Essentials of KTEA-3 and WIAT-III Assessment - Kristina C. Breaux - ebook

Essentials of KTEA-3 and WIAT-III Assessment ebook

Kristina C. Breaux

199,99 zł


Written by expert authors Kristina Breaux and Elizabeth Lichtenberger, Essentials of KTEA-3 and WIAT-III Assessment offers up-to-date, comprehensive, step-by-step instruction in the accurate and effective use of the newest editions of the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA-3) Comprehensive Form, KTEA-3 Brief Form, and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-III). Designed to provide in-depth information in an easy to use reference format, the book provides guidelines and tips for administration, scoring, and interpretation that go beyond the information provided in the test manuals. A complete guide is included for digital administration and scoring using Q-interactive, automated scoring using Q-global, and hand scoring. Essentials of KTEA-3 and WIAT-III Assessment makes score interpretation easier by explaining what each score measures and the implications of a high or low score. Learn how to increase the diagnostic utility of the KTEA-3 and WIAT-III by taking full advantage of their capabilities for error analysis, qualitative observations, and progress monitoring, and by pairing the results with measures of cognitive ability such as the WISC-V and KABC-II. Clinicians will find a helpful discussion of how these tests may be interpreted using either a CHC or neuropsychological approach to assessment. Case studies illustrate the use of these tests to respond to various referral concerns. Annotations within each case report provide a window into the mind of the examiner throughout the assessment process. This book provides a depth and breadth of understanding that is appropriate for all assessment professionals, regardless of their level of training or experience. Extensive illustrations, call-out boxes, and "Test Yourself" questions help students and clinicians quickly absorb the information they need. Essentials of KTEA-3 and WIAT-III Assessment is the clear, focused guide to using these tests to their fullest potential.

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Table of Contents

Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series

Title Page



Series Preface


Chapter One: Overview

Purposes and Uses of Achievement Tests

Selecting an Achievement Test

Administering Standardized Achievement Tests

Summary Information About the Tests and Their Publishers

Chapter Two: KTEA™-3

History and Development

Changes From KTEA-II to KTEA-3

Description of the KTEA-3

Standardization and Psychometric Properties of the KTEA-3

Overview of the KTEA-3 Brief Form

How to Administer the KTEA-3

How to Score the KTEA-3

How to Interpret the KTEA-3

Using the KTEA-3 Across Multiple Administrations

Using the KTEA-3 Brief Form

KTEA-3 Score Reports

Chapter Three: WIAT



History and Development

Changes From WIAT-II to WIAT-III

Description of the WIAT-III

Standardization and Psychometric Properties of the WIAT-III

How to Administer the WIAT-III

Subtest-by-Subtest Notes on Administration

How to Score the WIAT-III

Subtest-by-Subtest Scoring Keys

How to Interpret the WIAT-III

Using the WIAT-III Across Multiple Administrations

Chapter Four: Clinical Applications

Part One: Using the KTEA-3 and WIAT-III With Cognitive Ability Tests

Using a CHC Framework to Integrate Assessment Results

Part Two: New Composite Scores, Special Considerations, and Ongoing Research

Chapter Five: Strengths and Weaknesses of the KTEA™-3 and WIAT



Strengths and Weaknesses of the KTEA-3

Assets of the KTEA-3

Limitations of the KTEA-3

Final Comment

Strengths and Weaknesses of the WIAT-III

Assets of the WIAT-III


Limitations of the WIAT-III

Final Comment

Content Coverage of the KTEA-3 and WIAT-III

Chapter Six: Illustrative Case Reports

Case Report 1: Jenna

Case Report 2: Oscar

Assessment Procedures and Tests Administered

Case Report 3: Rob

Assessment Procedures and Tests Administered

Chapter Seven: Q-interactive for KTEA™-3 and WIAT



Q-interactive versus Q-global

Equivalency Studies

Essential Features of Q-interactive


Annotated Bibliography

About the Authors

About The Digital Resources

Content Included in the Digital Resources


End User License Agreement













































































































































































































































































































































































Table of Contents

Begin Reading

List of Illustrations

Chapter Two: KTEA™-3

Figure 2.1 Core Composite Structure of the KTEA-3 Comprehensive Form

Figure 2.2 Results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Nine KTEA-3 Comprehensive Form Subtests

Figure 2.3 Subtest Structure of the Brief Achievement (BA-3) Composite

Figure 2.4 Q-global Raw Score Entry

Figure 2.5 Analysis of Academic Skills Battery Composite

Figure 2.6 Analysis of Domain Composites

Figure 2.7 Error Analysis in Q-global: Recommended Subtests

Figure 2.8 Within-Item Error Analysis Entry in Q-global

Figure 2.9 Qualitative Observations Analysis in Q-global Standard Report

Chapter Three: WIAT



Figure 3.1 Core Composite Structure of the WIAT-III

Figure 3.2 Supplemental WIAT-III Composites

Figure 3.3 WIAT-III Raw Score Entry in Q-global

Figure 3.4 Sample of WIAT-III Intervention Goal Statements

Chapter Four: Clinical Applications

Figure 4.1 Hierarchy of Cognitive Processing Load by Achievement Area

Figure 4.2 Modern Operational Definition of SLD

Figure 4.3 Criteria of the PSW Model

List of Tables

Chapter Two: KTEA™-3

Table 2.1 Average Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for Subtests and Composites

Table 2.2 Alternate Form Reliability Coefficients for Subtests and Composites

Table 2.3 Correlations of KTEA-3 Comprehensive Composites With Other Achievement Test Composites

Table 2.4 KTEA-3 Composites Correlations With KABC-II, DAS-II, and WISC-V Global Scales

