Service-Learning Essentials - Barbara Jacoby - ebook

Service-Learning Essentials ebook

Barbara Jacoby

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Service-Learning Essentials is the resource youneed to help you develop high-quality service-learning experiencesfor college students. Written by one of the field's leading expertsand sponsored by Campus Compact, the book is the definitive work onthis high-impact educational practice. Service-learning has beenidentified by the Association of American Colleges and Universitiesas having been widely tested and shown to be beneficial to collegestudents from a wide variety of backgrounds. Organized in an accessible question-and-answer format, the bookresponds clearly and completely to the most common questions andconcerns about service-learning. Each chapter addresses issuesrelated to individual practice as well as to the collective work ofstarting and developing a service-learning center or program, withexamples drawn from a variety of disciplines, situations, andinstitutional types. The questions range from basic to advanced andthe answers cover both the fundamentals and complexities ofservice-learning. Topics include: * Determining what service-learning opportunities institutionsshould offer * How to engage students in critical reflection in academiccourses and in cocurricular experiences * Best practices for developing and sustaining mutuallybeneficial campus-community partnerships * Integrating service-learning into the curriculum in alldisciplines and at all levels, as well as various areas of studentlife outside the classroom * Assessing service-learning programs and outcomes * The dilemmas of service-learning in the context of power andprivilege * The future of service-learning in online and rapidlyglobalizing environments Service-learning has virtually limitless potential to enablecolleges and universities to meet their goals for student learningwhile making unique contributions to addressing unmet local,national, and global needs. However, in order to realize thesebenefits, service-learning must be thoughtfully designed andcarefully implemented. This easy-to-use volume contains everythingfaculty, leaders, and staff members need to know aboutservice-learning to enhance communities, improve higher educationinstitutions, and educate the next generation of citizens,scholars, and leaders.

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Liczba stron: 617




CONTENTS

Cover

Series page

Title page

Figures and Exhibits

Dedication

Foreword

References

Preface

Audiences

Overview of the Contents

Acknowledgments

About the Author

About Campus Compact

Chapter 1: Introduction to Service-Learning

1.1 What is service-learning?

Sources of additional information

1.2 What are the theoretical foundations of service-learning?

Sources of additional information

1.3 What else can we call service-learning if that term does not work for us?

1.4 What are the benefits of service-learning?

Sources of additional information

1.5 What is the history of service-learning?

Sources of additional information

1.6 How widespread is service-learning?

Sources of additional information

1.7 What should an institution offer in the way of service-learning?

Sources of additional information

1.8 How does service-learning vary by institutional type?

Conclusion

Chapter 2: Understanding and Facilitating Critical Reflection

2.1 What is critical reflection?

Sources of additional information

2.2 What are the forms of reflection?

Sources of additional information

2.3 What are the steps in designing and implementing critical reflection?

2.4 How can critical reflection empower students to move beyond direct service to other forms of civic and political engagement?

Sources of additional information

2.5 How can I make reflection work in

my

discipline?

2.6 How does reflection work in cocurricular service-learning, especially one-time or short-term experiences?

Conclusion

Chapter 3: Developing and Sustaining Campus-Community Partnerships for Service-Learning

3.1 What are the definition and basic principles of campus-community partnerships for service-learning?

Sources of additional information

3.2 What are the different types of service-learning partnerships?

3.3 What are the steps to developing a service-learning partnership?

Sources of additional information

3.4 What are the logistical issues involved in service-learning partnerships?

3.5 What are the best practices for developing and sustaining partnerships?

Sources of additional information

3.6 What infrastructure should an institution have in place for developing and sustaining campus-community partnerships?

Source of additional information

3.7 Should campus-community partnerships include corporate partners? How?

Sources of additional information

3.8 What are the key issues for international partnerships for service-learning?

Sources of additional information

3.9 How can small-scale partnerships for service-learning lead to broader and deeper institutional engagement?

Sources of additional information

Conclusion

Chapter 4: Integrating Service-Learning into the Curriculum

4.1 When is service-learning the right pedagogy for a course?

Source of additional information

4.2 How does service-learning work in

my

discipline?

