Pulse-Width Modulated DC-DC Power Converters - Marian K. Kazimierczuk - ebook

Pulse-Width Modulated DC-DC Power Converters ebook

Marian K. Kazimierczuk

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PWM DC-DC power converter technology underpins many energy conversion systems including renewable energy circuits, active power factor correctors, battery chargers, portable devices and LED drivers. Following the success of Pulse-Width Modulated DC-DC Power Converters this second edition has been thoroughly revised and expanded to cover the latest challenges and advances in the field. Key features of 2nd edition: * Four new chapters, detailing the latest advances in power conversion, focus on: small-signal model and dynamic characteristics of the buck converter in continuous conduction mode; voltage-mode control of buck converter; small-signal model and characteristics of the boost converter in the discontinuous conduction mode and electromagnetic compatibility EMC. * Provides readers with a solid understanding of the principles of operation, synthesis, analysis and design of PWM power converters and semiconductor power devices, including wide band-gap power devices (SiC and GaN). * Fully revised Solutions for all end-of-chapter problems available to instructors via the book companion website. * Step-by-step derivation of closed-form design equations with illustrations. * Fully revised figures based on real data. With improved end-of-chapter summaries of key concepts, review questions, problems and answers, biographies and case studies, this is an essential textbook for graduate and senior undergraduate students in electrical engineering. Its superior readability and clarity of explanations also makes it a key reference for practicing engineers and research scientists.

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Pulse-Width Modulated DC–DC Power Converters

Second Edition

MARIAN K. KAZIMIERCZUK

Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio, USA

This edition first published 2016 © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Registered officeJohn Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, United Kingdom

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The right of the author to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.

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Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. It is sold on the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering professional services and neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. If professional advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be sought

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Kazimierczuk, Marian K.  Pulse-width modulated DC–DC power converters / Marian K. Kazimierczuk. – Second edition.    pages cm  Includes bibliographical references and index.  ISBN 978-1-119-00954-2 (cloth)  1. DC-to-DC converters. 2. Pulse circuits. 3. PWM power converters. I. Title.  TK7872.C8K387 2015  621.381′044–dc23

