Wildlife Ecology, Conservation, and Management - John M. Fryxell - ebook

Wildlife Ecology, Conservation, and Management ebook

John M. Fryxell

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To understand modern principles of sustainable management andthe conservation of wildlife species requires intimate knowledgeabout demography, animal behavior, and ecosystem dynamics. Withemphasis on practical application and quantitative skilldevelopment, this book weaves together these disparate elements ina single coherent textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate students.It reviews analytical techniques, explaining the mathematical andstatistical principles behind them, and shows how these can be usedto formulate realistic objectives within an ecological framework. This third edition is comprehensive and up-to-date, andincludes: * Brand new chapters that disseminate rapidly developing topics inthe field: habitat use and selection; habitat fragmentation,movement, and corridors; population viability. analysis, theconsequences of climate change; and evolutionary responses todisturbance * A thorough updating of all chapters to present important areas ofwildlife research and management with recent developments andexamples. * A new online study aid - a wide variety of downloadablecomputer programs in the freeware packages R and Mathcad, availablethrough a companion website. Worked examples enable readers topractice calculations explained in the text and to develop a solidunderstanding of key statistical procedures and population modelscommonly used in wildlife ecology and management. The first half of the book provides a solid background in keyecological concepts. The second half uses these concepts to developa deeper understanding of the principles underlying wildlifemanagement and conservation. Global examples of real-lifemanagement situations provide a broad perspective on theinternational problems of conservation, and detailed case historiesdemonstrate concepts and quantitative analyses. This third editionis also valuable to professional wildlife managers, park rangers,biological resource managers, and those working in ecotourism.

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Table of Contents

Cover

Dedication

Title Page

Copyright

Preface

About the companion website

Chapter 1: Introduction: goals and decisions

1.1 How to use this book

1.2 What is wildlife conservation and management?

1.3 Goals of management

1.4 Hierarchies of decision

1.5 Policy goals

1.6 Feasible options

1.7 Summary

Part 1: Wildlife ecology

Chapter 2: Food and nutrition

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Constituents of food

2.3 Variation in food supply

2.4 Measurement of food supply

2.5 Basal metabolic rate and food requirement

2.6 Morphology of herbivore digestion

2.7 Food passage rate and food requirement

2.8 Body size and diet selection

2.9 Indices of body condition

2.10 Summary

Chapter 3: Home range and habitat use

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Estimating home range size and utilization frequency

3.3 Estimating habitat availability and use

3.4 Selective habitat use

3.5 Using resource selection functions to predict population response

3.6 Sources of variation in habitat use

3.7 Movement within the home range

3.8 Movement among home ranges

3.9 Summary

Chapter 4: Dispersal, dispersion, and distribution

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Dispersal

4.3 Dispersion

4.4 Distribution

4.5 Distribution, abundance, and range collapse

4.6 Species reintroductions or invasions

4.7 Summary

Chapter 5: Population growth and regulation

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Rate of increase

5.3 Geometric or exponential population growth

5.4 Stability of populations

5.5 The theory of population limitation and regulation

5.6 Evidence for regulation

5.7 Applications of regulation

5.8 Logistic model of population regulation

5.9 Stability, cycles, and chaos

5.10 Intraspecific competition

5.11 Interactions of food, predators, and disease

5.12 Summary

Chapter 6: Competition and facilitation between species

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Theoretical aspects of interspecific competition

6.3 Experimental demonstrations of competition

6.4 The concept of the niche

6.5 The competitive exclusion principle

6.6 Resource partitioning and habitat selection

6.7 Competition in variable environments

6.8 Apparent competition

6.9 Facilitation

6.10 Applied aspects of competition

6.11 Summary

Chapter 7: Predation

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Predation and management

7.3 Definitions

7.4 The effect of predators on prey density

7.5 The behavior of predators

7.6 Numerical response of predators to prey density

7.7 The total response

7.8 Behavior of the prey

7.9 Summary

Chapter 8: Parasites and pathogens

8.1 Introduction and definitions

8.2 Effects of parasites

8.3 The basic parameters of epidemiology

8.4 Determinants of spread

8.5 Endemic pathogens

8.6 Endemic pathogens: synergistic interactions with food and predators

8.7 Epizootic diseases

8.8 Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife

8.9 Parasites and the regulation of host populations

8.10 Parasites and host communities

8.11 Parasites and conservation

8.12 Parasites and control of pests

8.13 Summary

Chapter 9: Consumer–resource dynamics

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Quality and quantity of a resource