Sources of additional information

4.3 Is service-learning academically rigorous?

4.4 What are the different models for integrating service-learning into the curriculum?

Sources of additional information

4.5 How do I start developing a service-learning course?

Sources of additional information

4.6 How should I assess and grade service-learning?

Sources of additional information

4.7 What are the unique elements of a service-learning syllabus?

Source of additional information

4.8 What are the logistical issues involved in teaching a service-learning course?

4.9 How does service-learning work in an online or blended course?

Sources of additional information

4.10 Should service-learning courses be formally designated?

4.11 What does it take to motivate and support faculty to practice service-learning?

4.12 How can service-learning be valued in the faculty review, promotion, and tenure process?

Sources of additional information

4.13 How can service-learning lead to the broad and deep engagement of an entire academic department?

Sources of additional information

Conclusion

Chapter 5: Designing and Implementing Cocurricular Service-Learning

5.1 What is cocurricular service-learning?

5.2 What is the relationship between service-learning and student development?

Sources of additional information

5.3 What are the different forms of cocurricular service-learning?

Sources of additional information

5.4 How can service-learning be incorporated into the various areas of student life?

5.5 What is the relationship between service-learning and leadership education?

Sources of additional information

5.6 What are the steps in developing cocurricular service-learning experiences?

Source of additional information

5.7 How can assessment of student learning be done in cocurricular service-learning?

5.8 How can service-learning educators support student-initiated and -led service-learning?

Sources of additional information

Conclusion

Chapter 6: Assessment of Service-Learning

6.1 What does service-learning assessment entail?

Source of additional information

6.2 What are the possible methods for assessing service-learning?

Sources of additional information

6.3 What issues should we consider in choosing assessment methods?

6.4 What should assessment of service-learning student participants comprise?

Sources of additional information

6.5 How should service-learning be assessed from the community perspective?

Sources of additional information

6.6 How should service-learning

partnerships

be assessed?

Sources of additional information

6.7 What should faculty assessment consist of in regard to service-learning?

Source of additional information

6.8 What assessment should be done at the institutional level?

Sources of additional information

6.9 What are the challenges of service-learning assessment? How can we address them?

Sources of additional information

Conclusion

Chapter 7: Administration of Service-Learning

7.1 How do we start with service-learning?

Sources of additional information

7.2 What are the components of a center for service-learning?

7.3 What staffing is required for a service-learning center?

7.4 Where should service-learning be organizationally located?

7.5 Besides a service-learning center, what other elements of institutional infrastructure are necessary to support service-learning?

7.6 How should the service-learning center be funded?

Sources of additional information

7.7 How can we demonstrate the value of service-learning?

Sources of additional information

7.8 What are the logistical considerations that service-learning requires?

Source of additional information

7.9 What liability and risk-management issues do we need to address?

Sources of additional information

7.10 What administrative issues are involved in international service-learning?

Sources of additional information

7.11 How should we recognize outstanding work in service-learning?

Conclusion

Chapter 8: Facing the Complexities and Dilemmas of Service-Learning

8.1 How can service-learning be accessible and appropriate for all students?

Source of additional information

8.2 Should service-learning be required for graduation?

8.3 How should we deal with resistant students?

Source of additional information

8.4 How can participation in service-learning enhance students' understanding and appreciation of differences in race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status? Of power and privilege? Of systemic oppression?

Sources of additional information

8.5 What is critical service-learning? Why does it matter?

Sources of additional information

8.6 What is the relationship of service-learning to politics?

Sources of additional information

8.7 Should service-learning be institutionalized?

Sources of additional information

8.8 Can campus-community partnerships really be reciprocal relationships among equals?

Sources of additional information

8.9 Should the focus of service-learning be local or global?

Sources of additional information

Conclusion

Chapter 9: Securing the Future of Service-Learning in Higher Education

9.1 What assessment and research are needed to validate service-learning as a pedagogy and practice?

Sources of additional information

9.2 How can institutionalizing service-learning secure its future?

9.3 What can we do to more fully recognize service-learning, community-based research, and engaged scholarship in the faculty reward system?

Sources of additional information

9.4 What can we learn from international models of service-learning?

Sources of additional information

9.5 What are the service-learning partnerships of the future?

Sources of additional information

9.6 How can we help students develop a global perspective through local service-learning?

Source of additional information

9.7 What is the role of service-learning in responding to domestic and international humanitarian crises?

Sources of additional information

9.8 What is the future of service-learning in the online environment?

Sources of additional information

9.9 How can service-learning strengthen higher education's engagement in K–12 schools?

Sources of additional information

9.10 What is the relationship of the future of service-learning to social entrepreneurship?

Sources of additional information

Conclusion

References

Index

End User License Agreement

List of Illustrations

Chapter 01

Figure 1.1. Distinctions Among Service Programs

Chapter 03

Figure 3.1. Models of Infrastructure for Service-Learning and Engagement

Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

Begin Reading

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The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series

SERVICE-LEARNING ESSENTIALS

Questions, Answers, and Lessons Learned

 

BARBARA JACOBY

FOREWORD BY JEFFREY HOWARD

Cover design by Lauren TomCover image : © iStockphoto | vaniasCopyright © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Published by Jossey-BassA Wiley BrandOne Montgomery Street, Suite 1200, San Francisco, CA 94104-4594 www.josseybass.com/highereducation

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the Web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at www.wiley.com/go/permissions.

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages. Readers should be aware that Internet Web sites offered as citations and/or sources for further information may have changed or disappeared between the time this was written and when it is read.