2015018212

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ISBN: 9781119009542

To my wife Alicja

CONTENTS

About the Author

Preface

Nomenclature

1: Introduction

1.1 Classification of Power Supplies

1.2 Basic Functions of Voltage Regulators

1.3 Power Relationships in DC–DC Converters

1.4 DC Transfer Functions of DC–DC Converters

1.5 Static Characteristics of DC Voltage Regulators

1.6 Dynamic Characteristics of DC Voltage Regulators

1.7 Linear Voltage Regulators

1.8 Topologies of PWM DC–DC Converters

1.9 Relationships Among Current, Voltage, Energy, and Power

1.10 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

2: Buck PWM DC–DC Converter

2.1 Introduction

2.2 DC Analysis of PWM Buck Converter for CCM

2.3 DC Analysis of PWM Buck Converter for DCM

2.4 Buck Converter with Input Filter

2.5 Buck Converter with Synchronous Rectifier

2.6 Buck Converter with Positive Common Rail

2.7 Quadratic Buck Converter

2.8 Tapped-Inductor Buck Converters

2.9 Multiphase Buck Converter

2.10 Switched-Inductor Buck Converter

2.11 Layout

2.12 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

3: Boost PWM DC–DC Converter

3.1 Introduction

3.2 DC Analysis of PWM Boost Converter for CCM

3.3 DC Analysis of PWM Boost Converter for DCM

3.4 Bidirectional Buck and Boost Converters

3.5 Synchronous Boost Converter

3.6 Tapped-Inductor Boost Converters

3.7 Duality

3.8 Power Factor Correction

3.9 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

4: Buck–Boost PWM DC–DC Converter

4.1 Introduction

4.2 DC Analysis of PWM Buck–Boost Converter for CCM

4.3 DC Analysis of PWM Buck–Boost Converter for DCM

4.4 Bidirectional Buck–Boost Converter

4.5 Synthesis of Buck–Boost Converter

4.6 Synthesis of Boost–Buck (Ćuk) Converter

4.7 Noninverting Buck–Boost Converters

4.8 Tapped-Inductor Buck–Boost Converters

4.9 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

5: Flyback PWM DC–DC Converter

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Transformers

5.3 DC Analysis of PWM Flyback Converter for CCM

5.4 DC Analysis of PWM Flyback Converter for DCM

5.5 Multiple-Output Flyback Converter

5.6 Bidirectional Flyback Converter

5.7 Ringing in Flyback Converter

5.8 Flyback Converter with Passive Dissipative Snubber

5.9 Flyback Converter with Zener Diode Voltage Clamp

5.10 Flyback Converter with Active Clamping

5.11 Two-Transistor Flyback Converter

5.12 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

6: Forward PWM DC–DC Converter

6.1 Introduction

6.2 DC Analysis of PWM Forward Converter for CCM

6.3 DC Analysis of PWM Forward Converter for DCM

6.4 Multiple-Output Forward Converter

6.5 Forward Converter with Synchronous Rectifier

6.6 Forward Converters with Active Clamping

6.7 Two-Switch Forward Converter

6.8 Forward–Flyback Converter

6.9 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

7: Half-Bridge PWM DC–DC Converter

7.1 Introduction

7.2 DC Analysis of PWM Half-Bridge Converter for CCM

7.3 DC Analysis of PWM Half-Bridge Converter for DCM

7.4 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

8: Full-Bridge PWM DC–DC Converter

8.1 Introduction

8.2 DC Analysis of PWM Full-Bridge Converter for CCM

8.3 DC Analysis of PWM Full-Bridge Converter for DCM

8.4 Phase-Controlled Full-Bridge Converter

8.5 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

9: Small-Signal Models of PWM Converters for CCM and DCM

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Assumptions

9.3 Averaged Model of Ideal Switching Network for CCM

9.4 Averaged Values of Switched Resistances

9.5 Model Reduction

9.6 Large-Signal Averaged Model for CCM

9.7 DC and Small-Signal Circuit Linear Models of Switching Network for CCM

9.8 Block Diagram of Small-signal Model of PWM DC–DC Converters

9.9 Family of PWM Converter Models for CCM

9.10 PWM Small-Signal Switch Model for CCM

9.11 Modeling of Ideal Switching Network for DCM

9.12 Averaged Parasitic Resistances for DCM

9.13 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

10: Small-Signal Characteristics of Buck Converter for CCM

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Small-Signal Model of the PWM Buck Converter

10.3 Open-Loop Transfer Functions

10.4 Open-Loop Step Responses

10.5 Open-Loop DC Transfer Functions

10.6 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

11: Small-Signal Characteristics of Boost Converter for CCM

11.1 Introduction

11.2 DC Characteristics

11.3 Open-Loop Control-to-Output Transfer Function

11.4 Delay in Open-Loop Control-to-Output Transfer Function

11.5 Open-Loop Audio Susceptibility

11.6 Open-Loop Input Impedance

11.7 Open-Loop Output Impedance

11.8 Open-Loop Step Responses

11.9 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

12: Voltage-Mode Control of PWM Buck Converter

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Properties of Negative Feedback

12.3 Stability

12.4 Single-Loop Control of PWM Buck Converter

12.5 Closed-Loop Small-Signal Model of Buck Converter

12.6 Pulse-Width Modulator

12.7 Feedback Network

12.8 Transfer Function of Buck Converter with Modulator and Feedback Network

12.9 Control Circuits

12.10 Closed-Loop Step Responses

12.11 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

13: Voltage-Mode Control of Boost Converter

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Circuit of Boost Converter with Voltage-Mode Control

13.3 Transfer Function of Modulator, Boost Converter Power Stage, and Feedback Network

13.4 Integral-Double-Lead Controller

13.5 Design of Integral-Double-Lead Controller

13.6 Loop Gain

13.7 Closed-Loop Control-to-Output Voltage Transfer Function

13.8 Closed-Loop Audio Susceptibility

13.9 Closed-Loop Input Impedance

13.10 Closed-Loop Output Impedance

13.11 Closed-Loop Step Responses

13.12 Closed-Loop DC Transfer Functions

13.13 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

14: Current-Mode Control

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Principle of Operation of PWM Converters with Peak CMC