Table 2.5 Hand-Scoring Methods for Calculating Raw Scores

Table 2.6 Methods for Calculating Raw Scores Using Q-global

Table 2.7 Reading Composite

Table 2.8 Math Composite

Table 2.9 Written Language Composite

Table 2.10 Sound-Symbol Composite

Table 2.11 Decoding Composite

Table 2.12 Reading Fluency Composite

Table 2.13 Reading Understanding Composite

Table 2.14 Oral Language Composite

Table 2.15 Oral Fluency Composite

Table 2.16 Comprehension Composite

Table 2.17 Expression Composite

Table 2.18 Orthographic Processing Composite

Table 2.19 Academic Fluency Composite

Chapter Three: WIAT



Table 3.1 IDEA 2004 and the WIAT-III

Table 3.2 WIAT-III Subtests With Component Scores

Table 3.3 Average Grade-Based Reliability Coefficients for Subtests and Composites

Table 3.4 Correlations of WIAT-III With Other Achievement Test Composites

Table 3.5 cWIAT-III Composites Correlations With DAS-II and WISC-V Global Scales

Table 3.6 Hand Scoring Methods for Calculating Raw Scores

Table 3.7 Methods for Calculating Raw Scores Using Q-global

Table 3.8 Skills Analysis Methods for WIAT-III Subtests

Chapter Four: Clinical Applications

Table 4.1 KTEA-3 and WIAT-III Cognitive Ability Linking Studies

Table 4.2 Three Approaches to Subtyping Learning Disabilities for Differential Diagnosis or Identification

Table 4.3 Subtypes of Reading-Related Learning Disabilities for Intervention Planning

Table 4.4 Split-Half Reliability Coefficients and Clinical Validity Data for the New Dyslexia Index scores

Table 4.5 Split-Half Reliability Coefficients for the New KTEA-3 ORF Composite Score

Chapter Five: Strengths and Weaknesses of the KTEA™-3 and WIAT



Table 5.1 Raw Scores Corresponding to Standard Scores of 100 by Winter Grade Norms on the KTEA-3 Form A: Five Untimed Subtests Without Weighted or Transformed Scores

Table 5.2 Ceiling for Students Age 21:0–25:11 and Grade 12: Highest Possible Subtest Score

Table 5.3 Floor for Students Age 4:0–5:11 and Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, and Grade 1: Lowest Possible Subtest Score

Table 5.4 Raw Scores Corresponding to Standard Scores of 100 by Winter Grade Norms on the WIAT-III: Five Untimed Subtests Without Weighted or Transformed Scores

Table 5.5 Ceiling for Students Ages 21:0–25:11 and 36:0–50:11 and Grade 12: Highest Possible Subtest Score

Table 5.6 WIAT-III Floor for Students age 4:0–6:0 and Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, and Grade 1: Lowest Possible Subtest Score

Chapter Six: Illustrative Case Reports

Table 6.1 Overview of Case Studies

Table 6.2 Medical Symptom Validity Test

Table 6.3 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fifth Edition (WISC-V)

Table 6.4 California Verbal Learning Test–Children's Version (CVLT-C)

Table 6.5 Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch)

Table 6.6 NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment–Second Edition (NEPSY-II)

Table 6.7 Wisconsin Card Sort Test–64: Computer Version 2 (WCST-64)

Table 6.8 Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing–Second Edition (CTOPP-2)

Table 6.9 Wechsler Individual Achievement Test–Third Edition (WIAT-III)

Table 6.10 WISC-V


Table 6.11 Index Level Strengths and Weaknesses

Table 6.12 Index Level Pairwise Difference Comparisons

Table 6.13 Subtest Level Strengths and Weaknesses

Table 6.14 Subtest Level Pairwise Difference Comparisons

Table 6.15 Process Level Pairwise Difference Comparisons

Table 6.16 KTEA-3 Brief: Grade Norms

Table 6.17 KTEA-3 Comprehensive: Grade Norms

Table 6.18 KTEA-3 Error Analysis: Phonological Processing

Table 6.19 KTEA-3 Error Analysis: Listening Comprehension

Table 6.20 KTEA-3 Error Analysis: Reading Comprehension

Table 6.21 KTEA-3 Error Analysis: Written Expression

Table 6.22 WIAT–III: Grade Norms

Table 6.23 PAL-II: Grade Norms

Table 6.24 CELF–5

Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series

Series Editors, Alan S. Kaufman and Nadeen L. Kaufman

Essentials of 16PF



by Heather E. P. Cattell and James M. Schuerger

Essentials of ADHD Assessment for Children and Adolescents

by Elizabeth P. Sparrow and Drew Erhardt

Essentials of Assessing, Preventing, and Overcoming Reading Difficulties

by David A. Kilpatrick

Essentials of Assessment Report Writing

by Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger, Nancy Mather, Nadeen L. Kaufman, and Alan S. Kaufman

Essentials of Assessment with Brief Intelligence Tests

by Susan R. Homack and Cecil R. Reynolds

Essentials of Autism Spectrum Disorders Evaluation and Assessment

by Celine A. Saulnier and Pamela E. Ventola

Essentials of Bayley Scales of Infant Development–II Assessment

by Maureen M. Black and Kathleen Matula

Essentials of Behavioral Assessment

by Michael C. Ramsay, Cecil R. Reynolds, and R. W. Kamphaus

Essentials of Career Interest Assessment

by Jeffrey P. Prince and Lisa J. Heiser

Essentials of CAS Assessment

by Jack A. Naglieri

Essentials of CAS2 Assessment

by Jack A. Naglieri, Tulio M. Otero

Essentials of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, Second Edition

by Linda Wilmshurst

Essentials of Cognitive Assessment with KAIT and Other Kaufman Measures

by Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger, Debra Y. Broadbooks, and Alan S. Kaufman

