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Still the most up-to-date, comprehensive, and authoritative book on food diagnostics available Featuring seven entirely new chapters, the second edition of this critically acclaimed guide has been extensively revised and updated. Once again delivering food professionals the latest Advances in Food Diagnostics and analysis, the book approaches the topic in several different ways: reviewing novel technologies to evaluate fresh products; describing and analysing in depth specific modern diagnostics; providing analyses of data processing; and discussing global marketing, with insights into future trends. Written by an international team of experts, this volume not only covers most conventional lab-based analytical methods, but also focuses on leading-edge technologies which are being or are about to be introduced. Advances in Food Diagnostics, Second Edition: * Covers ultrasound, RMN, chromatography, electronic noses, immunology, GMO detection and microbiological and molecular methodologies for rapid detection of pathogens * Explores the principles and applications of immunodiagnostics in food safety and the use of molecular biology to detect and characterize foodborne pathogens * Includes DNA-based and protein-based technologies to detect and identify genetically-modified food or food components * Focuses on the translation of diagnostics tests from bench to the market in order to illustrate the benefits to the food industry * Provides an overview of the business end of food diagnostics; identifying the markets, delineating the sellers and the buyers, comparing current technology with traditional methods, certifying operations and procedures, and analysing diagnostic devices within the food and related industries This is an indispensable resource for food scientists, food quality analysts, food microbiologists and food safety professionals. It also belongs on the reference shelves of labs conducting food diagnostics for the analysis of the sensory, quality and safety aspects of food.

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Table of Contents

Cover

Title Page

Copyright

Dedication

List of Contributors

Preface

Chapter 1: Assuring Safety and Quality along the Food Chain

1.1 Quality and safety: issues

1.2 Tracking and tracing through chains and networks

1.3 Food safety – the baseline

1.4 Food quality – delivery concepts

1.5 Quality programs – steps towards sector quality agreements

1.6 The information challenge

1.7 Conclusion

References

Chapter 2: Methodologies for Improved Quality Control Assessment of Food Products

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Use of FT-IR spectroscopy as a tool for the analysis of polysaccharide food additives

2.3 Use of outer product (OP) and orthogonal signal correction (OSC) PLS1 regressions in FT-IR spectroscopy for quantification purposes of complex food sample matrices

2.4 Screening and distinction of coffee brews based on headspace – solid phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography in tandem with principal component analysis (HS-SPME/GC-PCA)

2.5 Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) as a powerful tool for food products analysis

2.6 Study of cork (from

Quercus suber

L.) – wine model interactions based on voltammetric multivariate analysis

2.7 Concluding remarks

References

Chapter 3: Developments in Electronic Noses for Quality and Safety Control

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Overview of classical techniques for food quality testing

3.3 Electronic Nose

3.4 Instrumentation of eNose (Loutfi

et al

., 2015)

3.5 Recent developments in electronic nose applications for food quality

3.6 Conclusion

References

Chapter 4: Proteomics and Peptidomics as Tools for Detection of Food Contamination by Bacteria

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Bacteria as food-borne pathogens

4.3 Gram-positive bacteria

4.4 Gram-negative bacteria

4.5 Bacterial toxins

4.6 Detection of bacterial contamination in food

4.7 Analysis of bacterial toxins

4.8 Conclusions

4.9 Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 5: Metabolomics in Assessment of Nutritional Status

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Usability of metabolomics in nutrition sciences

5.3 The metabolite complement in human studies

5.4 Metabolomics within the analysis of relationship between diet and health

5.5 Individual differences in metabolic and nutritional phenotype

5.6 Assessment of nutritional status, example studies

References

Chapter 6: Rapid Microbiological Methods in Food Diagnostics

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Quantitative vs qualitative

6.3 Culture dependent vs independent

6.4 Automation and multi-pathogen detection

6.5 Separation and concentration

6.6 Rapid methods that are currently in the market

6.7 Conclusion

References

Chapter 7: Molecular Technologies for the Detection and Characterisation of Food-Borne Pathogens

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Hybridisation-based methods

7.3 Nucleic acid amplification methods

7.4 Molecular characterisation methods

7.5 Conclusion

References

Chapter 8: DNA-based Detection of GM Ingredients

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Analysis of GMO

8.3 Quantification of GMOs

8.4 Validation

8.5 Challenges in GMO detection

8.6 Outlook

References

Chapter 9: Enzyme-based Sensors

9.1 Introduction to enzymatic biosensors

9.2 Types of transducers

9.3 Enzymatic biosensors and the food industry

9.4 Biosensors for the analysis of main food components

9.5 Biosensors for contaminants

9.6 Food freshness indicators, antinutrients and additives

9.7 Future perspectives

References

Chapter 10: Immunology-based Biosensors

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Antibodies and biosensors

10.3 Immunoassays for detection of microorganisms

10.4 Immunosensors and cancer biomarkers-immunoarrays

References

Chapter 11: Graphene and Carbon Nanotube-Based Biosensors for Food Analysis

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Biosensing devices based on graphene and CNTs and their applications in food analysis

