The Handbook of the Psychology of Communication Technology - S. Shyam Sundar - ebook

The Handbook of the Psychology of Communication Technology ebook

S. Shyam Sundar

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Opis

The Handbook of the Psychology of Communication Technology offers an unparalleled source for seminal and cutting-edge research on the psychological aspects of communicating with and via emergent media technologies, with leading scholars providing insights that advance our knowledge on human-technology interactions. * A uniquely focused review of extensive research on technology and digital media from a psychological perspective * Authoritative chapters by leading scholars studying psychological aspects of communication technologies * Covers all forms of media from Smartphones to Robotics, from Social Media to Virtual Reality * Explores the psychology behind our use and abuse of modern communication technologies * New theories and empirical findings about ways in which our lives are transformed by digital media

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CONTENTS

Cover

Series page

Title page

Copyright page

Dedication page

Biographical Notes

Preface

Acknowledgments

Part I: Theoretical Overviews

1 Interpersonal and Hyperpersonal Dimensions of Computer-Mediated Communication

The Social Information Processing Theory of CMC

Hyperpersonal CMC

Conclusion

References

2 Group Identity, Social Influence, and Collective Action Online

Introduction

Background, Roots, and Development of SIDE

References

3 Toward a Theory of Interactive Media Effects (TIME)

Introduction

Interactive Media Effects

Interactivity Effects Model

Agency Model

Motivational Technology Model

MAIN Model

Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgments

References

Part II: Source Orientation: Avatars, Agents and Androids

4 Examining Perception and Identification in Avatar-mediated Interaction

Responding to Avatars of Digital Others: Adapting to Online Information

Attributions of Humanity, Anthropomorphism, and Social Potential

Understanding the Use of the Visual Characteristics of Avatars in Perception

Selecting an Avatar to Represent the Self to Others in Online Interactions

Using Avatar Research to Understand Human Interactions

References

5 Effects of Visual Cues on Social Perceptions and Self-Categorization in Computer-Mediated Communication

Avatars and Social Stereotypes

Avatar Similarity and Self-Categorization: Personal versus Group Identity

Avatars as a Pseudo-Identity Cue: Contingent Conditions

Why Avatars Matter: Potential Explanations

Implications and Future Directions

Conclusion

References

6 Social Effects of Virtualand Robot Companions

Social Reactions Towards Artificial Entities: Media Equation and CASA Studies

Attempts to Explain Social Reactions Toward Artifacts or Computers

Testing of Explanations and Influencing Factors

Summary of Theoretical Implications

Conclusions for Implementation

Directions for Future Work

References

7 Telepresence and Apparent Agency in Human–Robot Interaction

Introduction

Theoretical Grounding

Empirical Grounding in Field Explorations

Experimental Explorations and Hypothesis Testing

Implications for Theory

Future Work

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

8 Psychological Aspects of Technology Interacting with Humans

Virtual Characters

Interactive PEFiC

I-PEFiC and Affective Decision Making

Silicon Coppélia

Realism? Epistemics of the Virtual

Ethics: Moral Reasoner

Affordances: Creative Machines

Caredroids: Humanoids Taking Care

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Part III: Technological Affordances and Social Interaction

9 Social Network Site Affordances and Their Relationship to Social Capital Processes

Overview of Social Media

Social Network Sites

Overview of Social Capital

Bridging the Gap: Social Capital and Social Network Site Research

Three Elements of SNSs and Their Role in Social Capital Processes

Social Grooming in Social Network Sites

Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

10 The Social Psychology of Mobile Communication

Introduction

Mobile Communication and Negotiating the Social Expectations of Others

Mobile Co-Presence and the Impact of Mobile Phones on the Field of Social Interaction

Facilitating Social Cohesion through Mobile Communication

Multitasking and the Social Psychological Consequences of Split Attention and Mobile-Mediated Social Facilitation

Problematic Mobile Phone Use: Exploring Mobile Phone Dependency and Risk-Taking

Methodological Challenges in the Social Psychological Study of Mobile Communication

Conclusion

References

11 Real or Ersatz? Determinants of Benefits and Costs of Online Social Interactions

Ersatz Social Engagement Theory

Online Social Interaction as an Ersatz Social Activity

Online Social Interaction on the Continuum of Real to Ersatz

Individual Factors in the Consequences of Online Social Interaction

The Perceived Reality of Online Social Interactions

Conclusion

References

12 Deception with Technology

Butlers, Sock Puppets, and the Chinese Water Army

The Cues Heuristic and Implications for Deception Online

The Transformation of the Interaction Space

The Warranted Self-Presentation Perspective

Love and Lies: Deception in Online Dating

On My Way: Butler Lies

Conclusion

References

13 Immersive Virtual Environments and the Classrooms of Tomorrow

Introduction

MOOCs

MOOVE Overview

IVE Hardware Systems

IVE Research Methods

Transformed Social Interaction

Social Learning Theory

Embodied Cognition Theory

Conclusion

References

Part IV: Adoption, Use and Abuse of Communication Technologies

14 The Psychology of the Diffusion and Acceptance of Technology

The Traditional Approach to the Study of Technology Adoption

The Contemporary Approach to the Study of Technology Acceptance

The Cognitive Perspective

The Future of Diffusion Research

References

15 Adolescent Development and Psychological Mechanisms in Interactive Media Use

Introduction

Features of New Media Technology that Intersect with Needs Fulfillment in Adolescence