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Wiley publishes in a variety of print and electronic formats and by print-on-demand. Some material included with standard print versions of this book may not be included in e-books or in print-on-demand. If this book refers to media such as a CD or DVD that is not included in the version you purchased, you may download this material at http://booksupport.wiley.com. For more information about Wiley products, visit www.wiley.com.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been applied for and is on file with the Library of Congress.

ISBN 978-1-118-62794-5 (pbk) ISBN 978-1-118-94401-1 (ebk) ISBN 978-1-118-94402-8(ebk)

Figures and Exhibits

Figure 1.1

Distinctions Among Service Programs

Exhibit 1.1

Principles of Good Practice in Combining Service and Learning

Exhibit 2.1

Considerations for Designing Your Reflection Strategy

Exhibit 2.2

Sample Reflection Questions

Exhibit 2.3

Tips for Facilitating Reflection

Exhibit 2.4

General Criteria for Assessing Service-Learning Reflection

Exhibit 2.5

Example of Criteria for Assessment of Course-Based Critical Reflection

Exhibit 2.6

What? So What? Now What? Reflection Model

Exhibit 3.1

Campus Compact Benchmarks for Campus/Community Partnerships

Exhibit 3.2

Community-Campus Partnerships for Health Guiding Principles of Partnership

Figure 3.1

Models of Infrastructure for Service-Learning and Engagement

Exhibit 3.3

Transactional and Transformative Relationships

Exhibit 4.1

Principles of Good Practice for Service-Learning Pedagogy

Exhibit 4.2

Community-Based Research and Service-Learning

Exhibit 6.1

Service-Learning Partnership Cost-Benefit Assessment for Community Organizations

Exhibit 6.2

Summary of Self-Assessment Rubric for the Institutionalization of Service-Learning

Exhibit 6.3

Levels of Commitment to Service, Characterized by Key Organizational Factors Evidencing Relevance to Institutional Mission

Exhibit 9.1

Research Agenda for Combining Service and Learning in the 1990s

To Steve and Emily, with so much love

Foreword

I met Barbara Jacoby for the first time while attending a National Society for Experiential Education conference in Snowbird, Utah, in the early 1990s. We were co-sojourners when a handful of conference attendees joined Irene Fisher to visit the University of Utah's Lowell Bennion Center for Community Service, where Irene was the director. Unexpectedly, the weather turned bad about the time we began our journey. The drive up the mountain was dicey. I recall the anxiety in the van driver's voice while trying to reassure us that all was well. We made it up the mountain slowly, surely, at a steady pace, until we arrived safely at our destination.

This drive with Barbara and the other service-learning educators reflects my view of the progress of the service-learning and community engagement movement. Since that day back in the early 1990s (and predating it, too), our work has progressed slowly, surely, and at a steady pace. I see many positive signs that our work is flourishing: new service-learning and community engagement centers established on many campuses, thriving existing centers, a host of new journals, robust dialogue about our work and its future, and conferences every month dedicated to this work.

I credit Barbara for a significant role in our steadfast progress. In particular, she was the founding director of service-learning at the University of Maryland. Three of her prior books with Jossey-Bass—Service-Learning in Higher Education: Concepts and Practices (1996), Building Partnerships for Service-Learning (2003), and Civic Engagement in Higher Education: Concepts and Practices (2009)—are staples in the service-learning literature. This new book by Barbara, Service-Learning Essentials: Questions, Answers, and Lessons Learned, promises to continue her trajectory as one of the most influential voices in higher education service-learning. The mountain climb behind us and the climb ahead of us have been significantly advanced by Barbara's past, current, and no doubt future work.

If Barbara had written Service-Learning Essentials: Questions, Answers, and Lessons Learned twenty years ago, or even ten years ago, it would have been a much thinner and less robust publication. While this is a reflection (I had to get that word in!) of the enormous strides we have made in research and practice, questions, lessons to be learned, and dilemmas remain. What role can service-learning and campus-community partnerships assume in solving our seemingly intractable (and perhaps growing) social ills? How do we best ensure democratic education outcomes for students involved in service-learning? How do faculty committed to this work strengthen their case for promotion and tenure? This book covers all these matters.

Those new to service-learning will find the fundamentals addressed, including clarification of the conceptualization of service-learning, assessing student learning in service-learning courses, building sustainable campus-community partnerships, and the various ways to engage students in critical reflection. Those who have dabbled in service-learning will find useful information on such complexities of service-learning as how to assess community partnerships and enhance students' understanding and appreciation of “isms,” power and privilege, systemic oppression, and other issues that necessarily arise when college students enter disenfranchised communities. Seasoned service-learning educators will find the book replete with important information and resources related to such matters as the relationship of service-learning to politics, institutionalizing service-learning, the future of service-learning in the online environment, and the relationship between service-learning and social entrepreneurship.