9.3 Kinds of resource

9.4 Consumer–resource dynamics: general theory

9.5 Kangaroos and their food plants in semi-arid Australian savannas

9.6 Wolf–moose–woody plant dynamics in the boreal forest

9.7 Other population cycles

9.8 Summary

Chapter 10: The ecology of behavior

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Diet selection

10.3 Optimal patch or habitat use

10.4 Risk-sensitive habitat use

10.5 Social behavior and foraging

10.6 Summary

Chapter 11: Climate change and wildlife

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Evidence for climate change

11.3 Wildlife responses to climate change

11.4 Mechanisms of response to climate change

11.5 Complex ecosystem responses to climate change

11.6 Summary

Part 2: Wildlife conservation and management

Chapter 12: Counting animals

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Total counts

12.3 Sampled counts: the logic

12.4 Sampled counts: methods and arithmetic

12.5 Indirect estimates of population size

12.6 Indices

12.7 Harvest-based population estimates

12.8 Summary

Chapter 13: Age and stage structure

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Demographic rates

13.3 Direct estimation of life table parameters

13.4 Indirect estimation of life table parameters

13.5 Relationships among parameters

13.6 Age-specific population models

13.7 Elasticity of matrix models

13.8 Stage-specific models

13.9 Elasticity of the loggerhead turtle model

13.10 Short-term changes in structured populations

13.11 Environmental stochasticity and age-structured populations

13.12 Summary

Chapter 14: Experimental management

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Differentiating success from failure

14.3 Technical judgments can be tested

14.4 The nature of the evidence

14.5 Experimental and survey design

14.6 Some standard analyses

14.7 Summary

Chapter 15: Model evaluation and adaptive management

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Fitting models to data and estimation of parameters

15.3 Measuring the likelihood of the observed data

15.4 Evaluating the likelihood of alternate models using AIC

15.5 Adaptive management

15.6 Summary

Chapter 16: Population viability analysis

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Environmental stochasticity

16.3 PVA based on the exponential growth model

16.4 PVA based on the diffusion model

16.5 PVA based on logistic growth

16.6 Demographic stochasticity

16.7 Estimating both environmental and demographic stochasticity

16.8 PVA based on demographic and environmental stochasticity

16.9 Strengths and weaknesses of PVA

16.10 Extinction caused by environmental change

16.11 Extinction threat due to introduction of exotic predators or competitors

16.12 Extinction threat due to unsustainable harvesting

16.13 Extinction threat due to habitat loss

16.14 Summary

Chapter 17: Conservation in practice

17.1 Introduction

17.2 How populations go extinct

17.3 How to prevent extinction

17.4 Rescue and recovery of near-extinctions

17.5 Conservation in National Parks and reserves

17.6 Community conservation outside National Parks and reserves

17.7 International conservation

17.8 Summary

Chapter 18: Wildlife harvesting

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Fixed-quota harvesting strategy

18.3 Fixed-proportion harvesting strategy

18.4 Harvesting in practice: dynamic variation in quotas or effort

18.5 No-harvest reserves

18.6 Age- or sex-biased harvesting

18.7 Commercial harvesting

18.8 Bioeconomics

18.9 Game cropping and the discount rate

18.10 Summary

Chapter 19: Wildlife control

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Definitions

19.3 Effects of control

19.4 Objectives of control

19.5 Determining whether control is appropriate

19.6 Methods of control

19.7 Summary

Chapter 20: Evolution and conservation genetics

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Maintenance of genetic variation

20.3 Natural selection

20.4 Natural selection and life history tradeoffs

20.5 Natural selection due to hunting

20.6 Natural selection due to fishing

20.7 Selection due to environmental change

20.8 Ecological dynamics due to evolutionary changes

20.9 Heterozygosity

20.10 Genetic drift and mutation

20.11 Inbreeding depression

20.12 How much genetic variation is needed?

20.13 Effective population size

20.14 Effect of sex ratio

20.15 How small is too small?

20.16 Summary

Chapter 21: Habitat loss and metapopulation dynamics

21.1 Introduction

21.2 Habitat loss and fragmentation

21.3 Ecological effects of habitat loss

21.4 Metapopulation dynamics

21.5 Territorial metapopulations

21.6 Mainland–island metapopulations

21.7 Source–sink metapopulations

21.8 Metacommunity dynamics of competitors

21.9 Metacommunity dynamics of predators and prey

21.10 Corridors

21.11 Summary

Chapter 22: Ecosystem management and conservation

22.1 Introduction

22.2 Definitions

22.3 Gradients of communities

22.4 Niches

22.5 Food webs and intertrophic interactions

22.6 Community features and management consequences

22.7 Multiple states

22.8 Regulation of top-down and bottom-up processes

22.9 Ecosystem consequences of bottom-up processes

22.10 Ecosystem disturbance and heterogeneity

22.11 Ecosystem management at multiple scales

22.12 Biodiversity

22.13 Island biogeography and dynamic processes of diversity

22.14 Ecosystem function

22.15 Summary

Appendices

Glossary

References

Index

End User License Agreement

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Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