14.3 Relationship Between Duty Cycle and Inductor-Current Slopes

14.4 Instability of Closed-Current Loop

14.5 Slope Compensation

14.6 Sample-and-Hold Effect on Current Loop

14.7 Closed-Loop Control Voltage-to-Inductor Current Transfer Function in

s

-Domain

14.8 Loop Gain of Current Loop

14.9 Gain-Crossover Frequency of Inner Loop

14.10 Phase Margin of Inner Loop

14.11 Maximum Duty Cycle for Converters Without Slope Compensation

14.12 Maximum Duty Cycle for Converters with Slope Compensation

14.13 Minimum Slope Compensation for Buck and Buck–Boost Converter

14.14 Minimum Slope Compensation for Boost Converter

14.15 Error Voltage-to-Duty Cycle Transfer Function

14.16 Closed-Loop Control Voltage-to-Duty Cycle Transfer Function of Current Loop

14.17 Alternative Representation of Current Loop

14.18 Current Loop with Disturbances

14.19 Voltage Loop of PWM Converters with Current-Mode Control

14.20 Feedforward Gains in PWM Converters with Current-Mode Control without Slope Compensation

14.21 Feedforward Gains in PWM Converters with Current-Mode Control and Slope Compensation

14.22 Control-to-Output Voltage Transfer Function of Inner Loop with Feedforward Gains

14.23 Audio-Susceptibility of Inner Loop with Feedforward Gains

14.24 Closed-Loop Transfer Functions with Feedforward Gains

14.25 Slope Compensation by Adding a Ramp to Inductor Current Waveform

14.26 Relationships for Constant-Frequency Current-Mode On-Time Control

14.27 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

14.28 Appendix: Sample-and-Hold Modeling

15: Current-Mode Control of Boost Converter

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Open-Loop Small-Signal Transfer Functions

15.3 Open-Loop Step Responses of Inductor Current

15.4 Closed-Current-Loop Transfer Functions

15.5 Closed-Voltage-Loop Transfer Functions

15.6 Closed-Loop Step Responses

15.7 Closed-Loop DC Transfer Functions

15.8 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

16: Open-Loop Small-Signal Characteristics of PWM Boost Converter for DCM

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Small-Signal Model of Boost Converter for DCM

16.3 Open-Loop Control-to-Output Transfer Function

16.4 Open-Loop Input-to-Output Voltage Transfer Function

16.5 Open-Loop Input Impedance

16.6 Open-Loop Output Impedance

16.7 Step Responses of Output Voltage of Boost Converter for DCM

16.8 Open-Loop Duty Cycle-to-Inductor Current Transfer Function

16.9 Open-Loop Input Voltage-to-Inductor Current Transfer Function

16.10 Open-Loop Output Current-to-Inductor Current Transfer Function

16.11 Step Responses of Inductor Current of Boost Converter for DCM

16.12 DC Characteristics of Boost Converter for DCM

16.13 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

17: Silicon and Silicon-Carbide Power Diodes

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Electronic Power Switches

17.3 Atom

17.4 Electron and Hole Effective Mass

17.5 Semiconductors

17.6 Intrinsic Semiconductors

17.7 Extrinsic Semiconductors

17.8 Wide Band Gap Semiconductors

17.9 Physical Structure of Junction Diodes

17.10 Static

I

V

Diode Characteristic

17.11 Breakdown Voltage of Junction Diodes

17.12 Capacitances of Junction Diodes

17.13 Reverse Recovery of pn Junction Diodes

17.14 Schottky Diodes

17.15 Solar Cells

17.16 Light-Emitting Diodes

17.17 SPICE Model of Diodes

17.18 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

Note

18: Silicon and Silicon-Carbide Power MOSFETs

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Integrated MOSFETs

18.3 Physical Structure of Power MOSFETs

18.4 Principle of Operation of Power MOSFETs

18.5 Derivation of Power MOSFET Characteristics

18.6 Power MOSFET Characteristics

18.7 Mobility of Charge Carriers

18.8 Short-Channel Effects

18.9 Aspect Ratio of Power MOSFETs

18.10 Breakdown Voltage of Power MOSFETs

18.11 Gate Oxide Breakdown Voltage of Power MOSFETs

18.12 Specific On-Resistance

18.13 Figures-of-Merit of Semiconductors

18.14 On-Resistance of Power MOSFETs

18.15 Capacitances of Power MOSFETs

18.16 Switching Waveforms

18.17 SPICE Model of Power MOSFETs

18.18 IGBTs

18.19 Heat Sinks

18.20 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problems

19: Electromagnetic Compatibility

19.1 Introduction

19.2 Definition of EMI

19.3 Definition of EMC

19.4 EMI Immunity

19.5 EMI Susceptibility

19.6 Classification of EMI

19.7 Sources of EMI

19.8 Safety Standards

19.9 EMC Standards

19.10 Near Field and Far Field

19.11 Techniques of EMI Reduction

19.12 Insertion Loss

19.13 EMI Filters

19.14 Feed-Through Capacitors

19.15 EMI Shielding

19.16 Interconnections

19.17 Summary

References

Review Questions

Problem

Appendices

A: Introduction to SPICE

B: Introduction to MATLAB®

C: Physical Constants

Answers to Problems

Chapter 1

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Chapter 7

Chapter 8

Chapter 9

Chapter 10

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Chapter 16

Chapter 17

Chapter 18

Index

EULA

List of Tables

Chapter 9

Table 9.1

Chapter 17

Table 17.1

Table 17.2

Table 17.3

Table 17.4

Chapter 18

Table 18.1

Appendix C

Table A.1