Opportunistic Spectrum Sharing and White Space Access - Oliver Holland - ebook

Opportunistic Spectrum Sharing and White Space Access ebook

Oliver Holland

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Opis

Details the paradigms of opportunistic spectrum sharing andwhite space access as effective means to satisfy increasing demandfor high-speed wireless communication and for novel wirelesscommunication applications This book addresses opportunistic spectrum sharing and whitespace access, being particularly mindful of practicalconsiderations and solutions. In Part I, spectrum sharingimplementation issues are considered in terms of hardware platformsand software architectures for realization of flexible andspectrally agile transceivers. Part II addresses practicalmechanisms supporting spectrum sharing, including spectrum sensingfor opportunistic spectrum access, machine learning and decisionmaking capabilities, aggregation of spectrum opportunities, andspectrally-agile radio waveforms. Part III presents the ongoing work on policy and regulation forefficient and reliable spectrum sharing, including major recentsteps forward in TV White Space (TVWS) regulation and associatedgeolocation database approaches, policy management aspects, andnovel licensing schemes supporting spectrum sharing. In Part IV,business and economic aspects of spectrum sharing are considered,including spectrum value modeling, discussion of issues arounddisruptive innovation that are pertinent to opportunistic spectrumsharing and white space access, and business benefits assessment ofthe novel spectrum sharing regulatory proposal Licensed SharedAccess. Part V discusses deployments of opportunistic spectrumsharing and white space access solutions in practice, includingwork on TVWS system implementations, standardization activities,and development and testing of systems according to thestandards. * Discusses aspects of pioneering standards such as the IEEE802.22 "Wi-Far" standard, the IEEE 802.11af"White-Fi" standard, the IEEE Dynamic Spectrum AccessNetworks Standards Committee standards, and the ETSIReconfiguration Radio Systems standards * Investigates regulatory and regulatory-linked solutionsassisting Opportunistic Spectrum Sharing and White Space Access,including geo-location database approaches and licensingenhancements * Covers the pricing and value of spectrum, the economic effectsand potentials of such technologies, and provides detailed businessassessments of some particularly innovative regulatoryproposals The flexible and efficient use of radio frequencies is necessary tocater for the increasing data traffic demand worldwide. This bookaddresses this necessity through its extensive coverage ofopportunistic spectrum sharing and white space accesssolutions. Opportunistic Spectrum Sharing and White Space Access: ThePractical Reality is a great resource fortelecommunication engineers, researchers, and students.

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CONTENTS

COVER

TITLE PAGE

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

INTRODUCTION

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

REFERENCES

ACRONYMS

PART I: FLEXIBLE RADIO HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE PLATFORMS SUPPORTING SPECTRUM SHARING

1 THE UNIVERSAL SOFTWARE RADIO PERIPHERAL (USRP) FAMILY OF LOW-COST SDRs

1.1 OVERVIEW

1.2 THE USRP FAMILY OF SDR SYSTEMS

1.3 UHD

1.4 RFNC

1.5 CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

2 ON THE GNU RADIO ECOSYSTEM

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 THE FRAMEWORK

2.3 API HOOKS INTO THE SCHEDULER

2.4 QUANTIZATION AND THE FRAMEWORK

2.5 SIGNAL CHANNELIZERS

2.6 CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

3 WIRELESS OPEN-ACCESS RESEARCH PLATFORM (WARP) FOR FLEXIBLE RADIO

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 WARP HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE

3.3 WARP SOFTWARE FRAMEWORK

3.4 WARP AS PROTOTYPING PLATFORM FOR OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM ACCESS RESEARCH

3.5 PROTOTYPING EXAMPLE

3.6 CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

4 A DYNAMICALLY RECONFIGURABLE SOFTWARE RADIO FRAMEWORK: IRIS

4.1 IRIS

4.2 CASE STUDY: SPECTRUM WARS

4.3 CASE STUDY: THE FP7 CogEU TRANSCEIVER

4.4 CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

5 OPENAIRINTERFACE AND EXPRESSMIMO2 FOR SPECTRALLY AGILE COMMUNICATION

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 OAI HARDWARE PLATFORM: ExpressMIMO2

5.3 OAI LTE IMPLEMENTATION: OPENAIR4G

5.4 CASE STUDY: EXPLOITING TV WHITE SPACES WITH OPENAIR4G

5.5 CASE STUDY: SPATIAL INTERWEAVE COGNITIVE RADIO BASED ON OpenAir4G

5.6 CONCLUSION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

REFERENCES

6 CORAL COGNITIVE WiFi NETWORKING SYSTEM: CASE STUDIES OF RURAL APPLICATIONS IN INDIA

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 A COGNITIVE RADIO WF SOLUTION