Essentials of Conners Behavior Assessments™

by Elizabeth P. Sparrow

Essentials of Creativity Assessment

by James C. Kaufman, Jonathan A. Plucker, and John Baer

Essentials of Cross-Battery Assessment, Third Edition

by Dawn P. Flanagan, Samuel O. Ortiz, and Vincent C. Alfonso

Essentials of DAS-II



by Ron Dumont, John O. Willis, and Colin D. Elliot

Essentials of Dyslexia Assessment and Intervention

by Nancy Mather and Barbara J. Wendling

Essentials of Evidence-Based Academic Interventions

by Barbara J. Wendling and Nancy Mather

Essentials of Executive Functions Assessment

by George McCloskey and Lisa A. Perkins

Essentials of Forensic Psychological Assessment, Second Edition

by Marc J. Ackerman

Essentials of Gifted Assessment

by Steven I. Pfeiffer

Essentials of IDEA for Assessment Professionals

by Guy McBride, Ron Dumont, and John O. Willis

Essentials of Individual Achievement Assessment

by Douglas K. Smith

Essentials of Intellectual Disability Assessment and Identification

Alan W. Brue and Linda Wilmshurst

Essentials of KABC-II Assessment

by Alan S. Kaufman, Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger, Elaine Fletcher-Janzen, and Nadeen L. Kaufman

Essentials of KTEA

-3 and WIAT


-III Assessment

by Kristina C. Breaux and Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger

Essentials of MCMI


-IV Assessment

by Seth D. Grossman, Blaise Amendolace

Essentials of Millon

Inventories Assessment, Third Edition

by Stephen Strack

Essentials of MMPI-A™ Assessment

by Robert P. Archer and Radhika Krishnamurthy

Essentials of MMPI-2


Assessment, Second Edition

by David S. Nichols

Essentials of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator


Assessment, Second Edition

by Naomi L. Quenk

Essentials of NEPSY


-II Assessment

by Sally L. Kemp and Marit Korkman

Essentials of Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition

by Nancy Hebben and William Milberg

Essentials of Nonverbal Assessment

by Steve McCallum, Bruce Bracken, and John Wasserman

Essentials of PAI



by Leslie C. Morey

Essentials of Planning, Selecting, and Tailoring Interventions for Unique Learners

by Jennifer T. Mascolo, Vincent C. Alfonso, and Dawn P. Flanagan

Essentials of Processing Assessment, Second Edition

by Milton J. Dehn

Essentials of Psychological Testing, Second Edition

by Susana Urbina

Essentials of Response to Intervention

by Amanda M. VanDerHeyden and Matthew K. Burns

Essentials of Rorschach



by Tara Rose, Michael P. Maloney, and Nancy Kaser-Boyd

Essentials of Rorschach Assessment: Comprehensive System and R-PAS

by Jessica R. Gurley

Essentials of School Neuropsychological Assessment, Second Edition

by Daniel C. Miller

Essentials of Specific Learning Disability Identification

by Dawn Flanagan and Vincent C. Alfonso

Essentials of Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5) Assessment

by Gale H. Roid and R. Andrew Barram

Essentials of TAT and Other Storytelling Assessments, Second Edition

by Hedwig Teglasi

Essentials of Temperament Assessment

by Diana Joyce

Essentials of WAIS


-IV Assessment, Second Edition

by Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger and Alan S. Kaufman

Essentials of WIAT


-III and KTEA-II Assessment

by Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger and Kristina C. Breaux

Essentials of WISC


-IV Assessment, Second Edition

by Dawn P. Flanagan and Alan S. Kaufman

Essentials of WISC-V



by Dawn P. Flanagan, Vincent C. Alfonso

Essentials of WJ IV


Cognitive Abilities Assessment

by Fredrick A. Schrank, Scott L. Decker, and John M. Garruto

Essentials of WJ IV


Tests of Achievement

by Nancy Mather and Barbara J. Wendling

Essentials of WMS


-IV Assessment

by Lisa Whipple Drozdick, James A. Holdnack, and Robin C. Hilsabeck

Essentials of WNV ™ Assessment

by Kimberly A. Brunnert, Jack A. Naglieri, and Steven T. Hardy-Braz

Essentials of Working Memory Assessment and Intervention

by Milton J. Dehn

Essentials of WPPSI ™-IV Assessment

by Susan Engi Raiford and Diane L. Coalson

Essentials of WRAML2 and TOMAL-2 Assessment

by Wayne Adams and Cecil R. Reynolds

Essentials of KTEA™-3 and WIAT®-III Assessment

Kristina C. BreauxElizabeth O. Lichtenberger


Copyright © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

Published simultaneously in Canada.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Breaux, Kristina C., author. | Lichtenberger, Elizabeth O., author.

Title: Essentials of KTEA™-3 and WIAT®-III assessment / Kristina C. Breaux, Elizabeth O. Lichtenberger.

Description: Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016 | Series: Essentials of psychological assessment | Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2016025373 (print) | LCCN 2016037821 (ebook) | ISBN 9781119076872 (pbk.) | ISBN 9781119077091 (epdf) | ISBN 9781119076834 (epub)

Subjects: LCSH: Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. | Wechsler Individual Achievement Test. | Ability—Testing.

Classification: LCC LB3060.33.K38 B74 2016 (print) | LCC LB3060.33.K38 (ebook) | DDC 371.26—dc23

LC record available at

Cover Design: Wiley

Cover Image: © Greg Kuchik/Getty Images

To Gary, Jane, and Donovan,

Thank you for giving me the time I needed, encouraging me in wonderful ways (like French press coffee, artwork, and silly songs), and sustaining me with your love.


To Mike, Hannah, and Lauren,

Thank you for your unwavering support, your steadfast encouragement, and your unconditional love.



In the Essentials of Psychological Assessment series, we have attempted to provide the reader with books that will deliver key practical information in the most efficient and accessible style. Many books in the series feature specific instruments in a variety of domains, such as cognition, personality, education, and neuropsychology. Other books, like Essentials of KTEA-3 and WIAT-III Assessment, focus on crucial topics for professionals who are involved in any with assessment—topics such as specific reading disabilities, evidence-based interventions, or ADHD assessment. For the experienced professional, books in the series offer a concise yet thorough review of a test instrument or a specific area of expertise, including numerous tips for best practices. Students can turn to series books for a clear and concise overview of the important assessment tools, and key topics, in which they must become proficient to practice skillfully, efficiently, and ethically in their chosen fields.

