Fundamentals of Power Integrity for Computer Platforms and Systems - Joseph T. DiBene - ebook

Fundamentals of Power Integrity for Computer Platforms and Systems ebook

Joseph T. DiBene

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An all-encompassing text that focuses on the fundamentals ofpower integrity Power integrity is the study of power distribution from thesource to the load and the system level issues that can occuracross it. For computer systems, these issues can range from insidethe silicon to across the board and may egress into other parts ofthe platform, including thermal, EMI, and mechanical. With a focus on computer systems and silicon level powerdelivery, this book sheds light on the fundamentals of powerintegrity, utilizing the author's extensive background in thepower integrity industry and unique experience in silicon powerarchitecture, design, and development. Aimed at engineersinterested in learning the essential and advanced topics of thefield, this book offers important chapter coverage of fundamentalsin power distribution, power integrity analysis basics,system-level power integrity considerations, power conversion incomputer systems, chip-level power, and more. Fundamentals of Power Integrity for Computer Platforms andSystems: * Introduces readers to both the field of power integrity and toplatform power conversion * Provides a unique focus on computer systems and silicon levelpower delivery unavailable elsewhere * Offers detailed analysis of common problems in theindustry * Reviews electromagnetic field and circuit representation * Includes a detailed bibliography of references at the end ofeach chapter * Works out multiple example problems within each chapter Including additional appendixes of tables and formulas,Fundamentals of Power Integrity for Computer Platforms andSystems is an ideal introductory text for engineers of powerintegrity as well as those in the chip design industry,specifically physical design and packaging.

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Table of Contents

Cover

Title Page

Copyright

Dedication

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments

Acronyms

Chapter 1: Introduction to Power Integrity

1.1 Definition for Power Integrity

1.2 Historical Perspective on Power Integrity Drivers

1.3 First Principles Analysis

1.4 Scope of the Text

References

Chapter 2: Introduction to Platform Power Conversion

2.1 Power Distribution System

2.2 Platform DC-to-DC Power Conversion

2.3 Layout and Noise Considerations

2.4 Summary

References

Problems

Chapter 3: Review of Electromagnetic Field and Circuit Representations

3.1 Vectors and Scalars

3.2 Static Fields

3.3 Maxwell's Equations

3.4 Useful and Simple Circuit Extractions

3.5 Summary

References

Problems

Chapter 4: Power Distribution Network

4.1 The Power Distribution Network

4.2 PDN Elements

4.3 Impedance Distribution Analysis

4.4 Summary

References

Problems

Chapter 5: Power Integrity Time-Domain and Boundary Analysis

5.1 Source and Load Modeling

5.2 Time-Dependent Systems

5.3 Impedance/Load Boundary Analysis

5.4 Summary

References

Problems

Chapter 6: System Considerations for Power Integrity

6.1 Power Loadline Fundamentals

6.2 Noise Generation Considerations in Power Integrity

6.3 Power Noise Reduction Techniques

6.4 EMI Considerations for Power Integrity

6.5 Power Integrity PDN in System Measurements

6.6 Summary

References

Problems

Chapter 7: Silicon Power Distribution and Analysis

7.1 Silicon and Package Power Integrity

7.2 Silicon and Package Power Delivery

7.3 On-die Decoupling

7.4 Advanced Topics in Power on Silicon

7.5 Summary

References

Problems

Appendix A: Table of Inductances for Commonly Used Geometries

References

Appendix B: Spherical Coordinate System

References

Appendix C: Vector Identities and Formulae

Index

End User License Agreement

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Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

Preface

Chapter 1: Introduction to Power Integrity

List of Illustrations

Figure 1.1

Figure 1.2

Figure 1.3

Figure 1.4

Figure 1.5

Figure 2.1

Figure 2.2

Figure 2.3

Figure 2.4

Figure 2.5

Figure 2.6

Figure 2.7

Figure 2.8

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Figure 2.10

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Figure 2.16

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Figure 3.1

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Figure 4.1

Figure 4.2

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Figure 4.7

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Figure B.1

List of Tables

Table 2.1

Table 2.2

Table 2.3

Table 2.4

Table 2.5

Table 4.1

Table 4.2

Table 4.3

Table 4.4

Table 4.5

Table 4.6

Table 4.7

Table 5.1

Table 5.2

Table 5.3

Table 6.1

Table 6.2

Table 6.3

Table 6.4

Table 6.5

Table 6.6

Table 6.7

Table 7.1

Table 7.2

Table 7.3

Table 7.4

Table 7.5

Table 7.6

Table A.1

Fundamentals of Power Integrity for Computer Platforms and Systems

Joseph T. DiBene, II

Copyright © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey

Published simultaneously in Canada

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at http://www.wiley.com/go/permission.