11.3 Future trends and prospects

References

Chapter 12: Nanoparticles-Based Sensors

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Nanoparticles for sensor technology

12.3 Nanoparticles-based sensors: applications

12.4 Conclusions and future trends

References

Chapter 13: New Technologies for Nanoparticles Detection in Foods

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Nanoparticle properties and applications in food industry

13.3 Toxicity of food-related nanoparticles

13.4 Methods of nanoparticle detection in food

13.5 Conclusion

13.6 Acknowledgments

References

Chapter 14: Rapid Liquid Chromatographic Techniques for Detection of Key (Bio)chemical Markers

14.1 Introduction

14.2 The fundamentals of liquid chromatography

14.3 Advances in modern HPLC

14.4 Analysis of biochemical markers: applications for nutritional quality

14.5 Analysis of biochemical markers: applications for food quality

14.6 Analysis of biochemical markers: applications for the detection of food adulterations

14.7 Analysis of biochemical markers: applications for food safety

References

Chapter 15: Olfactometry Detection of Aroma Compounds

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Extraction of volatile compounds from foods for GC-olfactometry analysis (GC-O)

15.3 Olfactometry techniques

15.4 Applications of GC-O in food industry

15.5 Conclusions

15.6 Acknowledgements

References

Chapter 16: Data Handling

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Data collection

16.3 Data display

16.4 Process monitoring and quality control

16.5 Three-way PCA

16.6 Classification

16.7 Modelling

16.8 Calibration

16.9 Variable selection

16.10 Conclusion: future trends and the advantages and disadvantages of chemometrics

References

Chapter 17: Automated Sampling Procedures

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Extraction techniques for sample preparation

References

Chapter 18: The Market for Diagnostic Devices in the Food Industry

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Food diagnostics

18.3 Product composition

18.4 Product structure

18.5 Influence of processing on product composition

18.6 Processing parameters

18.7 Packaging parameters

18.8 Conclusion

References

Index

End User License Agreement

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Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

Preface

Begin Reading

List of Tables

Chapter 2: Methodologies for Improved Quality Control Assessment of Food Products

Table 2.1 Characteristics of studied samples, according to the manufacturer labels (Černá

et al

., 2003).

Table 2.2

b

vector variables – main relationships as a function of the DM (Barros

et al

., 2002).

Table 2.3 Prediction of DM values for commercial pectins using OP-PLS1 (9 LV) (Barros

et al

., 2002).

Table 2.4 Percentage of explained variability for PLS1 and OSC-PLS1 optimal models (Coimbra

et al

., 2005).

Chapter 3: Developments in Electronic Noses for Quality and Safety Control

Table 3.1 List of analytical methods used to assess the quality of various food items.

Table 3.2 List of analytical methods to quantify adulterants/pesticides in various food items.

Table 3.3 Percentage of ammonia in chicken meat.

Chapter 4: Proteomics and Peptidomics as Tools for Detection of Food Contamination by Bacteria

Table 4.1 The most common Gram-negative food-borne bacteria.

Table 4.2 The most common exotoxin producing food-borne bacteria.

Table 4.3 Most common bacterial toxins and proteomic methods most frequently used for their detection.

Chapter 5: Metabolomics in Assessment of Nutritional Status

Table 5.1 Nutritional assessment studies on malnutrition and deficiencies utilizing metabolomics analytics.

Chapter 8: DNA-based Detection of GM Ingredients

Table 8.1 Examples of multiplex approaches for the detection of GMO.

Chapter 9: Enzyme-based Sensors

Table 9.1 Common enzymes used in food diagnostics and their reactions.

Table 9.2 The operational principles of the main transducers used in biosensors.

Table 9.3 Examples of electrochemical and optical detection in food diagnostics.

Table 9.4 Commercial biosensors for food monitoring.

Chapter 14: Rapid Liquid Chromatographic Techniques for Detection of Key (Bio)chemical Markers

Table 14.1 Applications of HPLC to the analysis of carbohydrates and organic acids in foods.

Table 14.2 Applications of HPLC to the analysis of fat-soluble vitamins in foods.

Table 14.3 Applications of HPLC to the analysis of amines in foods.

Chapter 15: Olfactometry Detection of Aroma Compounds

Table 15.1 Advantages and disadvantages of extraction techniques.