6.3 CORAL3_P PLATFORM DESIGN FEATURES

6.4 RURAL WIRELESS TOPOLOGIES

6.5 USE CASES: IMPLEMENTING COGNITIVE FEATURES To SUPPORT AUTONOMOUS OPERATION

6.6 MAXIMIZATION OF MINIMUM PER USER THROUGHPUT (MAX/MIN THROUGHPUT)

6.7 PROVISION OF DEDICATED BANDWIDTH TO HIGH-PRIORITY USERS

6.8 DYNAMIC CHANNEL SELECTION

6.9 CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

PART II: PRACTICAL MECHANISMS SUPPORTING SPECTRUM SHARING

7 COOPERATIVE SENSING OF SPECTRUM OPPORTUNITIES

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 COGNITIVE RADIO AND TV WHITE SPACES (TVWS) ACCESS

7.3 SYSTEM MODEL FOR COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING

7.4 CSS UNDER REALISTIC CONDITIONS

7.5 DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

8 A MACHINE-LEARNING APPROACH BASED ON BIO-INSPIRED INTELLIGENCE

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 MACHINE-LEARNING OVERVIEW

8.3 POSITION OPTIMIZATION OVERVIEW

8.4 THE MCAP PARADIGM

8.5 ARTIFICIAL BEE COLONY OPTIMIZATION

8.6 EVALUATION

8.7 CONCLUSION

8.8 APPENDIX

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

REFERENCES

9 SPECTRALLY AGILE WAVEFORMS

9.1 FUNDAMENTALS OF SECONDARY SPECTRUM ACCESS

9.2 SPECTRALLY AGILE WAVEFORM DESIGN

9.3 PRACTICAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

9.4 HARDWARE PROTOTYPES

9.5 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

REFERENCES

10 AGGREGATION OF SPECTRUM OPPORTUNITIES

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 AGGREGATION OPPORTUNITIES IN LTE-ADVANCED SYSTEMS

10.3 AGGREGATION OPPORTUNITIES IN TV WHITE SPACES AND UNLICENSED BANDS

10.4 CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

REFERENCES

11 POLICIES FOR EFFICIENT SPECTRUM SHARING

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 POLICY MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK TOWARDS EFFICIENT SPECTRUM SHARING

11.3 DYNAMIC SHORT-TERM SHARING POLICIES PLANNING SCENARIO

11.4 SECURING POLICY-BASED SPECTRUM SHARING

11.5 CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

PART III: REGULATORY SOLUTIONS FOR SPECTRUM SHARING

12 INTERNATIONAL REGULATORY FRAMEWORK FOR SPECTRUM AND SPECTRUM SHARING

12.1 INTERNATIONAL SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

12.2 THE NEED FOR DYNAMIC SHARED ACCESS

12.3 ACTIVITIES WITHIN THE ITU TO CATER FOR DYNAMIC ACCESS

12.4 WHAT COULD AND SHOULD BE DONE IN THE ITU-R?

12.5 CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

13 REGULATIONS FOR SPECTRUM SHARING IN THE USA

13.1 INTRODUCTION

13.2 MANAGING SPECTRUM SHARING AMONG FEDERAL USERS

13.3 EARLY REGULATIONS SUPPORTING NON-FEDERAL SPECTRUM SHARING

13.4 EARLY REGULATION TO FACILITATE SPECTRUM SHARING BETWEEN FEDERAL AND NON-FEDERAL USERS

13.5 UNLICENSED OPERATION IN THE TV BROADCAST BANDS (DOCKET 04-186)

13.6 500 MHz Broadband Initiative

13.7 CONCLUSION

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

14 UK FRAMEWORK FOR ACCESS TO TV WHITE SPACES

14.1 INTRODUCTION

14.2 DATABASE-ASSISTED ACCESS TO TV WHITE SPACES

14.3 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN DATABASES AND DEVICES