Wherever feasible, visual cues highlighting key points are utilized alongside systematic, step-by-step guidelines. Chapters are focused and succinct. Topics are organized for an easy understanding of the essential material related to a particular test or topic. Theory and research are continually woven into the fabric of each book, but always to enhance the practical application of the material, rather than to sidetrack or overwhelm readers. With this series, we aim to challenge and assist readers interested in psychological assessment to aspire to the highest level of competency by arming them with the tools they need for knowledgeable, informed practice. We have long been advocates of “intelligent” testing—the notion that numbers are meaningless unless they are brought to life by the clinical acumen and expertise of examiners. Assessment must be used to make a difference in the child's or adult's life, or why bother to test? All books in the series—whether devoted to specific tests or general topics—are consistent with this credo. We want this series to help our readers, novice and veteran alike, to benefit from the intelligent assessment approaches of the authors of each book.

We are delighted to include Essentials of KTEA-3 and WIAT-III Assessment in our series. In this book, the authors provide readers with succinct, straightforward, theory-based methods for competent clinical interpretation and application of the most recent editions of two widely used tests of individual achievement. Both the KTEA-3 and WIAT-III are normed for children, adolescents, and adults, and these tests are used in a wide variety of settings. This book helps ease the transition of examiners who have been longtime users of the earlier editions of these tests, and provides a solid foundation for new examiners who are first discovering the abundance of information that can be gathered from these two individual assessment instruments. These tests of achievement both tap the important domains of academic ability required for an assessment of learning disabilities. This book thoroughly integrates theory, research, clinical history, and clinical inference with sets of guidelines that enable the examiner to administer, and then systematically interpret and apply, the KTEA-3 and the WIAT-III. The digital resources offered with this book supplement the comprehensive information provided in the text, offering examiners a cutting-edge resource that will optimize and extend KTEA-3 and WIAT-III assessment results and interpretation.

Alan S. Kaufman, PhD, and Nadeen L. Kaufman, EdD, Series EditorsYale Child Study Center, Yale University School of Medicine


We would like to acknowledge several people for their special and extraordinary contributions. We are particularly grateful to Ron Dumont and John Willis, whose expert opinions and eagle eyes helped evaluate both the KTEA™-3 and WIAT®-III to create an unbiased chapter on the strengths and weaknesses of these instruments. We also appreciate the expertise and assistance that Thomas Witholt and James Henke gave in helping develop rich content for our chapter on Q-interactive. Invaluable data analysis was provided by psychometrician Xuechun Zhou, which allowed us to add new composite scores for both the KTEA™-3 and WIAT®-III. We are grateful for the contributions of interesting clinical case reports by Michelle Lurie and Debra Broadbooks, which helped bring the use of the two tests to life. Finally, the contributions of Marquita Flemming, Tisha Rossi, and the rest of the staff at John Wiley & Sons are gratefully acknowledged. Their expertise and pleasant and cooperative working style made this book an enjoyable and productive endeavor.


Over the past few years, there have been many changes affecting those who administer standardized achievement tests. New individually administered tests of achievement have been developed, older instruments have been revised or renormed, and new electronic methods of test administration have been developed. The academic assessment of individuals from preschool to post–high school has increased over the past years due to requirements set forth by states for determining eligibility for services for learning disabilities. Individual achievement tests were once primarily norm-based comparisons with peers but now serve the purpose of analyzing academic strengths and weaknesses via comparisons with conormed or linked individual tests of ability. In addition, the focus of academic assessment has been broadened to include not only reading decoding, spelling, and arithmetic but also areas such as reading comprehension, arithmetic reasoning, arithmetic computation, listening comprehension, oral expression, and written expression (Smith, 2001).

These changes in the field of individual academic assessment have led professionals to search for resources that would help them remain current on the most recent instruments. Resources covering topics such as how to administer, score, and interpret frequently used tests of achievement and on how to apply these tests' data in clinical situations need to be frequently updated. Thus, in 2001, Douglas K. Smith published a book in the Essentials series titled Essentials of Individual Achievement Assessment, which devoted chapters to four widely used individually administered tests of achievement.1 Smith's book was the inspiration for writing this book, which focuses on the most recent editions of two of the instruments written about in Essentials of Individual Achievement Assessment: the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT) and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA). Because both of these instruments are widely used achievement tests in school psychology and related fields, the third editions of the WIAT and KTEA are deserving of a complete up-to-date book devoted to their administration, scoring, interpretation, and clinical applications. Essentials of KTEA-3 and WIAT-III Assessment provides that up-to-date information and includes rich information beyond what is available in the tests' manuals. Digital administration and scoring through the Q-interactive system is the focus of a chapter designed to benefit new, novice, and even experienced Q-interactive users. An entire chapter is devoted to illustrative case reports to exemplify how the results of the KTEA-3 and WIAT-III can be integrated with an entire battery of tests to yield a thorough understanding of a student's academic functioning. In a chapter devoted to clinical applications of the tests, the following topics are discussed: the integration of the KTEA-3 and WIAT-III with tests of cognitive ability, focusing on the conceptual and theoretical links between tests, and the assessment of special populations, including specific learning disabilities (under IDEA 2004) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or hearing impairments. Expanding on the topic of learning disabilities, the identification of common reading disability subtypes using the KTEA-3 and WIAT-III is discussed. Gender differences in writing are also addressed. Key information on using the WIAT-III and KTEA-3 to monitor a student's response to intervention further enriches the chapter on clinical applications.


The WIAT-III and KTEA-3 are used for many reasons, including diagnosing achievement, identifying processes, analyzing errors, making placement decisions and planning programs, measuring academic progress, evaluating interventions or programs, and conducting research. Some pertinent applications of these tests are described next.

Diagnosing Achievement

The WIAT-III and KTEA-3 provide the following types of information for diagnosing academic achievement:

A general estimate of academic achievement, which may include the WIAT-III Total Achievement composite, the KTEA-3 (Comprehensive or Brief Form) Academic Skills Battery composite, or the Brief Achievement composite from the KTEA-3 Brief.