Table 15.2 Different factors that affect the response of assessors (adapted from Delahunty

et al

., 2006).

Table 15.3 Olfactometry studies in different foods and main identified odorant compounds.

Table 15.4 Nitrogen and sulfur aroma compounds detected in meat products by GO-O and odour description.

Chapter 16: Data Handling

Table 16.1 Ten samples described by one variable.

Table 16.2 Twenty samples described by two variables.

Table 16.3 Chemical composition of 43 whiskey samples.

Table 16.4 Autoscaled data.

Table 16.5 Loadings of the variables on PC1 and PC2.

Table 16.6 Scores of the objects on PC1 and PC2.

Table 16.7 Data sets on which three-way PCA can be applied.

Table 16.8 Example of the performance of a classification technique.

Table 16.9 Example of a classification matrix.

Chapter 18: The Market for Diagnostic Devices in the Food Industry

Table 18.1 Quality and safety requirements put onto the food industry.

Table 18.2 Undesired substances in raw materials and intermediate and final products.

Table 18.3 Desired product constituents and product structure.

Table 18.5 Process parameters to be controlled.

Table 18.4 Substances resulting from food processing.

Advances in Food Diagnostics

 

Edited by

 

Fidel Toldrá, Ph.D

Department of Food Science, Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (CSIC), Valencia, Spain

 

Leo M.L. Nollet, Ph.D

Formerly at University College Ghent, Department of Applied Engineering Sciences, Gent, Belgium

 

Second Edition

 

 

 

This edition first published 2017 © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

First edition published 2007 by Blackwell publishing

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The right of Fidel Toldrá and Leo M.L. Nollet to be identified as the authors of the editorial work in this material has been asserted in accordance with law.

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9781119105886

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Cover Images: (Background) © KTSDESIGN/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY/Gettyimages; (Woman Scientist) © Monty Rakusen/Cultura/Corbis; (Fruits/Vegetables) © monticello/Shutterstock; (Group of Scientist) © Comaniciu Dan/Shutterstock; (Lab Experiment) © nicolas_/Gettyimages; (Meat) rocharibeiro/Shutterstock

This book is dedicated to my mother, Francina Vilardell, who passed away during the final preparation of this book. She was very enthusiastic and great supporter of my research activity. I will always remember her.

Fidel Toldrá

List of Contributors

 

Uroš Andjelković

Department of Biotechnology

University of Rijeka

Croatia

 

M-Concepción Aristoy

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de

Alimentos (CSIC)

Valencia

Spain

 

António S. Barros

Departamento de Química & QOPNA

Universidade de Aveiro

Portugal

 

Spyridoula M. Bratakou

Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical

Chemistry

School of Chemical Engineering

National Technical University of Athens

Athens

Greece

 

Mark Buecking

Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME

Auf dem Aberg 1

Schmallenberg-Grafschaft

Germany

 

Ulrich Busch

Bavarian Health and Food Safety

Authority (LGL)

Molecular Biology Unit

Oberschleißheim

Germany

 

G. Castillo

Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and

Informatics

Comenius University in Bratislava

Bratislava

Slovakia

 

Manuel A. Coimbra

Departamento de Química & QOPNA

Universidade de Aveiro

Portugal

 

Sara Corral

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de

Alimentos (CSIC)

Valencia

Spain

 

Luís G. Dias

Escola Superior Agrária

Instituto Politécnico de Bragança

Campus Santa Apolónia

Bragança

Portugal

and

 

CQ-VR

Centro de Química – Vila Real

University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro

Vila Real

Portugal

 

Geraldine Duffy

Teagasc Food Research Centre

Teagasc

Ashtown

Dublin

Ireland

 

Anastasios Economou

Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry

Department of Chemistry

University of Athens

Athens

Greece

 

Karl-Heinz Engel

Technische Universität München

Center of Food and Life Sciences

Freising-Weihenstephan

Germany

 

Madeshwari Ezhilan

Nano Sensors Lab @ Centre for Nano

Technology & Advanced Biomaterials

(CeNTAB)

School of Electrical & Electronics

Engineering (SEEE)

SASTRA University

Tamil Nadu

India

 

Mónica Flores

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de

Alimentos (CSIC)

Valencia

Spain

 

Z. Garaiova

Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and

Informatics

Comenius University in Bratislava

Bratislava

Slovakia

 

Patrick Guertler

Bavarian Health and Food Safety

Authority (LGL)

Molecular Biology Unit

Oberschleißheim

Germany

 

Alexandra Hahn

GALAB Laboratories GmbH

Hamburg

Germany

 

Kati Hanhineva

Univ Eastern Finland

Institute of Public Health & Clinical Nutrition

Kuopio

Finland

 