References

16 The Psychology of Interactive Media Habits

Discovering Interactive Media Habits

Recent Research

Toward a Theory of Interactive Media Habits

Implications for Theories of Media Attendance

Future Directions for Interactive Media Habit Research

Conclusion

References

17 Online Addictions

Introduction

Online Gambling Addiction

Online Gaming Addiction

Online Social Networking Addiction

Discussion

References

Part V: Exposure, Experience and Evaluations of Digital Media

18 Selective Exposure in the Communication Technology Context

Selective Exposure as a Concept

Selective Exposure Research Paradigm

The Context of Communication Technologies

Theoretical Tenets and Empirical Evidence

Consequences of Selective Exposure in the Context of New Communication Technologies

The Future of Selective Exposure Research in the Communication Technology Context

References

19 Affording Control

Customization

Interactivity

Navigability

Directions for Future Research

References

20 Psychological Approaches to Credibility Assessment Online

Defining Credibility

Challenges to Credibility in the Contemporary Media Environment

Information Processing and Credibility Evaluation

Individual Differences in Credibility Assessment

Social Interaction and Information Assessment

Research Directions and Conclusions

References

Part VI: Good Technology for Better Health

21 Trust and Engagement in Online Health

Introduction

The Role of the Internet in Health Information and Advice

Trust in e-Health

A Timeline-Based Approach to Understanding Health Consumers’ Use of the Internet

Discussion and Practical Implications

Directions for Future Work

Acknowledgments

References

22 Computer-Mediated Support for Health Outcomes: Psychological Influences on Support Processes

Prevalence and Growth of Computer-Mediated Support

Motivations for Participating in Computer-Mediated Support Groups

Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer-Mediated Support

Key Variables That Influence Participation in Computer-Mediated Support

Prominent Theoretical Frameworks in Computer-Mediated Support Research

Health Outcomes Related to Computer-Mediated Social Support

Prominent Methods Used in Computer-Mediated Support Research

Limitations of Computer-Mediated Support Scholarship and Future Theoretical/Applied Directions for Research

Conclusion

References

23 Using Digital Games to Promote Health Behavior Change

Defining Digital Games

Motivation to Engage in Digital Games

Learning with Digital Games

Behavior Change with Digital Games

Conclusion

Acknowledgment

References

24 Leveraging Psychology of Virtual Body for Health and Wellness

Introduction

Our Body Is Virtual

Action and Space

Virtual Reality as Embodied and Positive Technology

The Different Roles of Spatial Reference Frames in the Process of Change

Positive Technologies in Eating Disorders

Conclusions

References

25 Treating Emotional Problems with Virtual and Augmented Reality

Introduction

Open-Out: A Treatment for Claustrophobia

Virtual-Flight: A Treatment for Flight Phobia

Going-Out: A Treatment for Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia

The EMMA’s World: An Adaptive VR System for Stress-Related Disorders

Limitations of VR

Augmented Reality and the Treatment of Specific Phobias

Conclusions

Acknowledgments

References

Index

End User License Agreement

List of Tables

Chapter 03

Table 3.1 Propositions of the theory of interactive media effects (TIME)

Chapter 08

Table 8.1 Agent A (e.g., robot) judges Agent B (e.g., user), resulting in valences that precede action tendencies

Chapter 21

Table 21.1 Health websites and range of features including patient experiences

Table 21.2 Example of methodology from HRT study in phase 1

Table 21.3 Example of methodology from asthma study in phase 2

Chapter 24

Table 24.1 The symbiotic rescripting protocol

List of Illustrations

Chapter 03

Figure 3.1 TIME model.

Figure 3.2 Updated model of interactivity effects.

Figure 3.3 Agency Model of Customization.

Figure 3.4 Theoretical model of motivational technology to promote preventive health behaviors.

Figure 3.5 The MAIN model.

Chapter 07

Figure 7.1 A Texai Alpha (foreground) in use at an all-company weekly meeting.

Figure 7.2 Texai operators being given personal space in a group meeting.

Figure 7.3 Time to complete obstacle course (in seconds) for people with an internal locus of control versus people with an external locus of control and with obstacle avoiding assistance versus no assistance (mean and standard errors).

Figure 7.4 Several of the main effects of verbally framing (independent vs. interdependent performance measurement) and of visually framing (not decorated by local vs. decorated by local) (means and standard errors). (a) More disclosure when performance framed as interdependent. (b) Less animal-like emotions ascribed to partner when performance framed as interdependent. (c) Less desire for extra interaction when Texai was decorated.

Chapter 08

Figure 8.1 Perceiving and Experiencing Fictional Characters (PEFiC). Dashed arrows indicate percentages of information spillover to the other polarity.