An analysis of a student's academic strengths and weaknesses in reading, mathematics, spelling, written expression, and oral language (listening and speaking). This assessment data may be used as part of a comprehensive assessment for identifying a learning disability.

Investigation of related factors that may affect academic achievement, such as Phonological Awareness, Naming Facility (RAN), and Associational Fluency on the KTEA-3 and Early Reading Skills (includes items for assessing phonological awareness), Oral Word Fluency, Expressive Vocabulary, and Receptive Vocabulary on the WIAT-III.

Identifying Processes

Pairwise subtest comparisons on both the WIAT-III and KTEA-3 allow examiners to better understand how students comprehend language (Reading Comprehension versus Listening Comprehension) and express their ideas (Written Expression versus Oral Expression).

Analyzing Errors

The KTEA-3 provides a detailed quantitative summary of the types or patterns of errors a student makes on 10 of the 19 KTEA-3 subtests, including Letter & Word Recognition, Nonsense Word Decoding, Phonological Processing, Spelling, Reading Comprehension, Listening Comprehension, Written Expression, Oral Expression, Math Concepts & Applications, and Math Computation. Tracking error patterns can help examiners plan appropriate remedial instruction specifically targeting the difficulties that a student displays.

The WIAT-III provides skills analysis capabilities that also yield a detailed quantitative summary of the types of errors a student makes on seven of the 16 subtests. This information helps examiners evaluate a student's error patterns and skill strengths and weaknesses. Each subtest includes sets of items that measure a specific skill or set of skills. Analyzing the student's errors through the skills analysis yields information that can then be used in the design of an instructional plan or specific intervention for a student.

The KTEA-3 and WIAT-III score reports accessible through Q-global or Q-interactive provide detailed error analysis assessment data to summarize the skills a student needs to be taught and provide recommendations for teaching those skills. In addition, the new Q-global Intervention Guide for LD Subtypes takes into account the student's pattern of performance across cognitive, language, and achievement areas to identify potential learning disability subtypes and make recommendations about how to tailor an intervention approach. The recommendations from this Intervention Guide consider a student's areas of relative strength when remediating relative weaknesses.

Making Placement Decisions and Planning Programs

The WIAT-III and KTEA-3 norm-referenced scores, along with the error analysis information, indicate an examinee's approximate instructional level. These results can inform decisions regarding appropriate educational placement as well as appropriate accommodations or curricular adjustments for new student admissions or transfers from other educational settings. The information can also assist in the development of an individualized education program (IEP) based on a student's needs. For adolescents and adults, the results can help inform decisions regarding general equivalency diploma (GED) preparation, appropriate vocational training, or job placement decisions.

Measuring Academic Progress

As a general guideline, wait about 8 months to 1 year before readministering the same form of an achievement test. For the WIAT-III, academic progress can be measured by retesting after enough time has passed between administrations, taking into consideration any potential practice effects.

The two parallel forms of the KTEA-3 Comprehensive Form allow an examiner to measure a student's academic progress while ensuring that changes in performance are not due to the student's familiarity with the battery content. The KTEA-3 Brief (which is identical to the core battery of Comprehensive Form B) may also be alternated with the KTEA-3 Comprehensive Form A to reduce practice effects when measuring progress over time.

Reporting growth scale values (GSVs) is highly recommended when evaluating an examinee's performance across administrations. GSVs and GSV charts are available on both the KTEA-3 and the WIAT-III to facilitate a comparison of performance over time.

Evaluating Interventions or Programs

The WIAT-III and KTEA-3 can provide information about the effectiveness of specific academic interventions or programs. For example, one or more of the composite scores could demonstrate the effectiveness of a new reading program within a classroom or examine the relative performance levels between classrooms using different math programs.

Conducting Research

The WIAT-III and the KTEA-3 Comprehensive Form are reliable, valid measures of academic achievement that are suitable for use in many research designs. Indeed, a brief search of the literature yielded hundreds of articles that utilized the WIAT or the KTEA. The two parallel forms of the KTEA-3 make it an ideal instrument for longitudinal studies or research on intervention effectiveness using pre- and post-test designs.

The KTEA-3 Brief Form is also a reliable, valid measure of academic achievement that is ideal for research designs that call for a screening measure of achievement. The brevity of the KTEA-II Brief Form makes it useful in estimating the educational achievement of large numbers of prisoners, patients in a hospital, military recruits, applicants to industry training programs, or juvenile delinquents awaiting court hearings, where administering long tests may be impractical.


The KTEA-3 Brief Form is intended for screening examinees on their basic skills in mathematics, reading, and writing. The results of the screening may be used to determine the need for follow-up testing. The KTEA-3 Brief Form and Comprehensive Form (A or B) may be integrated efficiently without readministering subtests. In this way, the Brief Form is ideally suited for contributing information about basic academic skills to a more comprehensive evaluation.


Selecting the appropriate achievement test to use in a specific situation depends on a number of factors.2 The test should be reliable, valid, and used only for the purposes for which it was developed. The Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education (Joint Committee on Testing Practices, 2004) outlines the responsibilities of both test developers and test users. Key components of the Code are outlined in Rapid Reference 1.1.

Rapid Reference 1.1

Excerpts from the Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education

A. Selecting Appropriate Tests

Test users should select tests that meet the intended purpose and that are appropriate for the intended test takers.

Define the purpose for testing, the content and skills to be tested, and the intended test takers. Select and use the most appropriate test based on a thorough review of available information.

Review and select tests based on the appropriateness of test content, skills tested, and content coverage for the intended purpose of testing.

Review materials provided by test developers and select tests for which clear, accurate, and complete information is provided.

Select tests through a process that includes persons with appropriate knowledge, skills, and training.

Evaluate evidence of the technical quality of the test provided by the test developer and any independent reviewers.

Evaluate representative samples of test questions or practice tests, directions, answer sheets, manuals, and score reports before selecting a test.

Evaluate procedures and materials used by test developers, as well as the resulting test, to ensure that potentially offensive content or language is avoided.

