC QR115 .P63 2018 (print) | DDC 579/.16-dc23

LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017011192

Cover Design: Wiley

Cover Images: (Background) © Todd Arena/Gettyimages; Circles: From left to right) © Shebeko/Shutterstock; © Andrei Kuzmik/Shutterstock; © Lightspring/Shutterstock; © cre8tive_studios/Gettyimages; © kickers/Gettyimages

List of Contributors

 

Shirin J. Abd

Research Microbiologist, Food Safety

Covance Laboratories, Inc.

Livermore, CA

USA

 

David Anderson†

Senior Science Advisor

Grocery Manufacturers Association

Washington, DC

USA

 

Nathan Anderson

Agricultural Engineer

US Food and Drug Administration

NCFST/FDA Division of Food

Processing Science and Technology

Bedford Park, IL

USA

 

Jeffrey T. Barach

Principal

Barach Enterprises, LLC

Oakton, VA

USA

 

Darryl G. Black

Associate Director of Research

Division of Food Processing Science and Technology

US Food and Drug Administration

Bedford Park, IL

USA

 

Michelle Danyluk

Assistant Professor

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition

Citrus Research and Education Center

University of Florida

Lake Alfred, FL

USA

 

George E. Dunaif

President

ToxPro Solutions, LLC

Lake Junaluska, NC

USA

 

Elena Enache

Senior Scientist

Grocery Manufacturers Association

Washington, DC

USA

 

Sofia M. Santillana Farakos

Research Fellow

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, OAO/Division of Risk and Decision Analysis

US Food and Drug Administration

College Park, MD

USA

 

Carrie M.H. Ferstl

Director, Food Safety

Covance Laboratories, Inc.

Livermore, CA

USA

 

Elizabeth M. Grasso-Kelley

Assistant Professor

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition/Institute for Food Safety and Health

Illinois Institute of Technology

Bedford Park, IL

USA

 

Linda J. Harris

Department Chair, Specialist in Cooperative Extension

Department of Food Science and Technology

University of California

Davis, CA

USA

 

Melinda Hayman

Consumer Safety Officer

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition

Office of Food Safety

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

College Park, MD

USA

 

Ai Kataoka

Scientist

Grocery Manufacturers Association

Washington, DC

USA

 

Shaunti Luce

Innovation &Technical Manager

Clif Bar & Company

Emeryville, CA

USA

 

Lisa Lucore

Shearer’s Foods, Inc.

Massillon, OH

USA

 

Bradley P. Marks

Professor

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition

Michigan State University

East Lansing, MI

USA

 

Wilfredo Ocasio

Vice President, Microbiology and Process Research

Covance Laboratories, Inc.

Livermore, CA

USA

 

Richard Podolak

Senior Scientist

Grocery Manufacturers Association

Washington, DC

USA

 

Régis Pouillot

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, OAO/Division of Risk and Decision Analysis

US Food and Drug Administration

College Park, MD

USA

 

Donald Schaffner

Professor

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

New Brunswick, NJ

USA