T. Hianik

Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and

Informatics

Comenius University in Bratislava

Bratislava

Slovakia

 

Hans Hoogland

LEMKEN Nederland B.V., Zeewolde The Netherlands

 

Djuro Josić

Department of Biotechnology

University of Rijeka

Croatia

and

Warren Alpert Medical School

Brown University

Providence

Rhode Island

USA

 

Stephanos K. Karapetis

Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical

Chemistry

School of Chemical Engineering

National Technical University of Athens

Athens

Greece

 

Canan Kartal

Ege University

Faculty of Engineering

Department of Food Engineering

Bornova

Izmir

Turkey

 

Arockia Jayalatha Kulandaisamy

Nano Sensors Lab @ Centre for Nano

Technology & Advanced Biomaterials

(CeNTAB)

School of Electrical & Electronics

Engineering (SEEE)

SASTRA University

Tamil Nadu

India

 

Riccardo Leardi

Department of Pharmacy

University of Genova

Genova

Italy

 

Huub Lelieveld

Ensahlaan, HT Bilthoven The Netherlands

 

Catherine M. Logue

Department of Veterinary Microbiology

and Preventive Medicine

Iowa State University

Ames

USA

 

Ganesh Kumar Mani

Nano Sensors Lab @ Centre for Nano

Technology & Advanced Biomaterials

(CeNTAB)

School of Electrical & Electronics

Engineering (SEEE)

SASTRA University

Tamil Nadu

India

and

Micro/Nano Technology Center

Tokai University

Japan

 

Tamara Martinović

Department of Biotechnology

University of Rijeka

Croatia

 

Cátia Martins

Departamento de Química & QOPNA

Universidade de Aveiro

Portugal

 

Chantal W. Nde

Food Safety and Microbiology

Kraft Heinz Company

Northfield

USA

 

Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli

Laboratory of Inorganic and Analytical

Chemistry

School of Chemical Engineering

National Technical University of Athens

Athens

Greece

 

Dimitrios P. Nikolelis

Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry

Department of Chemistry

University of Athens

Athens

Greece

 

Semih Otles

Ege University

Faculty of Engineering

Department of Food Engineering

Bornova

Izmir

Turkey

 

Sandra Kraljević Pavelić

Department of Biotechnology

University of Rijeka

Croatia

 

António M. Peres

Laboratory of Separation and Reaction

Engineering – Laboratory of Catalysis

and Materials (LSRE-LCM)

Escola Superior Agrária

Instituto Politécnico de Bragança

Campus Santa Apolónia

Bragança

Portugal

 

John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan

Nano Sensors Lab @ Centre for Nano

Technology & Advanced Biomaterials

(CeNTAB)

School of Electrical & Electronics

Engineering (SEEE)

SASTRA University

Tamil Nadu

India

 

Milagro Reig

Instituto de Ingeniería de Alimentos para el Desarrollo

Universidad Politécnica de Valencia

Valencia

Spain

 

Dina Rešetar

Department of Biotechnology

University of Rijeka

Croatia

 

Sílvia M. Rocha

Departamento de Química & QOPNA

Universidade de Aveiro

Portugal

 

Gerhard Schiefer

University of Bonn

Bonn

Germany

 

Christina G. Siontorou

Laboratory of Simulation of Industrial Processes

Department of Industrial Management and Technology

School of Maritime and Industry

University of Piraeus

Greece

 

Parthasarathy Srinivasan

Nano Sensors Lab @ Centre for Nano

Technology & Advanced Biomaterials

(CeNTAB)

School of Electrical & Electronics

Engineering (SEEE)

SASTRA University

Tamil Nadu

India

 

Alfredo Teixeira

Escola Superior Agrária

Instituto Politécnico de Bragança

Campus Santa Apolónia

Bragança

Portugal

and

Veterinary and Animal Research Centre

(CECAV)

University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro

Vila Real

Portugal

 

Fidel Toldrá

Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de

Alimentos (CSIC)

Valencia

Spain

 

Nikolaos Tzamtzis

Laboratory of Inorganic & Analytical

Chemistry

School of Chemical Engineering

National Technical University of Athens

Athens

Greece

 

Theodoros H. Varzakas

Higher Technological Educational

Institute of Peloponnese

Department of Food Technology

School of Agricultural Technology,

Food Technology and Nutrition

Kalamata

Greece

Preface

The main goal of the book Advances in Food Diagnostics is to provide the reader with a comprehensive resource covering the field of diagnostics in the food industry. While it covers conventional (typically lab-based) methods of analysis, the book focuses on leading-edge technologies that are being (or are about to be) introduced in important areas like food quality assurance, nutritional value and food safety, and also on other relevant issues such as traceability and authenticity, which are strongly demanded by all sectors involved in ‘farm to fork’. This means from the production of raw materials, through the processing food industry and distribution to markets, until reaching the consumer. Guaranteeing the health, well-being and safety of consumers is a must, and the response to any concern must be as immediate as possible, which is why on-line and at-line diagnostics applications or very rapid methodologies are so highly demanded. The field of diagnostics in the food industry is evolving very rapidly. A good example is the number of publications that is growing exponentially year by year. New diagnostics tools are being developed and finding new applications, while the existing ones are optimised, are often miniaturised and, increasingly, are becoming automated.