Select tests with appropriately modified forms or administration procedures for test takers with disabilities who need special accommodations.

Evaluate the available evidence on the performance of test takers of diverse subgroups. Determine to the extent feasible which performance differences may have been caused by factors unrelated to the skills being assessed.

B. Administering and Scoring Tests

Test users should administer and score tests correctly and fairly.

Follow established procedures for administering tests in a standardized manner.

Provide and document appropriate procedures for test takers with disabilities who need special accommodations or those with diverse linguistic backgrounds. Some accommodations may be required by law or regulation.

Provide test takers with an opportunity to become familiar with test question formats and any materials or equipment that may be used during testing.

Protect the security of test materials, including respecting copyrights and eliminating opportunities for test takers to obtain scores by fraudulent means.

If test scoring is the responsibility of the test user, provide adequate training to scorers and ensure and monitor the accuracy of the scoring process.

Correct errors that affect the interpretation of the scores and communicate the corrected results promptly.

Develop and implement procedures for ensuring the confidentiality of scores.

C. Reporting and Interpreting Test Results

Test users should report and interpret test results accurately and clearly.

Interpret the meaning of the test results, taking into account the nature of the content, norms or comparison groups, other technical evidence, and benefits and limitations of test results.

Interpret test results from modified test or test administration procedures in view of the impact those modifications may have had on test results.

Avoid using tests for purposes other than those recommended by the test developer unless there is evidence to support the intended use or interpretation.

Review the procedures for setting performance standards or passing scores. Avoid using stigmatizing labels.

Avoid using a single test score as the sole determinant of decisions about test takers. Interpret test scores in conjunction with other information about individuals.

State the intended interpretation and use of test results for groups of test takers. Avoid grouping test results for purposes not specifically recommended by the test developer unless evidence is obtained to support the intended use. Report procedures that were followed in determining who were and who were not included in the groups being compared and describe factors that might influence the interpretation of results.

Communicate test results in a timely fashion and in a manner that is understood by the test taker.

Develop and implement procedures for monitoring test use, including consistency with the intended purposes of the test.

D. Informing Test Takers

Test users should inform test takers about the nature of the test, test taker rights and responsibilities, the appropriate use of scores, and procedures for resolving challenges to scores.

Inform test takers in advance of the test administration about the coverage of the test, the types of question formats, the directions, and appropriate test-taking strategies. Make such information available to all test takers.

When a test is optional, provide test takers or their parents/guardians with information to help them judge whether a test should be taken—including indications of any consequences that may result from not taking the test (e.g., not being eligible to compete for a particular scholarship)—and whether there is an available alternative to the test.

Provide test takers or their parents/guardians with information about rights test takers may have to obtain copies of tests and completed answer sheets, to retake tests, to have tests rescored, or to have scores declared invalid.

Provide test takers or their parents/guardians with information about responsibilities test takers have, such as being aware of the intended purpose and uses of the test, performing at capacity, following directions, and not disclosing test items or interfering with other test takers.

Inform test takers or their parents/guardians how long scores will be kept on file and indicate to whom, under what circumstances, and in what manner test scores and related information will or will not be released. Protect test scores from unauthorized release and access.

Describe procedures for investigating and resolving circumstances that might result in canceling or withholding scores, such as failure to adhere to specified testing procedures.

Describe procedures that test takers, parents/guardians, and other interested parties may use to obtain more information about the test, register complaints, and have problems resolved.

Note: The Code was developed in 1988 and was revised in 2004 by the Joint Committee of Testing Practices, a cooperative effort of several professional organizations that has as its aim the advancement, in the public interest, of the quality of testing practices. The Joint Committee was initiated by the American Educational Research Association (AERA), the American Psychological Association (APA), and the National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME). In addition to these three groups, the American Association for Counseling and Development/Association for Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development and the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association also now sponsor the Joint Committee.

Source: Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education (Joint Committee on Testing Practices, 2004).

The first factor to consider in selecting an achievement test is the purpose of the testing. Discern whether a comprehensive measure (covering the areas of achievement specified in the Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act of 2004 [Public Law (PL) 108-446]) is needed or whether a less specific screening measure is appropriate. Another issue is whether an analysis for the identification of a specific learning disability will need to be examined. Although PL 108-446 does not require the presence of an achievement-ability discrepancy for determining eligibility for learning disabilities services, states still have the option to include this discrepancy if they choose. For this purpose, using achievement tests with conormed or linked ability tests is best. To gather diagnostic information and information about the level of skill development, you should use a test with skills analysis procedures.

The second factor to consider in selecting an achievement test is whether a particular test can answer the specific questions asked in the referral concerns. The specificity of the referral questions will help guide the test selection. For example, if the referral concern is about a child's reading fluency, the test you select should have one or more subtests that directly assess that domain.

The third factor to consider in selecting an achievement test is how familiar an examiner is with a certain test. Familiarity with a test and experience with scoring and interpretation is necessary to ethically utilize it in an assessment. If you plan to use a new test in an assessment, you should ensure that you have enough time to get proper training and experience with the instrument before using it.

The fourth factor to consider in selecting an achievement test is whether the test's standardization is appropriate. Consider the recency of the test's norms. Most recent major tests of academic achievement are well standardized, but you should still review the manual to evaluate the normative group. For example, verify that the sample size was adequate and appropriate stratification variables were used in the standardization sample. When evaluating an individual with a clinical or special group classification, consider whether a special study was conducted with the target classification group and the strength of the results.

The fifth factor to consider in selecting an achievement test is the strength of its psychometric properties. Consider whether the test's data have adequately demonstrated its reliability and validity. A test's internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and correlations with other achievement tests and tests of cognitive ability should all be examined. Additionally, consider the floor and ceiling of a test across age levels. Some tests have poor floors at the youngest age levels for the children with the lowest skills, and other tests have poor ceilings at the oldest age levels for the children with the highest skill levels. You can judge the adequacy of the floors and ceilings by examining the standard score range of the subtests and composites for the age range of the student you are assessing.