In all the chapters, Barbara takes a measured and balanced approach. She does not promulgate, but rather walks us through each issue from multiple perspectives. While most of the chapters will appeal to faculty and those responsible for building faculty capacity to teach with service-learning, the chapters on the “Administration of Service-Learning” and “Designing and Implementing Cocurricular Service-Learning” in particular will appeal to higher education administrators and staff.

Ironically, this book comes at a time when our work, according to some, has stalled (see Hartman, 2013; Kliewer, 2013; Saltmarsh, Hartley, & Clayton, 2009). I agree that we have reached a threshold, or, to continue the metaphor, a challenging mountain slope, in the growth and promise of service-learning and the civic engagement movements that seems to be difficult to get over. When one reaches a threshold, good problem-solving models suggest returning to the beginning, to the origin, to fundamentals. And this is precisely what this book does. It covers the fundamentals and draws on the latest research and practice in the field to deepen our understanding of this rich and challenging work.

Each of us sees the promise of service-learning somewhat differently. Some see it as a chance to reinvigorate or transform teaching in colleges and universities. Some see it as a way to enhance students' academic learning. Some see it as a contribution to addressing social ills. Some see it instilling a sense of social responsibility in our students. Some see it ensuring the health of our democracy. Some see it as enabling the appreciation of diversity. When done well, as Barbara depicts in this book, service-learning can accomplish all of these purposes.

Why Barbara? Because, simply put, she is one of the icons in the service-learning movement. She has been and continues to be in a stellar position to see the need for this book and has the knowledge to write it. Given her longevity in the field, past publications, and myriad speaking engagements and campus consultations, Barbara has had a panoramic and on-the-ground view of our work. She is among an elite group of service-learning and community-engagement educators who have played an outsized role in the progress we have made to make campuses “safe for service-learning.” I think of Barbara as the key individual who has brought service-learning to the masses.

Why is this book important? Many books and articles have addressed the various issues taken up in this book. But this book addresses all the issues one can think of related to service-learning and campus-community partnerships in one place—a one-stop resource. And it does so in a most readable format with clear chapter headings, important questions posed, balanced comprehensive answers provided, and resources for further study identified.

Who will benefit from this book? I see this book as a bestseller for several reasons. First, there is no other comprehensive resource like it. Second, it has so many potential audiences—from practitioners to researchers to faculty development specialists to graduate students. Third, I can imagine service-learning centers sharing this book with educators across campus as well as community partners to assure compatible understandings of this teaching-learning method. And finally, if all the service-learning stakeholders—faculty, students, community partners—would read and use this book, the quality of service-learning's outcomes would be magnified.

How will I benefit from this book? In the past, when faculty have asked me for a foundational yet comprehensive “text” about service-learning, I have been at a loss to provide one. Now I'll have one. I anticipate buying copies to use in my faculty development work.

What is the ultimate significance of the book? I see this book as the definitive word on service-learning and community engagement: what it is, its aims, how to do it well, and all the issues accompanying an enterprise involving students, faculty, community members, community partners, and higher education institutions. When the annals of service-learning are written, Barbara Jacoby and this book will have a very prominent place.

References

Hartman, E. (2013). No values, no democracy: The essential partisanship of a civic engagement movement.

Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning

,

19

(2), 58–71.

Kliewer, B. (2013). Why the civic engagement movement cannot achieve democratic and justice aims.

Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning

,

19

(2), 72–79.

Saltmarsh, J., Hartley, M., & Clayton, P. (2009). Democratic engagement white paper. New England Resource Center for Higher Education, Paper 45.

http://scholarworks.umb.edu/nerche_pubs/45

.

Jeffrey Howard

Director of Faculty DevelopmentSteans Center, DePaul UniversityEditor, Michigan Journal of Community Service LearningSeptember 2014

Preface

It was a beautiful morning on a rolling green campus of a regional Midwestern university. As faculty members arrived for the 9:00 a.m. workshop on service-learning course design, I asked them, as I always do, to jot down on Post-it Notes their reasons for coming to the workshop and their most important questions about service-learning. I looked over the questions while members of the university's technology services staff set up the podium and projector. I was not surprised to see familiar questions such as: “How is service-learning different from internships?” “Could it work in my discipline?” and “How do I get started?” Those who have some experience with service-learning wondered, “How can I develop sustained community partnerships?” “How can I increase academic rigor?” and “Can service-learning be taught online?”

At lunch, I met with institutional leaders who asked me questions about what it would take to “grow” service-learning across disciplines. They were concerned about student recruitment and retention and wondered whether there is evidence that service-learning can make a difference in these areas. If we go “full speed ahead” with service-learning as an institutional priority, they asked, how will we know “if we move the needle”?

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!