Figure 8.2 Interactive PEFiC (I-PEFiC) has an engagement (white) and an interaction side (black). Curved arrows indicate interaction effects.

Figure 8.3 Dependencies in I-PEFiC

ADM

.

IDT

involvement-distance trade-off,

ES

expected satisfaction,

UI

use intentions.

Figure 8.4 Silicon Coppélia.

Figure 8.5 The creative process.

Figure 8.6 Suggested by computer: CobraSpoon is a cocktail spoon turned into a snake. The actual object was made by a goldsmith.

Chapter 13

Figure 13.1 A user in an IVE pretends to fly using tracking and rendering equipment. Hands are tracked by active infrared sensors (1). Nonverbal behavior is collected by a passive infrared Microsoft Kinect device (2). Head movements are tracked by an accelerometer (3). The virtual scene is rendered from all of the tracking data and shown to the user in 3D with a head-mounted display (4).

Chapter 14

Figure 14.1 A Cognitive map of early adopters’ technology preferences based on the relational model of adopter choice (Vishwanath & Chen, 2011).

Figure 14.2 A research model combining diffusion and MIS perspectives.

Figure 14.3 A two-dimensional cognitive map of the barriers to the adoption of EMRs among physicians.

Chapter 15

Figure 15.1 Schematic representation of a theoretical model representing the CPM-A-MPC.

Chapter 20

Figure 20.1 Schematic representation of potential factors relevant to credibility evaluation of online information.

Chapter 21

Figure 21.1 Staged model of trust.

Figure 21.2 Overview of current research programme including staged model of trust development and the key moderators of interest.

Chapter 24

Figure 24.1 Reference frames and their cognitive representation.

Figure 24.2 The effects of the intuitive use of an artifact on our spatial experience.

Chapter 25

Figure 25.1 “EMMA’s room” and its elements.

Figure 25.2 EMMA’s environments.

Figure 25.3 The reality-virtuality-continuum.

Figure 25.4 AR system for the treatment of acrophobia.

Figure 25.5 AR system for the treatment of small animal phobia.

Guide

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Table of Contents

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Handbooks in Communication and Media

This series aims to provide theoretically ambitious but accessible volumes devoted to the major fields and subfields within communication and media studies. Each volume sets out to ground and orientate the student through a broad range of specially commissioned chapters, while also providing the more experienced scholar and teacher with a convenient and comprehensive overview of the latest trends and critical directions.

The Handbook of Children, Media, and Development, edited by Sandra L. Calvert and Barbara J. Wilson

The Handbook of Crisis Communication, edited by W. Timothy Coombs and Sherry J. Holladay

The Handbook of Internet Studies, edited by Mia Consalvo and Charles Ess

The Handbook of Rhetoric and Public Address, edited by Shawn J. Parry-Giles and J. Michael Hogan

The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication, edited by Thomas K. Nakayama and Rona Tamiko Halualani

The Handbook of Global Communication and Media Ethics, edited by Robert S. Fortner and P. Mark Fackler

The Handbook of Communication and Corporate Social Responsibility, edited by Øyvind Ihlen, Jennifer Bartlett and Steve May

The Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Media, edited by Karen Ross

The Handbook of Global Health Communication, edited by Rafael Obregon and Silvio Waisbord

The Handbook of Global Media Research, edited by Ingrid Volkmer

The Handbook of Global Online Journalism, edited by Eugenia Siapera and Andreas Veglis

The Handbook of Communication and Corporate Reputation, edited by Craig E. Carroll

The Handbook of Media and Mass Communication Theory, edited by Robert S. Fortner and P. Mark Fackler

The Handbook of International Advertising Research, edited by Hong Cheng

The Handbook of the Psychology of Communication Technology, edited by S. Shyam Sundar

The Handbook of the Psychology of Communication Technology

Edited by

S. Shyam Sundar

This edition first published 2015© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

Registered OfficeJohn Wiley & Sons, Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

The handbook of the psychology of communication technology / edited by S. Shyam Sundar.  pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index.

 ISBN 978-1-118-41336-4 (cloth)1. Communication and technology–Psychological aspects. 2. Information technology–Psychological aspects. 3. Communication–Psychological aspects. I. Sundar, S. Shyam. P96.T42H366 2015 303.48′33–dc23   2014026814

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Cover image: © Peshkova / Shutterstock

Dedicated to Cliff Nass (1955–2013), teacher, advisor, mentor, friend, and a pioneering force in the study of psychology of communication technology

Photo Credit Source: Linda A. Cicero / Stanford News Service

Biographical Notes

Cristina Botella is Full Professor of Clinical Psychology at Universitat Jaume I, Spain. Her main research line is the design and testing of clinical applications based on information and communication technologies for the treatment of emotional disorders. She has published over 100 papers and participated in various research projects granted by national as well as European funds.

Jeremy N. Bailenson is Founding Director of VHIL and an Associate Professor in the Department of Communication at Stanford. His main area of interest is the phenomenon of digital human representation. His findings have been published in over 70 academic papers in the fields of communication, computer science, education, and psychology.

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