Bound to Cooperate - Europe and the Middle East -  - ebook

Bound to Cooperate - Europe and the Middle East ebook

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Opis

Regional integration and the organisation of cross-regional relations have been some of the most prominent features of international relations. By further strengthening the institutions of the European Union, Europe is taking steps to become a capable international actor. Only in few world regions, such as the Middle East, integration has not been a driving force moving political and economic relations. Given these structural imbalances between Europe and the Middle East, but also geographical proximity, economic interdependencies, and shared historical experiences, what interests does Europe pursue in the Middle East? And, if the goal of European policies is to establish stable political, economic and social relations with its neighbouring region, how could inter-regional relations best be organised?

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Liczba stron: 541

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Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek
The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.
© 2010 E-Book-Ausgabe (EPUB) © 2000 Bertelsmann Foundation Publishers, Gütersloh
Editors: Sven Behrendt, Christian-Peter HaneltCopy editor: Sabine StadtfeldProduction editor: Christiane RaffelCover design: Nadine HumannCover illustration: Photodisc/Lawrence LawryTypesetting and print: Hans Kock Buch- und Offsetdruck GmbH, Bielefeld
ISBN : 978-3-86793-231-8

www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/verlag

Inhaltsverzeichnis
Titel
Impressum
Preface
Einleitung
Security Relations
From Geopolitics to Geo-Economics: Collective Security in the Middle East and ...
The Middle East: The Geopolitical Agenda
A World Transformed: The Victory of Geo-Economics
Transforming the Middle East: Towards a New Regional Order
Redefining the Middle East: From Geo-Politics to Geo-Economics
An Inter-Regional Analysis: NATO’s New Strategic Concept and the Theory of ...
The Theory of Regional Security Complexes
Regional Security Complex Analysis of Europe, the Middle East and their Relationship
NATO’s new ‘Strategic Concept’: A More Interventionist NATO?
Conclusions
List of References
Barcelona’s First Pillar: An Appropriate Concept for Security Relations?
The Concept
Conceptual Concerns
Implementation Issues
Overlapping Frameworks
What is the Problem?
Evaluation
List of References
The Middle East Peace Process
Searching for a Sustainable Peace Settlement Between Israel and its Neighbours
Basic Goals of the Parties
Exploring Possible Compromises
Conclusion
Europe and the Arab-Israeli Peace Process: The Declaration of the European ...
From Venice to Berlin
The Contribution of the European Union to the Peace Process
The Role of the European Special Envoy to Peace Process
Financial Support for the Palestinian Authority
Promoting Regional Cooperation
Looking Forward - What Role for Europe?
List of References
Reconsidering the Economic Benefits of a Stable Middle East
The Quest for Stability 1993 -1995
Replacing the Peace Dividend 1996 -1999
Future Stability: the Southern African Model
Conclusions
List of References
The Political Role of the EU in the Middle East: Israeli Aspirations
Israel and the EU
The Moratinos Mission
France, or the Lack of European Unity
Why the EU is not an Acceptable Primary Mediator to Israel
Conclusion: What Europe Can and Should Do in the Arab-Israeli Process
List of References
Foreign Policy Making and Strategies
Institutional Constraints of the European Union’s Middle Eastern and North ...
The Main Characteristics of the EU System of Foreign Affairs
The Union’s Dual System at Work
The Impact of the Institutional Constraints for the EU’s Middle Eastern and ...
Conclusion
List of References
The Critical Dialogue Reconsidered
The Concept of Critical Dialogue
Understanding, Empathy and Critical Dialogue
Critical Dialogue, Diplomacy and Foreign Policy
The Critical Dialogue Agenda and Dialogue Partners
The Separation and Interaction of Critical Dialogue and Foreign Policy Tools
Critical Dialogue, Diplomacy and Foreign Policy Influence?
Conclusion
List of References
US Policy of Sanctions: Prospects for Revision
Aims and Goals of US Policy
Application of US Sanctions
Sanctions and the Role of the Domestic US Environment
List of References
Europe, the US and Iran
The US Hostage Crisis
Alleged Iranian Government Pursuit of the Regime’s Opponents Overseas
US-imposed ‘Dual Containment’ Sanctions
Impact of International Responses on Iran
Reactions of Third Parties
Policy Options
List of References
Transformation and Legitimacy
Legitimacy and Economic Reform in the Arab World
Legitimacy in the Arab World
Political Systems, Patronage and Social Contracts
Impact of Economic Liberalisation on Regime Legitimacy
Strategies for Legitimising Economic Liberalisation
Conclusion
List of References
Political Consciousness and the Crisis of Political Liberalisation in the Arab World
Political Culture
The Institutionalist Approach
Political Economy Approach
Retreat of the State
Economic Realities and Political Mirages
The Crisis of Political Liberalisation
Conclusion
List of References
Power Sharing and Elections in the Middle East and North Africa
Impact of the End of the Cold War
Elections in the 1990s
Conclusions
The Authors
Preface
At the turn of the century, Europe and the Middle East look like an odd couple. Their common historical experiences, geographical proximity, and economic interdependencies would deem it essential to develop closer political and economic relations. Yet, the two regions have rarely developed institutionalized forms of interaction on which more intensive relations could be based. The reasons for this are manifold: colonial history, nationalism, regionalism, and identity being only some of them. However, will the two regions be able to intensify their relations in the wake of the global transformation taking place? Will they be even ready to develop some modest forms of integration in order to be better equipped to meet the challenges of globalisation?
Developing a broad strategic vision for cross-regional interaction is one thing, identifying solutions for contemporary political and economic problems quite another. The Middle East peace process has yet to achieve broad Arab-Israeli reconciliation. Economic interaction is still limited, or at least one-sided. Comparatively few European companies enter the markets of the Middle East. Only a fraction of European exports are bound to go to this region. Political systems on the state as well as regional levels differ substantially as do political value systems. Migration causes fears and suspicions, but not intercultural curiosity. The list of obstacles to intensify cross-regional affairs could be lengthened in extenso; however, on the one hand one has to identify them, but on the other, one has to develop workable options to solving them.
