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Thomas Commerford Martin
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The Inventions Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla
PART I. POLYPHASE CURRENTS.
PART II. THE TESLA EFFECTS WITH HIGH FREQUENCY AND HIGH POTENTIAL CURRENTS.
PART III. MISCELLANEOUS INVENTIONS AND WRITINGS.
PART IV. APPENDIX.—EARLY PHASE MOTORS AND THETESLA MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL OSCILLATOR.
* End of The Inventions Researches and Writings of Nikola Tesla*
RESEARCHES AND WRITINGS
TO HIS COUNTRYMEN
IN EASTERN EUROPE THIS RECORD OFTHE WORK ALREADY ACCOMPLISHED BY
IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED
THOMAS COMMERFORD MARTIN
Editor The Electrical Engineer; Past-President American Institute Electrical Engineers
1894THE ELECTRICAL ENGINEERNEW YORKD. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY,NEW YORK.
Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1893 by T. C. MARTINin the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington
The electrical problems of the present day lie largely in the economical transmission of power and in the radical improvement of the means and methods of illumination. To many workers and thinkers in the domain of electrical invention, the apparatus and devices that are familiar, appear cumbrous and wasteful, and subject to severe limitations. They believe that the principles of current generation must be changed, the area of current supply be enlarged, and the appliances used by the consumer be at once cheapened and simplified. The brilliant successes of the past justify them in every expectancy of still more generous fruition.
The present volume is a simple record of the pioneer work done in such departments up to date, by Mr. Nikola Tesla, in whom the world has already recognized one of the foremost of modern electrical investigators and inventors. No attempt whatever has been made here to emphasize the importance of his researches and discoveries. Great ideas and real inventions win their own way, determining their own place by intrinsic merit. But with the conviction that Mr. Tesla is blazing a path that electrical development must follow for many years to come, the compiler has endeavored to bring together all that bears the impress of Mr. Tesla's genius, and is worthy of preservation. Aside from its value as showing the scope of his inventions, this volume may be of service as indicating the range of his thought. There is intellectual profit in studying the push and play of a vigorous and original mind.
Although the lively interest of the public in Mr. Tesla's work is perhaps of recent growth, this volume covers the results of full ten years. It includes his lectures, miscellaneous articles and discussions, and makes note of all his inventions thus far known, particularly those bearing on polyphase motors and the effects obtained with currents of high potential and high frequency. It will be seen that Mr. Tesla has ever pressed forward, barely pausing for an instant to work out in detail the utilizations that have at once been obvious to him of the new principles he has elucidated. Wherever possible his own language has been employed.
It may be added that this volume is issued with Mr. Tesla's sanction and approval, and that permission has been obtained for the re-publication in it of such papers as have been read before various technical societies of this country and Europe. Mr. Tesla has kindly favored the author by looking over the proof sheets of the sections embodying his latest researches. The work has also enjoyed the careful revision of the author's friend and editorial associate, Mr. Joseph Wetzler, through whose hands all the proofs have passed.
T. C. M.
Biographical and Introductory.
As an introduction to the record contained in this volume of Mr. Tesla's investigations and discoveries, a few words of a biographical nature will, it is deemed, not be out of place, nor other than welcome.
Nikola Tesla was born in 1857 at Smiljan, Lika, a borderland region of Austro-Hungary, of the Serbian race, which has maintained against Turkey and all comers so unceasing a struggle for freedom. His family is an old and representative one among these Switzers of Eastern Europe, and his father was an eloquent clergyman in the Greek Church. An uncle is to-day Metropolitan in Bosnia. His mother was a woman of inherited ingenuity, and delighted not only in skilful work of the ordinary household character, but in the construction of such mechanical appliances as looms and churns and other machinery required in a rural community. Nikola was educated at Gospich in the public school for four years, and then spent three years in the Real Schule. He was then sent to Carstatt, Croatia, where he continued his studies for three years in the Higher Real Schule. There for the first time he saw a steam locomotive. He graduated in 1873, and, surviving an attack of cholera, devoted himself to experimentation, especially in electricity and magnetism. His father would have had him maintain the family tradition by entering the Church, but native genius was too strong, and he was allowed to enter the Polytechnic School at Gratz, to finish his studies, and with the object of becoming a professor of mathematics and physics. One of the machines there experimented with was a Gramme dynamo, used as a motor. Despite his instructor's perfect demonstration of the fact that it was impossible to operate a dynamo without commutator or brushes, Mr. Tesla could not be convinced that such accessories were necessary or desirable. He had already seen with quick intuition that a way could be found to dispense with them; and from that time he may be said to have begun work on the ideas that fructified ultimately in his rotating field motors.