The first edition of this book dates from 2007, and contained topics spread through 16 chapters. This second edition brings 18 chapters, with new approaches in the dynamic field of food diagnostics. Thus, this second edition combines updated and revised versions of several old chapters, plus new chapters dealing with outstanding developments in recent years, on nanotechnology for sensor devices, or in the use of omics technologies like proteomics, metabolomics or genomics, and their applications in food quality, safety and nutrition.

The book looks at areas such as improved methodologies for safety and quality control; the use of nuclear magnetic resonance for quality control and traceability; the latest developments in ‘electronic noses’ for food safety and quality; proteomics applications in food safety; the use of metabolomics for nutritional assessment; newly developed molecular methods for microbiology monitoring and for detecting and charactering pathogens; DNA-based methods for the detection of GMO in composite and processed foods; the use of enzyme-based and immuno-based sensors for the detection of a variety of substances in foods; nanotechnology-developed sensors based on graphene, nanotubes and nanoparticles; tools for the effective detection of nanoparticles in foods; advances in increased-throughput high-performance liquid chromatography with less sample manipulation; the rapid techniques for olfactometry detection of aroma compounds; the latest developments in automation, especially on the efficient extraction of sample analytes; the fundamentals of chemometrics, especially the most relevant techniques for data display, classification, modelling and calibration; and, lastly, a final discussion for the market of diagnostic devices in the food industry.

Once more, this second edition will find a large audience in the academia, administration and industry, and for all of those involved in food science and technology. We sincerely hope you will find this book of interest and that it provides you with a better understanding about new developed diagnostic tools, how they work and apply as well as their future trends.

The editors wish to thank all the contributors for their hard work and excellent results with the delivered chapters of this book, and also thank the production team at Wiley-Blackwell for their dedication and nice publication of this book.

Fidel Toldrá Leo M.L. Nollet

Chapter 1Assuring Safety and Quality along the Food Chain

Gerhard Schiefer

University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany

1.1 Quality and safety: issues

The term ‘quality’ has become a focus point in all discussions regarding the production and provision of food products to markets and consumers – quality in the broad sense of serving the consumers' needs (see also the early publication by Oakland, 1998) by providing them with the right product, at the right time, and with the right service. In today's competitive food markets, the quality approach is a precondition for sustainable market acceptance. It is a core pillar in the sustainability of enterprises and sectors, which builds on economic viability, quality orientation, ethical concerns, and an appropriate embedment in its environment.

In an enterprise, a sustainable delivery of quality is a result of a comprehensive effort. It involves the implementation of a quality approach at all levels of activities, ranging from enterprise management to process organisation, process management, and product control. Enterprise quality systems build on routine quality assurance and improvement activities that might encompass one or several of these levels. However, most food quality systems focus on system activities at several levels, involving process organisation, process management and product control.

Food safety is an inherent element of quality. It receives special attention not only by enterprises, but also by policy and legislation, because of its key importance for consumers' health, and the responsibility for food safety by enterprises and policy alike. Globalisation and industrialisation in the production and provision of food has increased the potential risk in food safety and has initiated increased efforts and controls in food safety assurance.

The efficient ‘transportation’ of quality from the farm, and any of the subsequent stages of processing and trade to the consumer as the final customer, requires efforts in cooperation along the chain. The dependency of food quality and safety from activities at all stages in the chain makes chain cooperation a prerequisite of any advanced quality assurance scheme, including food safety. Such cooperation might build on individual arrangements, sector agreements, or on any other way that avoids the loss and supports the gain of quality along the chain.

Chain cooperation has become a crucial element in quality assurance, and especially in food safety initiatives in the food sector. However, in the food sector, chains usually develop dynamically in a network of interconnected enterprises, with constantly changing lines of supplier-customer relationships. In this scenario, chain cooperation is based on network cooperation – or, in other words, on sector agreements.

The quality guarantee that one can derive from the implementation of a quality system depends on the evaluation of the system as a whole. Quality and food safety deficiencies at any stage might remain with the product throughout the remaining stages, until it reaches the consumer. The most crucial need for guarantees involves guarantees for food safety. These constitute the baseline guarantee level and the prerequisite for consumers' trust and market acceptance (Henson and Hooker, 2001; Verbeke, 2005).