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

For general information on our other products and services or for technical support, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

DiBene, J. Ted., II (Joseph Ted)

Fundamentals of power integrity / J. Ted DiBene II.

pages cm

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 978-1-118-09143-2 (cloth)

1. Electric power system stability. 2. Electric power systems--Quality control. I. Title.

TK1010.D53 2014

621.31--dc23

2013030215

To my wife,

for her strength, love,

and courage

Foreword

The development of computing hardware operating at increasingly higher speeds and requiring more power continues at an inexorable pace. Successful development of computing systems requires careful design of hardware so that unintentional analog effects do not seriously compromise or degrade digital performance. This is particularly true with systems operating at high clock speeds and having high power requirements. There are three design arenas that are crucial to successful digital operation of hardware: signal integrity (designing to ensure sufficient integrity of the signal waveform) power integrity (designing to maintain sufficient quality of the power supplied to active devices), and electromagnetic interference/compatibility (EMI/EMC) where the design is tailored to ensure that radio frequency emissions from the digital system do not violate international regulatory limits that are in place to protect the public airwaves. Typically, there are substantial areas of overlap in these design disciplines and in the specific design of any digital hardware system. Each discipline has been studied at length, but the push of faster and higher power hardware requires continued development of the design technologies and techniques embodied in each arena.

This book primarily addresses power integrity and offers an introductory-to-intermediate view of the requirements and design ramifications based on physics fundamentals, rather than on detailed mathematical modeling. A value in this book is that it provides the basic information to allow a problem to be defined without the need for creating a complex mathematical model and also provide means of checking the reasonableness of results obtained from complex models. Power integrity has typically been addressed in the literature as a subtopic of signal integrity at the printed circuit board level, so the author's system view and the consideration of the power integrity of both the integrated circuit package and the integrated circuit die is a valuable contribution to this field and should provide interesting reading for those pursuing this topic. The author has considerable practical experience in power and signal integrity design in the semiconductor industry, which lends credence to this book. I recommend this book to the reader and wish the author much success with its publication.

James L. Knighten, PhD

Hardware Engineer at Teradata Corporation

IEEE Fellow

San Diego, CA

July 25, 2013

Preface

This book is an introductory text on power integrity. It is intended for students at the college under graduate level and for engineers who are new to the area of power integrity. It is assumed that the reader has some background in electromagnetics and basic power conversion. However, it has been written with an understanding that many concepts may be foreign even to engineers and thus the basics are covered first. It is also assumed that the reader has a working knowledge of how to use various tools, such as SPICE and math programs, for analysis. This text is not intended to teach modeling methods and how to use various field solvers—there are many good texts on these subjects that can be easily found through a search on the Internet or in a college library. The purpose of this book is to focus on some of the fundamentals that are key toward enabling the reader to build a foundation in understanding how to solve a basic power integrity problem without having to resort to modeling in a CAD tool—before that basic understanding ever takes place. Thus, the objective here was to focus on the tools and the methods of the problem—rather than on the tuning of the solution to the problem—which is where many good CAD programs excel.

Thus, in that spirit, I set about crafting this book with a few basic goals in mind; first, introduce the concepts of power integrity by utilizing basic analytical tools. Second, structure each chapter so that the complexity increases (for the most part) as one progresses further into the text. Third, emphasize the ability to set up problems—without the use of advanced software programs—enabling the reader to grasp the concepts first before embarking on a complex modeling exercise. Finally, fourth, introduce power integrity from a systems perspective rather than focusing on just the network analysis—which appears to be where many texts on power integrity tend to start, and sometimes stop, their learning paths. I hope that the reader will find that I satisfactorily accomplished these goals and that the information within the text is useful.

Acknowledgments

There were many people who have guided me over the years, and I wish I could thank them all explicitly here. To those who are not mentioned below, my gratitude is given nonetheless.

To my editors at Wiley, for their patience through my wife's illness. To my two long time mentors and friends David H. Hartke and Dr. James L. Knighten for their tremendous faith and guidance throughout the years—and thanks again Jim for the Foreword and edit suggestions as well! To Dr. Keith Muller—words would not suffice here to express my thanks. To the late, great, Dr. Clayton R. Paul for his faith in me and support. To my friend Joseph S. Riel for his brilliance and insights in so many ways. To Dr. Jack Shemer for his incredible business teachings and leadership. To Dr. David Hochanson, for those long deep talks. To Dr. James L. Drewniak for his help and insights thoughout the years—and, of course, to the UMR team. To Dr. Kevin Quest, my friend and advisor. To Dr. Henry Koertzen for his depth of knowledge in power technologies and edit suggestions. To my father and sister for our talks. To my friends Bob Fite and Ed Stanford at Intel. To my team at Intel—you know who you are. To my son for his patience—especially all those nights we had to miss. And finally, to my wife, to whom this book is dedicated, and who has graciously stood by throughout while remaining so amazingly strong under some very tough circumstances. I thank you all.

Acronyms

PI

power integrity

PDN

power distribution network

VR

voltage regulator

TD

time-domain

FD

frequency-domain

AVP

adaptive voltage positioning

VID

voltage identification

DAC

digital to analog converter

RSS

root sum of squares

PCB

printed circuit board

MOSFET

metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor

SSN

simultaneous switching noise

FCC

federal communication commission

OATS

open area test site

RF

radio frequency

DUT

device under test

SA

spectrum analyzer

FFT

fast fourier transform

SoC

system on a chip

MD

mask designer

PMIC

power management integrated circuit

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