In the second year of his Gratz course, Mr. Tesla gave up the notion of becoming a teacher, and took up the engineering curriculum. His studies ended, he returned home in time to see his father die, and then went to Prague and Buda-Pesth to study languages, with the object of qualifying himself broadly for the practice of the engineering profession. For a short time he served as an assistant in the Government Telegraph Engineering Department, and then became associated with M. Puskas, a personal and family friend, and other exploiters of the telephone in Hungary. He made a number of telephonic inventions, but found his opportunities of benefiting by them limited in various ways. To gain a wider field of action, he pushed on to Paris and there secured employment as an electrical engineer with one of the large companies in the new industry of electric lighting.
It was during this period, and as early as 1882, that he began serious and continued efforts to embody the rotating field principle in operative apparatus. He was enthusiastic about it; believed it to mark a new departure in the electrical arts, and could think of nothing else. In fact, but for the solicitations of a few friends in commercial circles who urged him to form a company to exploit the invention, Mr. Tesla, then a youth of little worldly experience, would have sought an immediate opportunity to publish his ideas, believing them to be worthy of note as a novel and radical advance in electrical theory as well as destined to have a profound influence on all dynamo electric machinery.
At last he determined that it would be best to try his fortunes in America. In France he had met many Americans, and in contact with them learned the desirability of turning every new idea in electricity to practical use. He learned also of the ready encouragement given in the United States to any inventor who could attain some new and valuable result. The resolution was formed with characteristic quickness, and abandoning all his prospects in Europe, he at once set his face westward.
Arrived in the United States, Mr. Tesla took off his coat the day he arrived, in the Edison Works. That place had been a goal of his ambition, and one can readily imagine the benefit and stimulus derived from association with Mr. Edison, for whom Mr. Tesla has always had the strongest admiration. It was impossible, however, that, with his own ideas to carry out, and his own inventions to develop, Mr. Tesla could long remain in even the most delightful employ; and, his work now attracting attention, he left the Edison ranks to join a company intended to make and sell an arc lighting system based on some of his inventions in that branch of the art. With unceasing diligence he brought the system to perfection, and saw it placed on the market. But the thing which most occupied his time and thoughts, however, all through this period, was his old discovery of the rotating field principle for alternating current work, and the application of it in motors that have now become known the world over.
Strong as his convictions on the subject then were, it is a fact that he stood very much alone, for the alternating current had no well recognized place. Few electrical engineers had ever used it, and the majority were entirely unfamiliar with its value, or even its essential features. Even Mr. Tesla himself did not, until after protracted effort and experimentation, learn how to construct alternating current apparatus of fair efficiency. But that he had accomplished his purpose was shown by the tests of Prof. Anthony, made in the of winter 1887-8, when Tesla motors in the hands of that distinguished expert gave an efficiency equal to that of direct current motors. Nothing now stood in the way of the commercial development and introduction of such motors, except that they had to be constructed with a view to operating on the circuits then existing, which in this country were all of high frequency.
The first full publication of his work in this direction—outside his patents—was a paper read before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in New York, in May, 1888 (read at the suggestion of Prof. Anthony and the present writer), when he exhibited motors that had been in operation long previous, and with which his belief that brushes and commutators could be dispensed with, was triumphantly proved to be correct. The section of this volume devoted to Mr. Tesla's inventions in the utilization of polyphase currents will show how thoroughly from the outset he had mastered the fundamental idea and applied it in the greatest variety of ways.
Having noted for years the many advantages obtainable with alternating currents, Mr. Tesla was naturally led on to experiment with them at higher potentials and higher frequencies than were common or approved of. Ever pressing forward to determine in even the slightest degree the outlines of the unknown, he was rewarded very quickly in this field with results of the most surprising nature. A slight acquaintance with some of these experiments led the compiler of this volume to urge Mr. Tesla to repeat them before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers. This was done in May, 1891, in a lecture that marked, beyond question, a distinct departure in electrical theory and practice, and all the results of which have not yet made themselves fully apparent. The New York lecture, and its successors, two in number, are also included in this volume, with a few supplementary notes.
Mr. Tesla's work ranges far beyond the vast departments of polyphase currents and high potential lighting. The "Miscellaneous" section of this volume includes a great many other inventions in arc lighting, transformers, pyro-magnetic generators, thermo-magnetic motors, third-brush regulation, improvements in dynamos, new forms of incandescent lamps, electrical meters, condensers, unipolar dynamos, the conversion of alternating into direct currents, etc. It is needless to say that at this moment Mr. Tesla is engaged on a number of interesting ideas and inventions, to be made public in due course. The present volume deals simply with his work accomplished to date.
A New System of Alternating Current Motors and Transformers.