Preface

Part 1: Wildlife ecology

Chapter 1: Introduction: goals and decisions

List of Illustrations

Figure 2.1

Figure 2.2

Figure 2.3

Figure 2.4

Figure 2.5

Figure 2.6

Figure 2.7

Figure 2.8

Figure 2.9

Figure 2.10

Figure 2.11

Figure 2.12

Figure 3.1

Figure 3.2

Figure 3.3

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Figure 3.6

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Figure 4.1

Figure 4.2

Figure 4.3

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Figure 4.6

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Figure 4.8

Figure 5.1

Figure 5.2

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Figure 5.7

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Figure 5.9

Figure 5.10

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Figure 6.1

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Figure 7.1

Figure 7.2

Figure 7.3

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Figure 7.6

Figure 7.7

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Figure 8.1

Figure 8.2

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Figure 12.2

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Figure 14.1

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Figure 22.1

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List of Tables

Table 1.1

Table 1.2

Table 1.3

Table 2.1

Table 5.1

Table 6.1

Table 6.2

Table 6.3

Table 7.1

Table 7.2

Table 8.1

Table 9.1

Table 12.1

Table 12.2

Table 12.3

Table 12.4

Table 13.1

Table 13.2

Table 13.3

Table 13.4

Table 14.1

Table 14.2

Table 14.3

Table 15.1

Table 15.2

Table 16.1

Table 16.2

Table 17.1

Table 17.2

Table 19.1

Table 19.2

Table 19.3

Table 20.1

To our colleagues Graeme Caughley, Jamie Smith, and Peter Yodzis, who have influenced both our approach to wildlife biology and the writing of this book.

Wildlife Ecology, Conservation, and Management

Third Edition

John M. Fryxell PhD

Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Canada

Anthony R. E. Sinclair PhD

Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

The late Graeme Caughley PhD

CSIRO, Canberra, Australia

This edition first published 2014 © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

First edition © 1994 by Blackwell Science; Second edition © 2006 by Anthony R. E. Sinclair and John M. Fryxell.

Registered office: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Fryxell, John M., 1954–

Wildlife ecology, conservation, and management.—Third edition / John M. Fryxell, Anthony R.E. Sinclair, Graeme Caughley.

pages cm

Includes index.

ISBN 978-1-118-29106-1 (cloth)—ISBN 978-1-118-29107-8 (pbk.) 1. Wildlife management. 2. Wildlife conservation. 3. Animal ecology. I. Sinclair, A. R. E. (Anthony Ronald Entrican) II. Caughley, Graeme. III. Title.

SK355.C38 2014

639.9—dc23

2014013806

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books.

Cover image © Luke Vander Vennen, used by permission.

Preface

Modern principles of sustainable management and conservation of wildlife species require a clear understanding of demography, animal behavior, and ecosystem dynamics. Our book weaves together these disparate elements in a single coherent text intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The first half provides a solid background in key ecological concepts such as demography, population growth and regulation, competition within and among species, and predator–prey interactions. The second half uses these key ecological concepts to develop a deeper understanding of the principles underlying wildlife management and conservation, including population viability assessment, sustainable harvesting, landscape planning, and ecosystem management.

New quantitative methods, developed over the last 10 years, are now so fundamental to management that we have included them at the most basic levels. Several chapters of the book will be useful to practicing wildlife managers. For example, we have included modern approaches to estimating animal abundance and habitat selectivity, the use of age- and stage-structured data in demography studies, and the use of models as efficient methods for making conservation and management decisions. As a study aid, we have included a wide variety of downloadable computer programs in R and Mathcad on an accompanying website. These are intended to help readers develop a solid understanding of key statistical procedures and population models commonly used in wildlife ecology and management.

In this edition we have arranged the sequence of chapters to reflect the progression from individuals to populations, communities, and ecosystems. Four new chapters have been added to cover rapidly developing topics: effects of climate change on wildlife, the evolutionary response by wildlife populations to rapidly changing conditions, home range use and habitat selection as a consequence of patterns of individual movement, and the importance of corridor use and metapopulation dynamics for wildlife populations living in the highly fragmented landscapes that increasingly characterize the modern world.

Anne Gunn and David Grice were invaluable in bringing together the first edition of this book after Graeme Caughley fell ill. Fleur Sheard prepared the line drawings for that edition. Since then we have continued to benefit from the helpful contributions of a number of people, including Tal Avgar, Andrew McAdam, Cort Griswold, David Grice, Sue Briggs, Andrea Byrom, Steve Cork, Charles Krebs, Graham Nugent, John Parkes, Roger Pech, Laura Prugh, Wendy Ruscoe, Dolph Schluter, Julian Seddon, Grant Singleton, David Spratt, Eric Spurr, Vernon Thomas, and Bruce Warburton. We also thank the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada for continuing support over the years.

Our close friend and colleague, Graeme Caughley, died in 1994. We have retained the substance and spirit of his scholarship, expanding the fields where advances have occurred since the first edition. For this new edition we are indebted to Sue Pennant and Anne Sinclair, who are always willing (if not necessarily eager) to provide a fresh set of eyes for proofreading of the new material.

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