In Chapter 5 of this book, Ron Dumont and John Willis review what they feel are the strengths and weaknesses of the WIAT-III and KTEA-3, respectively. We encourage examiners to carefully review the test they select to administer, whether it is the WIAT-III, KTEA-3, or another achievement test, to ensure that it can adequately assess the unique concerns of the student for whom the evaluation is being conducted. Rapid Reference 1.2 summarizes the key points to consider in test selection.

Rapid Reference 1.2

Key Points to Consider in Test Selection

Consider the Purpose of the Assessment and What Type of Test(s) It Demands

Comprehensive assessment

Screening assessment

Identification of a learning disability

Skills analysis

Consider Your Experience With the Assessment Instrument You Are Planning to Administer

Administration (extensive, some, or no experience?)

Scoring (extensive, some, or no experience?)

Interpretation (extensive, some, or no experience?)

Consider the Adequacy of the Test's Standardization

Are norms recent?

Was the standardization sample appropriate?

Were studies conducted with students with learning disabilities?

Was the norm sample appropriately stratified according to age, gender, geographic region, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status?

Consider the Psychometric Qualities of the Test

Is the test's reliability adequate (internal consistency and test-retest reliability)?

Is the test's validity adequate (correlations with other achievement tests, correlations with ability tests)?

Does the test have an adequate floor for the age of the student you are assessing?

Does the test have an adequate ceiling for the age of the student you are assessing?


The WIAT-III and KTEA-3 are standardized tests, meaning that they measure a student's performance on tasks that are administered and scored under known conditions that remain constant from time to time and person to person. Standardized testing allows examiners to directly compare the performance of one student to the performance of many other students of the same age who were tested in the same way. Strict adherence to the rules allows examiners to know that the scores obtained from the child they tested are comparable to those obtained from the normative group. Violating the rules of standardized administration renders norms of limited value. Being completely familiar with the test, its materials, and the administration procedures allows examiners to conduct a valid assessment in a manner that feels natural, comfortable, and personal—not mechanical. The specific administration procedures for the KTEA-3 are discussed in Chapter 2, those for the WIAT-III are discussed in Chapter 3, and administration and scoring through Q-interactive for these instruments are discussed in Chapter 7.

Testing Environment

Achievement testing, like most standardized testing, should take place in a quiet room that is free of distractions. The table and chairs that are used during the assessment should be of appropriate size for the student being assessed. That is, if you are assessing a preschooler, then the table and chairs used should be similar to those that you would find in a preschool classroom. However, if you are assessing an adolescent, adult-size table and chairs are appropriate.

When administering the KTEA-3 or the WIAT-III with Q-interactive on iPad devices, the examiner should make sure that the testing environment has a power outlet in case the iPads need to be charged before or during the assessment. Prior to administration, your iPad should be connected to a secure Wi-Fi or 3G connection, so you can transfer your assessments from Q-interactive Central to Q-interactive Assess. Generally, set up the testing environment in the same manner as you do for a traditional assessment session. Consider the client's iPad as the stimulus book, and the examiner's iPad should be propped up with its case so that the screen is out of view of the client.

For the WIAT-III administration with easels, the seating arrangement should allow both the examiner and the student to view the front side of the easel. For the KTEA-3 administration with easels, the seating arrangement should allow the examiner to see both sides of the easel. The examiner must also be able to write responses and scores discreetly on the record form (out of plain view of the examinee). Many examiners find the best seating arrangement is to be at a right angle from the examinee, but others prefer to sit directly across from the examinee. The test's stimulus easel can be used to shield the record form from the student's view, but if you prefer, you may also use a clipboard to keep the record form out of view. Sit wherever is most comfortable for you and allows you easy access to all of the components of the assessment instrument.

Establishing Rapport

In order to ensure that the most valid results are yielded from a test session, try to create the best possible environment for the examinee. Perhaps more important than the previously discussed physical aspects of the testing environment is the relationship between the examiner and the student. In many cases, the examiner will be a virtual stranger to the student being assessed. Thus, the process of establishing rapport is a key component in setting the stage for an optimal assessment.

Rapport can be defined as a relationship of mutual trust or emotional affinity. Such a relationship typically takes time to develop. To foster the development of positive rapport, you need to plan on a few minutes of relaxed time with the student before diving into the assessment procedures. Some individuals are slow to warm up to new acquaintances, whereas others are friendly and comfortable with new people from the get-go. Assume that most students you meet will need time before being able to comfortably relate to you.

You can help a student feel more comfortable through your style of speech and your topics of conversation. Adapt your language (vocabulary and style) to the student's age and ability level (i.e., don't talk to a 4-year-old as you would a teenager, and vice versa). Use a friendly tone of voice, and show genuine personal interest and responsiveness. For shy children, rather than opening up immediately with conversation, try an ice-breaking activity such as drawing a picture or playing with an age-appropriate toy. This quiet interaction with concrete materials may provide an opening to elicit conversation about them.

In most instances, it is best not to have a parent, teacher, or other person present during the assessment, as it can affect the test results in unknown ways. However, when a child is having extreme difficulty separating, it can be useful to permit another adult's presence in the initial rapport-building phase of the assessment to help the child ease into the testing situation. Once the child's anxiety has decreased or once the child has become interested in playing or drawing with you, encourage the student to begin the assessment without the adult present.

Maintaining rapport requires diligent effort throughout an assessment. Watch students for signs of fatigue, disinterest, and frustration. These signs are clues that you need to increase your feedback, give a break, or suggest a reward for completing tasks. Using good eye contact will help you show interest and enthusiasm for the student's efforts. Use your clinical judgment about how much praise a child needs for his or her efforts. Some children will need more pats on the back than others. Always praise students for their efforts, not the correctness of their responses.