The present section of this volume deals with polyphase currents, and the inventions by Mr. Tesla, made known thus far, in which he has embodied one feature or another of the broad principle of rotating field poles or resultant attraction exerted on the armature. It is needless to remind electricians of the great interest aroused by the first enunciation of the rotating field principle, or to dwell upon the importance of the advance from a single alternating current, to methods and apparatus which deal with more than one. Simply prefacing the consideration here attempted of the subject, with the remark that in nowise is the object of this volume of a polemic or controversial nature, it may be pointed out that Mr. Tesla's work has not at all been fully understood or realized up to date. To many readers, it is believed, the analysis of what he has done in this department will be a revelation, while it will at the same time illustrate the beautiful flexibility and range of the principles involved. It will be seen that, as just suggested, Mr. Tesla did not stop short at a mere rotating field, but dealt broadly with the shifting of the resultant attraction of the magnets. It will be seen that he went on to evolve the "multiphase" system with many ramifications and turns; that he showed the broad idea of motors employing currents of differing phase in the armature with direct currents in the field; that he first described and worked out the idea of an armature with a body of iron and coils closed upon themselves; that he worked out both synchronizing and torque motors; that he explained and illustrated how machines of ordinary construction might be adapted to his system; that he employed condensers in field and armature circuits, and went to the bottom of the fundamental principles, testing, approving or rejecting, it would appear, every detail that inventive ingenuity could hit upon.
Now that opinion is turning so emphatically in favor of lower frequencies, it deserves special note that Mr. Tesla early recognized the importance of the low frequency feature in motor work. In fact his first motors exhibited publicly—and which, as Prof. Anthony showed in his tests in the winter of 1887-8, were the equal of direct current motors in efficiency, output and starting torque—were of the low frequency type. The necessity arising, however, to utilize these motors in connection with the existing high frequency circuits, our survey reveals in an interesting manner Mr. Tesla's fertility of resource in this direction. But that, after exhausting all the possibilities of this field, Mr. Tesla returns to low frequencies, and insists on the superiority of his polyphase system in alternating current distribution, need not at all surprise us, in view of the strength of his convictions, so often expressed, on this subject. This is, indeed, significant, and may be regarded as indicative of the probable development next to be witnessed.
Incidental reference has been made to the efficiency of rotating field motors, a matter of much importance, though it is not the intention to dwell upon it here. Prof. Anthony in his remarks before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, in May, 1888, on the two small Tesla motors then shown, which he had tested, stated that one gave an efficiency of about 50 per cent. and the other a little over sixty per cent. In 1889, some tests were reported from Pittsburgh, made by Mr. Tesla and Mr. Albert Schmid, on motors up to 10 h. p. and weighing about 850 pounds. These machines showed an efficiency of nearly 90 per cent. With some larger motors it was then found practicable to obtain an efficiency, with the three wire system, up to as high as 94 and 95 per cent. These interesting figures, which, of course, might be supplemented by others more elaborate and of later date, are cited to show that the efficiency of the system has not had to wait until the present late day for any demonstration of its commercial usefulness. An invention is none the less beautiful because it may lack utility, but it must be a pleasure to any inventor to know that the ideas he is advancing are fraught with substantial benefits to the public.
Modifications and Expansions of the Tesla Polyphase Systems.
In his earlier papers and patents relative to polyphase currents, Mr. Tesla devoted himself chiefly to an enunciation of the broad lines and ideas lying at the basis of this new work; but he supplemented this immediately by a series of other striking inventions which may be regarded as modifications and expansions of certain features of the Tesla systems. These we shall now proceed to deal with.
In the preceding chapters we have thus shown and described the Tesla electrical systems for the transmission of power and the conversion and distribution of electrical energy, in which the motors and the transformers contain two or more coils or sets of coils, which were connected up in independent circuits with corresponding coils of an alternating current generator, the operation of the system being brought about by the co-operation of the alternating currents in the independent circuits in progressively moving or shifting the poles or points of maximum magnetic effect of the motors or converters. In these systems two independent conductors are employed for each of the independent circuits connecting the generator with the devices for converting the transmitted currents into mechanical energy or into electric currents of another character. This, however, is not always necessary. The two or more circuits may have a single return path or wire in common, with a loss, if any, which is so extremely slight that it may be disregarded entirely. For the sake of illustration, if the generator have two independent coils and the motor two coils or two sets of coils in corresponding relations to its operative elements one terminal of each generator coil is connected to the corresponding terminals of the motor coils through two independent conductors, while the opposite terminals of the respective coils are both connected to one return wire. The following description deals with the modification. Fig. 22 is a diagrammatic illustration of a generator and single motor constructed and electrically connected in accordance with the invention. Fig. 23 is a diagram of the system as it is used in operating motors or converters, or both, in parallel, while Fig. 24 illustrates diagrammatically the manner of operating two or more motors or converters, or both, in series. Referring to Fig. 22, A A designate the poles of the field magnets of an alternating-current generator, the armature of which, being in this case cylindrical in form and mounted on a shaft, C, is wound longitudinally with coils B B'. The shaft C carries three insulated contact-rings, a b c, to two of which, as b c, one terminal of each coil, as e d, is connected. The remaining terminals, f g, are both connected to the third ring, a.