14.4 PARAMETERS EXCHANGED BETWEEN DEVICES AND DATABASES

14.5 TV WHITE SPACE CALCULATIONS

14.6 CONCLUSIONS

15 SPECTRUM SHARING USING GEO-LOCATION DATABASES

15.1 HISTORY OF SPECTRUM SHARING

15.2 US REGULATORY POLICY DEVELOPMENT

15.3 EUROPEAN REGULATORY POLICY DEVELOPMENT

15.4 COMPARISON OF THE FCC AND O (ETSI) GDB APPROACHES TO TVWS

15.5 GDB EXTENSIONS TO THE OTHER BANDS: 3.5 GH BAND AND 5 GH BAND

15.6 DEVICE AND GDB COMMUNICATIONS: IETF PAWS

15.7 IMPLICATIONS OF UNLICENSED SPECTRUM USE

15.8 RESPONSIBILITIES OF DATABASE PROVIDERS

15.9 SYSTEM DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

15.10 IMPLEMENTATION

15.11 THE ROLE OF ENFORCEMENT

15.12 CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

16 NOVEL LICENSING SCHEMES

16.1 INTRODUCTION

16.2 NOVEL LICENSING SCHEMES

16.3 PLURALISTIC LICENSING

16.4 SIMULATION VERIFICATION OF THE PL CONCEPT

16.5 CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

REFERENCES

PART IV: SPECTRUM SHARING BUSINESS SCENARIOS AND ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS

17 ECONOMIC AND GAME THEORETIC MODELS FOR SPECTRUM SHARING

17.1 INTRODUCTION

17.2 GAME THEORETIC MODELS

17.3 AUCTION MODELS

17.4 CONCLUSION

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

REFERENCES

18 BUSINESS BENEFITS OF LICENSED SHARED ACCESS (LSA) FOR KEY STAKEHOLDERS

18.1 INTRODUCTION

18.2 LSA CONCEPT

18.3 BUSINESS RELATIONSHIPS IN LSA

18.4 ANALYSIS OF KEY STAKEHOLDERS' NEEDS, BENEFITS, AND CONSTRAINTS

18.5 TOWARD A COMBINED VIEW

18.6 CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

19 INITIAL STANDARDIZATION OF DISRUPTIVE INNOVATIONS IN RADIOCOMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN CONSORTIA

19.1 INTRODUCTION

19.2 REGULATORY REGIMES FOR SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT AND RADIOCOMMUNICATION EQUIPMENTS

19.3 ETSI'S GATEKEEPER POSITION AS A CHALLENGE FOR DISRUPTIVELY INNOVATIVE RADIOCOMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

19.4 OUTLINE OF A POSSIBLE AVENUE ATTENUATING THE DIFFICULTIES OF INNOVATIVE RADIOCOMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

19.5 CONCLUSION: CHANCES OUTWEIGH THE RISKS

REFERENCES

20 SPECTRUM AS A PLATFORM: A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE VALUE PROMISE OF SPECTRUM SHARING SOLUTIONS

20.1 INTRODUCTION

20.2 CAN WE CONSIDER SPECTRUM AS A PLATFORM PRODUCT?

20.3 INCREASE MOBILE CAPACITY BY OFFERING MORE SPECTRUM TO COMMERCIAL USERS

20.4 SPUR INNOVATION AND ENABLE NEW ENTRANTS BY ENSURING FAIR TRADE AND COMPETITION

20.5 INCREASE SPECTRUM USAGE EFFICIENCY

20.6 CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

PART V: SPECTRUM SHARING DEPLOYMENT SCENARIOS IN PRACTICE

21 TV WHITE SPACES WITH GEO-LOCATION DATABASE ACCESS: PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND TRIALS IN EUROPE

21.1 INTRODUCTION

21.2 VALIDATING THE EXTENDED HATA MODEL FOR USE IN UHFs

21.3 COMBINATION OF GEO-LOCATION DATABASE ACCESS WITH INFRASTRUCTURE SENSING IN TVWS

21.4 VALIDATION OF PMSE SENSING ALGORITHMS

21.5 CONCLUSIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

22 DEVELOPMENTS AND PRACTICAL FIELD TRIALS OF TV WHITE SPACE TECHNOLOGIES

22.1 WHITE SPACE WIRELESS LAN SYSTEMS

22.2 WHITE SPACE LTE SYSTEM

22.3 TV WHITE SPACE DATABASE

22.4 COEXISTENCE IN WHITE SPACE BASED ON IEEE 802.19.1

22.5 FIELD EXPERIMENTS

22.6 PROPAGATION MEASUREMENTS

22.7 CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

23 COGNITIVE WIRELESS REGIONAL AREA NETWORK STANDARD

23.1 INTRODUCTION

23.2 WRAN SYSTEM OVERVIEW

23.3 SUMMARY OF FCC RULES ON OPERATION IN THE TV WHITE SPACE

23.4 PHYSICAL LAYER

23.5 MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL LAYER

23.6 PROTECTION OF INCUMBENT SYSTEMS

23.7 SPECTRUM MANAGER

23.8 IEEE 802.22 (Wi-FAR) IMPLEMENTATION, TRIALS, DEPLOYMENTS, AND FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS

CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES

24 ETSI OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM SHARING TECHNOLOGY FOR (TV) WHITE SPACES

24.1 ETSI SCENARIOS AND USE CASES FOR OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM SHARING

24.2 OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM SHARING IN (TV) WHITE SPACES: A COORDINATED AND AN UNCOORDINATED APPROACH

24.3 OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM SHARING IN (TV) WHITE SPACES: AN OVERVIEW ON THE ETSI ARCHITECTURE

24.4 SPECTRUM SENSING FOR OPPORTUNISTIC SPECTRUM SHARING IN (TV) WHITE SPACES

24.5 PRIORITY ACCESS

24.6 CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

25 THE IEEE DYNAMIC SPECTRUM ACCESS NETWORKS STANDARDS COMMITTEE (DYSPAN-SC) AND IEEE 1900 WORKING GROUPS

25.1 THE IEEE DYNAMIC SPECTRUM ACCESS NETWORKS STANDARDS COMMITTEE (DYSPAN-SC)

25.2 THE IEEE 1900 WORKING GROUPS

CONCLUSION

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES

26 SPECTRUM TO UNLASH MACHINE-TO-MACHINE UPTAKE

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