The delivery of quality guarantees is based on controls, both, in the organisation of processes (process controls) and in process management (management controls). However, for the delivery of guarantees, these controls need to be integrated into a comprehensive scheme (quality program) that could serve as a cooperation platform for enterprises within supply chains and networks and provide a basis for communication with consumers.

Key issues involve agreements on chain-encompassing quality assurance schemes, and the ability to identify the product flow through the production chain clearly, by linking the different product entities that are being produced and traded at the different stages of the chain, from the farm to the consumer as the final customer, and their quality status (tracking and tracing capability).

The following sections cover the development path from tracking and tracing towards quality assurance in food chains, the organisational concepts and quality programs for implementation, and the role of information and communication systems for operational efficiency.

1.2 Tracking and tracing through chains and networks

The tracking and tracing of food products throughout the food chain has become a dominant issue in discussions on food quality and, especially, on the assurance of food safety (Lobb, 2005). They allow, for any product and from any stage within the chain, identification of the source (backward tracing) and its destination (forward tracing). This supports the (backward) identification of sources of product deficiencies, and the (forward) isolation of any other product that might have been affected by these sources. Tracking and tracing capabilities support consumer protection in case of food contamination. Furthermore, they support the communication of the quality status of products on their way through the food chain, and provide the basis for the delivery of quality guarantees at each stage of the chain and towards the consumers at the final stage.

However, it should be noted that, beyond this discussion line, the organisation of tracking and tracing schemes (TT schemes) has also a managerial dimension in supporting efficiency in the logistics chain (supply chain) from the source (farms) to the final destination (the consumer). In fact, the managerial dimension has been at the centre point of initial discussions on tracking and tracing schemes, not just in the food sector but in other sectors as well (Golan et al., 2004).

This emphasises the global relevance of tracking and tracing schemes and their role as a baseline feature, not only for the delivery of guarantees for food safety and quality but also for logistics efficiency, which is at the core of enterprises' economic interests.

From a historical point of view, the TT schemes evolved from enterprise internal efforts and were subsequently extended to supply chains and networks. This historic development path also characterises a path of increasing complexity. The identification of product units and the monitoring of their movements inside an enterprise require less coordination efforts than is necessary in supply chains and, especially, in a sector as a whole, with its larger number of enterprises and different and ever-changing trade relationships.

The identification of product units and the monitoring of their movements is a problem that is easy to solve, if product modification during the various stages of a supply chain process do not affect the composition of the product. The most complex TT scenarios concern composite convenience products or commodity products, where an individual ‘product unit’ cannot be based on a physical product element (e.g. a piece of grain), but needs to be based on logistics elements (batches) that might involve production plots, transportation trucks, or storage units of any kind (Golan et al., 2004; Schiefer, 2006; Fritz and Schiefer, 2009; Schiefer and Reiche, 2013). The linkage of these different batches in a batch sequence generates the production flow with its modifications, and provides the basis for tracking and tracing activities.

1.3 Food safety – the baseline

The general assurance of food safety is a prime concern and responsibility of society. Traditionally, food safety rests on the formulation and implementation of standards regarding the measurable quality of products – for example, the quantity of substances in the product with potentially negative effects on human health.

This approach is increasingly being supplemented (not replaced) by a proactive approach that intends to prevent food safety deficiencies from the beginning through regulations on the appropriate organisation and management of processes in production, trade and distribution.

For some time, policy discussions and legislative actions concerning pro-active food safety improvement initiatives have concentrated on:

a.

the assurance of tracking and tracing of products; and

b.

the implementation of the HACCP principles (USDA, 1997).

However, as both of these initiatives require enterprise activities for implementation, any regulations regarding their utilisation in the food sector require cooperation by enterprises. This is a crucial point in food safety assurance. Society (represented by policy) has responsibilities in the provision of food safety guarantees to its members, but has to rely on activities by enterprises to substantiate these guarantees (Figure 1.1).

Figure 1.1 Chain of influence in food safety assurance.

In this scenario, the ‘value’ of society's guarantees depends on its ability to assure enterprises' cooperation (i.e. on the effectiveness of the sector control systems).

However, the enforcement of enterprises' cooperation through appropriate control systems has consequences for trade and constitutes, in principle, non-tariff trade barriers that have to adhere to European and international trade agreements. At the international level, the World Trade Organization (WTO) provides the umbrella for trade regulations, and allows introducing trade related regulations that avoid food safety hazards if backed by sufficient scientific evidence. An important reference in this context is the Codex Alimentarius Commission (FAO/WHO, 2003; Luning et al., 2002), a joint initiative by FAO and WHO. In its Codes of Practice and guidelines, it addresses aspects of process management including, as its most prominent recommendation, the utilisation of the HACCP principles.