For that reason, the Bertelsmann Foundation and the Bertelsmann Group on Policy Research at the Center for Applied Policy Research of the University of Munich initiated the project ‘Europe and the Middle East’ in 1994. Since then the project has pursued several strategic objectives. It has developed options and strategies for strengthening Euro-Middle Eastern political, economic, and social relations. It has sought to overcome the structural communication and information deficits among, as well as within, the two regions and tried to serve as a political ice breaker where formal diplomacy failed. It has sought to bridge the gap between the world of academic knowledge development and the world of decision making in politics and business.
The Kronberg Talks, gathering senior decision-makers from politics, business and the academic world from Europe, the Middle East and the USA served as the center of the project partners’ efforts. The Kronberg Talks have been convened for five years now and have developed into a stable informal institution and a focal point for exchanging ideas, views and perceptions. They have always reflected the mood of the time and thus have been able to serve as a diplomatic safety net when regional relations have become strained.
To bring together high ranking political and economic leaders in Kronberg has been not enough to transport the strategic mission of the project into action. The project partners rather have an interest in contributing substantially to political dialogue among Europe, the Middle East and the USA. The project therefore has developed options and strategies of regional and cross-regional cooperation on the basis of sound academic analysis with the support of an international network of political scientists and economists. They, in numerous workshops preparing the Kronberg Talks and at various stages, have provided the project with essential insight into the ramifications of Middle Eastern, European, and American politics shedding new light on a diverse and complex political, economic, and social environment. And several times, the project succeeded to bridge the gap between the world of academic insight and the world of political decision-making contributing to more differentiated thinking on both sides.
This volume reproduces their insight in the form of a collection of selected papers produced for the project. The contributions tackle a wide field ranging from regional security relations to the Middle East peace process, from the institutional constraints of EU foreign policy-making to transatlantic coordination of policy approaches and from the transformation of political and economic structures to legitimacy in the times of change. I hope that the public will appreciate this result of our work and value it as a substantial contribution to deepen cross-regional affairs.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank the publishers, the editors, and all those involved in this project for their great work. Beyond this, my particular thanks go to Gabi Schneider, Daniel Braun and David P. Schweikard for their support and research. I hope that this publication contributes to a better understanding among Europe and the Middle East and provides a basis for further debate of the issues at stake.
Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Werner WeidenfeldMember of the Board of the Bertelsmann FoundationDirector of the Center for Applied Policy Research (C ⋅ A ⋅ P), Munich
Introduction1
Sven Behrendt
Trends in international politics clearly indicate that global affairs are increasingly determined by a system of world regions. Regions integrate and become more cohesive; a process which at the same time enables states to pursue global interests from a strong home base. The relations among Europe, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are deeply affected by these trends and processes. Consequentially, taking up the question what the strategic options for structuring the emerging relations between Europe and the MENA region are, is not only an academic exercise but an operative necessity, if the normative goal is, as this volume seeks to, to make a substantial contribution to cross-regional stability.
This question becomes all the more relevant if one takes the structural imbalances between the two regions into account. Strategic repositioning on the regional as well as the individual state level has dominated the relations between Europe and the MENA region in the 1990s. The EU has further pursued the process of integration, strengthening its institutional framework, and further deepening economic integration, most notably by introducing a common currency, the Euro within most of its member states. It is now on the way to strengthening its common foreign and security policy instruments. In the MENA region in contrast, integration has rarely if ever been a driving force moving political and economic relations. Rather, maintaining a regional balance of power among the constituent parts of a fragmented regional structure and the tendency to strengthen international alliances to improve regional positions have been the prevailing features of regional relations. In light of the geographical proximity, economic interdependencies, and shared historical experiences, however, from a European perspective, which this book is based on, two central questions arise: What interests does Europe pursue in the Middle East and North Africa? And how, if the goal of European policies is assumably to establish stable political, economic and social relations with its neighbours, could inter-regional relations best be organised? From an academic perspective, four assumptions of a viable European long-term strategic approach can be presented, leading the way to more stable cross-regional relations thereby fostering European interests:
The first one would start from the empirical finding that democracies rarely if ever go to war with each other.2 Turning this finding onto its head, European contributions towards comprehensive democratisation processes of the Middle Eastern and North African countries in its human and social development as well as institutional dimension would have a pacifying effect on the region. Furthermore, democratic structures have proven to be efficient instruments of conflict resolution within states. Thus, contributions towards democrati-sation of the Middle East and North African states are a fundamental strategic approach to achieve overall domestic and international stability in the long run. To be sure, all existing democratic systems adapted themselves to respective political legacies. Neglecting the specific political realities and traditions within the Southern Mediterranean countries would thus be a wrong operational conclusion. But stressing the principle that political transformation would have to point towards the establishment of democratic structures should remain at the center of European long-term approaches.

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