A motor in this case is shown as composed of a ring, H, wound with four coils, I I J J, electrically connected, so as to co-operate in pairs, with a tendency to fix the poles of the ring at four points ninety degrees apart. Within the magnetic ring H is a disc or cylindrical core wound with two coils, G G', which may be connected to form two closed circuits. The terminals j k of the two sets or pairs of coils are connected, respectively, to the binding-posts E' F', and the other terminals, h i, are connected to a single binding-post, D'. To operate the motor, three line-wires are used to connect the terminals of the generator with those of the motor.
So far as the apparent action or mode of operation of this arrangement is concerned, the single wire D, which is, so to speak, a common return-wire for both circuits, may be regarded as two independent wires. In the illustration, with the order of connection shown, coil B' of the generator is producing its maximum current and coil B its minimum; hence the current which passes through wire e, ring b, brush b', line-wire E, terminal E', wire j, coils I I, wire or terminal D', line-wire D, brush a', ring a, and wire f, fixes the polar line of the motor midway between the two coils I I; but as the coil B' moves from the position indicated it generates less current, while coil B, moving into the field, generates more. The current from coil B passes through the devices and wires designated by the letters d, c, c' F, F' k, J J, i, D', D, a', a, and g, and the position of the poles of the motor will be due to the resultant effect of the currents in the two sets of coils—that is, it will be advanced in proportion to the advance or forward movement of the armature coils. The movement of the generator-armature through one-quarter of a revolution will obviously bring coil B' into its neutral position and coil B into its position of maximum effect, and this shifts the poles ninety degrees, as they are fixed solely by coils B. This action is repeated for each quarter of a complete revolution.
When more than one motor or other device is employed, they may be run either in parallel or series. In Fig. 23 the former arrangement is shown. The electrical device is shown as a converter, L, of which the two sets of primary coils p r are connected, respectively, to the mains F E, which are electrically connected with the two coils of the generator. The cross-circuit wires l m, making these connections, are then connected to the common return-wire D. The secondary coils p' p'' are in circuits n o, including, for example, incandescent lamps. Only one converter is shown entire in this figure, the others being illustrated diagrammatically.
When motors or converters are to be run in series, the two wires E F are led from the generator to the coils of the first motor or converter, then continued on to the next, and so on through the whole series, and are then joined to the single wire D, which completes both circuits through the generator. This is shown in Fig. 24, in which J I represent the two coils or sets of coils of the motors.
There are, of course, other conditions under which the same idea may be carried out. For example, in case the motor and generator each has three independent circuits, one terminal of each circuit is connected to a line-wire, and the other three terminals to a common return-conductor. This arrangement will secure similar results to those attained with a generator and motor having but two independent circuits, as above described.
When applied to such machines and motors as have three or more induced circuits with a common electrical joint, the three or more terminals of the generator would be simply connected to those of the motor. Mr. Tesla states, however, that the results obtained in this manner show a lower efficiency than do the forms dwelt upon more fully above.
Utilizing Familiar Types of Generator of the Continuous Current Type.
The preceding descriptions have assumed the use of alternating current generators in which, in order to produce the progressive movement of the magnetic poles, or of the resultant attraction of independent field magnets, the current generating coils are independent or separate. The ordinary forms of continuous current dynamos may, however, be employed for the same work, in accordance with a method of adaptation devised by Mr. Tesla. As will be seen, the modification involves but slight changes in their construction, and presents other elements of economy.
On the shaft of a given generator, either in place of or in addition to the regular commutator, are secured as many pairs of insulated collecting-rings as there are circuits to be operated. Now, it will be understood that in the operation of any dynamo electric generator the currents in the coils in their movement through the field of force undergo different phases—that is to say, at different positions of the coils the currents have certain directions and certain strengths—and that in the Tesla motors or transformers it is necessary that the currents in the energizing coils should undergo a certain order of variations in strength and direction. Hence, the further step—viz., the connection between the induced or generating coils of the machine and the contact-rings from which the currents are to be taken off—will be determined solely by what order of variations of strength and direction in the currents is desired for producing a given result in the electrical translating device. This may be accomplished in various ways; but in the drawings we give typical instances only of the best and most practicable ways of applying the invention to three of the leading types of machines in widespread use, in order to illustrate the principle.
Fig. 25 is a diagram illustrative of the mode of applying the invention to the well-known type of "closed" or continuous circuit machines. Fig. 26 is a similar diagram embodying an armature with separate coils connected diametrically, or what is generally called an "open-circuit" machine. Fig. 27 is a diagram showing the application of the invention to a machine the armature-coils of which have a common joint.