This is the background on which the European Community could introduce its food laws (van der Meulen, 2014), based on a White Paper on food safety (EU, 2000) and a baseline regulation (EU, 2002) which require enterprises all along the food chain to formally implement the HACCP principles in their food safety assurance activities. An exception is agriculture which is exempt from realising a formal HACCP concept, but which should, anyway, follow the principles of the HACCP concept in implementing appropriate food safety controls.

1.4 Food quality – delivery concepts

In enterprises and food chains, the delivery of quality and quality guarantees that reach beyond food safety traditionally builds on four principal areas of quality activities, integrated into a systematic process of continuous improvement. These include:

a.

the quality of enterprise management, as exemplified by the concepts of

total quality

or

total quality management

(TQM) (Oakland, 1998; Goetsch and Davis, 2012);

b.

the quality of process organisation, frequently captured in the phrase

Good Practice

;

c.

the quality of process management, usually phrased as

quality management

; and

d.

the quality of products that could be captured through sensor technology, etc.

Discussions on the assurance of food quality in the food sector concentrate primarily on the quality of process organisation and process management, and combine it with specific requirements on product quality characteristics. This integrated view is based on the understanding that not all food product characteristics with relevance for quality could be identified and competitively evaluated through inspection of the final product. It refocuses attention from traditional product inspection to the prevention of deficiencies in food quality.

However, it should be noted that successful quality initiatives of enterprises usually build on leadership initiatives related (even if phrased differently) to the TQM approach, and with a strong focus on continuous improvement activities. In this scenario, the quality-oriented process management is an integral part of the more comprehensive management approach, and not a ‘stand-alone’ solution for the elimination of quality problems.

A quality-oriented process management is characterised by management routines as, for example, audit activities that support the organisation and control of processes to assure desired process outputs, with little or no deviation from output specifications (process quality). The integration and specification of these routines constitutes a management system or, with a view on the quality-focused objectives, a quality management system. Well-known examples include the standard series ISO9000 (Hoyle, 2006) or the HACCP principles (USDA, 1997; Newslow, 2013).

The traditional view of quality assurance in supply chains of any kind builds on the isolated implementation of quality management systems in individual enterprises, and assumes a sufficient consideration of quality objectives through the chain of supplier-customer relationships, in which each supplier focuses on the best possible fulfilment of quality expectations of its immediate customers (Spiegel, 2004).

However, this traditional view does not match with the specifics of food production and the requirements on quality assurance in the food sector. These specifics suggest that substantial improvements can only be reached through increased cooperation between stages regarding the specification of quality levels, agreements on process controls, and the utilisation of quality management schemes. This requires agreements on information exchange and the establishment of appropriate communication schemes.

Initiatives towards integrated food supply chains were a focus of developments during the 1990s, especially in export-oriented countries such as the Netherlands and Denmark (Spiegel, 2004). These developments were primarily initiated for gaining competitive advantage in a quality-oriented competitive market environment while improvements in the sector's food quality situation were initially of secondary concern.

1.5 Quality programs – steps towards sector quality agreements

1.5.1 Overview

A variety of initiatives in different countries have focused on the formulation of comprehensive quality programs, which ask for the simultaneous implementation of a set of activities in process organisation and process management that assure a certain level of food quality and safety in enterprises and food chains. These programs, also referred to as quality systems or (if restricted to process management) quality management systems, are of a universal, regional or national scope.

Principal examples with focus on food chains include (Schiefer, 2003):

a.

initiatives on the basis of rather closed supply chains, such as the Dutch

IKB chains

(IKB for

Integrated Chain Management

) (Wierenga

et al

., 1997); and

b.

sector-encompassing approaches that have little requirements on focused organisational linkages between enterprises, such as the German Q&S system (Nienhoff, 2003).

Specific alternatives are programs that evolved from retail trade. These do not involve the supply chain as a whole, but function as a quality filter for deliveries from supplier enterprises and the food chains to which these are connected.

1.5.2 A closed system concept – the case of IKB

The IKB concept is a chain management concept for food supply chains that was designed in the Netherlands in the 1980s for improvements in the efficiency and quality of food production. Its initial focus was on closed production chains, with a central coordinating body linked to processing industry (Wierenga et al., 1997). Product deliveries into the IKB chains are restricted to enterprises that conform to certain quality requirements. A key example involves conformity to the Dutch standard series GMP (Luning et al., 2002). Today's developments open the closed chain approach and move it closer towards a network system.

1.5.3 An open sector system concept – the case of Q&S

The system of Q&S addresses all stages of the vertical supply chain. However, it can be implemented by each individual enterprise on each stage, with the exception of agricultural enterprises that can only act as a group (Figure 1.2) and without any further coordination with the group's suppliers and/or customers.

Figure 1.2 Q&S system organisation.

The Q&S system is an open system, and its coordination is determined, in principle, by common agreements on the quality responsibility of the different stages. The approach tries to best adapt the food quality control activities to the actual market infrastructure that builds on open supply networks with continuously changing trade relationships. It places neither new organisational requirements on enterprise cooperation, nor restrictions on the development of individual market relationships within the supply chain.

The system preserves flexibility in market relationships between enterprises but, as an open flexible system, it does require substantial efforts to move the whole system to higher quality levels. Furthermore, the approach does not support the implementation of more advanced quality assurance systems of individual groups within the general system environment. Such efforts would reduce the guarantee value of the general system for the remaining participants, and would contradict the interest of the system as a whole.

1.5.4 Trade initiatives

The retail sector has designed its own standards for requirements on quality activities in their supplier enterprises, including those from agriculture that deliver directly to the retail stage (for an overview see Hofwegen et al., 2005; van der Meulen, 2011). Examples include: the international active standard, GlobalG.A.P., which focuses on agricultural enterprises (GAP: Good Agricultural Practice; GAP, 2016; Newslow, 2013), initially in the production of fruits and vegetables, and today in most agricultural production lines, the IFS standard (the International Featured Standard; IFS, 2016; Newslow, 2013), with a stronghold in Germany and France; and the BRC standard (Kill, 2012), the standard of the British Retail Consortium, which has influenced many quality initiatives in food supply chains in the UK and elsewhere.

Furthermore, a global retail initiative, the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI; Newslow, 2013) has formulated requirements on food safety assurance activities for retailer-based standards which, if requirements are met, receive formal acceptance status by the GFSI (Figure 1.3).

Figure 1.3 Relationships between retail quality initiatives.

1.6 The information challenge

1.6.1 Information clusters

Both tracking and tracing capabilities, as well as the fulfilment of quality expectations at the consumers' end, depend on activities in enterprises throughout the supply chain and, as a consequence, on the collection of information from chain participants and its communication throughout the chain, with the consumers as the final recipients. This requires the availability of a feasible sector-encompassing communication infrastructure.

Traditionally, the organisation of information in enterprises builds on a number of information layers that correspond with the different levels of business management and decision support. They reach from transaction information at the lowest level, to executive information at the highest level (Turban et al., 1999). These layers are presently being complemented by two additional layers at the transaction level, that incorporate information for tracking and tracing, as well as for quality assurance and improvement activities (Figure 1.4).

Figure 1.4 Information layers with enterprise (1, 2) and chain/sector focus.

These new layers differ from traditional enterprise information layers due to their focus, which is not the individual enterprise but the vertical chain of production and trade. They are linked to the flow of goods and connect, in principle, the different stages of production and trade with each other and with the consumer. Their realisation depends on agreements between trading partners on responsibilities, content, organisation and technologies.

The layers were initiated by requirements for tracking and tracing capabilities from legislation (EU, 2002) and markets, and by increasing expectations of consumers regarding the quality of products and production processes. A number of European projects have dealt with tracking and tracing opportunities (e.g. project TRACE; www.tracefood.org), as well as with transparency requirements for meeting the emerging challenges towards sustainability, including food safety and quality (e.g. Project Transparent Food; www.transparentfood.eu; Schiefer and Reiche, 2013).

A sector encompassing general agreement is restricted to the lowest level of legal requirements. Any communication agreements beyond this level are subject to specific business interests, and might limit themselves to clusters of enterprises with common trading interests. In a network environment, individual enterprises might be members of different clusters, resulting in a future patchwork of interrelated and overlapping communication clusters (Figure 1.5).

Figure 1.5 Agreed communication clusters with participation of enterprise A in five, and enterprise B in one of the clusters.

The content of quality communication layers depends on the quality requirements of enterprises and consumers. However, the diversity of interests in a sector could generate an almost unlimited number of possible requirement sets – or, in other words, of needs for communication clusters. This is not a feasible approach.

In this situation, the quality requirements of quality programs could serve as a basic reference for the separation of communication clusters. First initiatives towards this end are under way. These developments will separate the sector's food production into different segments with different quality guarantees. Examples are some of the retail-driven quality programs, such as the program ‘Proplanet’, by a major retail group (Proplanet, 2016), which builds on the establishment of a clearly defined supplier chain reaching from agriculture to retail, and provides information from each stage of the chain on a number of selected sustainability characteristics.

1.6.2 Organisational alternatives