The KTEA-3 Comprehensive and Brief Forms and the WIAT-III are published by Pearson under the brand PsychCorp. In Rapid Reference 1.3 and Rapid Reference 1.4, we provide a summary of important information about the WIAT-III, KTEA-3 Comprehensive Form, and KTEA-3 Brief Form. These Rapid References provide information on the following topics: test author, publisher, publication date, what the test measures, age range covered by the test, administration time, and test price. To be qualified to purchase either the KTEA-3 or the WIAT-III individuals must meet one of the following standards:

A master's degree in psychology, education, occupational therapy, social work, or in a field closely related to the intended use of the assessment, and formal training in the ethical administration, scoring, and interpretation of clinical assessments.

Certification by or full active membership in a professional organization (such as ASHA, AOTA, AERA, ACA, AMA, CEC, AEA, AAA, EAA, NAEYC, NBCC) that requires training and experience in the relevant area of assessment.

A degree or license to practice in the healthcare or allied healthcare field.

Formal, supervised mental health, speech/language, and/or educational training specific to assessing children, or in infant and child development, and formal training in the ethical administration, scoring, and interpretation of clinical assessments.

Rapid Reference 1.3

Basic Information About the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test–Third Edition


WIAT-III: Pearson

Publication Date

2009Adult norms: 2010

What the Test Measures

Basic Reading, Reading Comprehension, Reading Fluency, Mathematics Calculation, Mathematics Problem Solving, Written Expression, Listening Comprehension, and Oral Expression.

Age Range

4–50 years

Administration Time

Estimates based upon the time it took for 50% of the standardization sample to administer all grade-appropriate subtests.Pre-K–Kindergarten: 35–45 minutesGrades 1–3: 80–94 minutesGrades 4–12+: 104 minutes




(Pricing is subject to change)


Without Q-Global scoring: $545

With Q-Global scoring: $699

Includes Examiner's Manual, Technical Manual CD, Stimulus Book, Scoring Workbook, Oral Reading Fluency Book, Word Card, Pseudo Word Card, Audio CD, Response Booklets (25), Record Forms (25), and optional Q-global Score Reports (75).

WIAT-III Printed Tech Manual: $30

ISBN 0158984722

Note: Consumers must call to order this item

WIAT-III Q-interactive

:Pricing options are available per subtest or by subscription (see


Rapid Reference 1.4

Basic Information About the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement–Third Edition


Alan S. Kaufman and Nadeen L. Kaufman

Publication Date

KTEA-3 Comprehensive Form: 2014KTEA-3 Brief Form: 2015

What the Test Measures

The following achievement domains are measured in both the Comprehensive and Brief Forms: Reading, Mathematics, and Written Language. The Comprehensive Form measures an additional fourth domain: Oral Language.

Age Range

4–25 years (Comprehensive & Brief Forms)

Administration Time

Academic Skills Battery Composite: 15 min. for Pre-K to 85 min. for grades 3+Brief Form BA-3 composite: 20 minutes




(Pricing is subject to change)

KTEA-3 Comprehensive Form A or B Kit

Without Q-Global Scoring: $420.50

With Q-Global Scoring : $625.25

Includes Administration Manual, Scoring Manual, 2 Stimulus Books, USB Flash Drive (contains Technical Manual, Audio Files, Scoring Keys, Hand Scoring Forms, Letter Checklist, Qualitative Observations Form, Error Analysis Forms), Form A Record Forms (25), Form A Response Booklet (25), 3 Form A Written Expression booklets (2 each), soft-sided carrying bag, and optional Q-global Score Reports (100).

KTEA-3 Brief Form Kit: $297

Includes Administration Manual, Stimulus Book, USB Flash Drive (contains Technical Manual, Audio Files), Record Form (25), Response Booklet (25), and Form B Written Expression Booklet (2 each of Levels 2-4).

KTEA-3 Printed Tech Manual: $30

Product Number 32442

Note: Consumers must call to order this item

KTEA-3 Q-interactive

:Pricing options are available per subtest or by subscription (see



 Another widely used achievement test, the Woodcock Johnson–Fourth Edition (WJ-IV; Schrank, Mather, & McGrew, 2014) is the topic of its own book in the


series entitled

Essentials of WJ-IV Tests of Achievement Assessment

(Mather & Wendling, 2015).


 Portions of this section were adapted from

Chapter 1


Essentials of Individual Achievement Assessment

(Smith, 2001).

Chapter TwoKTEA™-3

The Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement–Third Edition (KTEA-3) was developed to assess the academic achievement of individuals ages 4 through 25 (prekindergarten through adult). The KTEA-3 has two versions: the Brief Form (Kaufman & Kaufman, 2015a) and the Comprehensive Form (Kaufman & Kaufman, 2014a). The Brief Form assesses three academic domains (reading, math, and written expression). The Comprehensive form assesses a fourth domain (oral language) as well as additional reading-related, oral, and cross-domain areas. The Comprehensive Form includes two independent parallel forms, A and B, which were designed with very few to no overlapping items.

The six KTEA-3 Brief subtests are exactly the same as the core subtests from Comprehensive Form B. Examiners who need to build on the KTEA-3 Brief results for a more in-depth academic evaluation are able to integrate the results from the KTEA-3 Brief and the KTEA-3 Comprehensive (Form A or B) without readministering subtests.

Much of the information in this chapter pertains specifically to the Comprehensive Form; however, administration and scoring information for the subtests included in both the Brief Form and Comprehensive Form applies to both tests. Additional information specific to the Brief Form is discussed in two sections in this chapter: Overview of the KTEA-3 Brief Form summarizes its benefits and uses, psychometric properties, and differences from the Comprehensive Form. Using the KTEA-3 Brief Form provides further information about using the Brief Form for various purposes and in conjunction with the Comprehensive Form.


Over a 4-year period beginning in 1981, Drs. Alan and Nadeen Kaufman developed the first edition of the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA). The K-TEA was standardized in both the Spring and Fall of 1983. The normative groups were composed of 1,409 students in the spring and 1,067 in the fall. Upon completion of the standardization, the K-TEA was published in 1985. Then, in the mid-1990s, American Guidance Service, publisher of the K-TEA, restandardized the original K-TEA to match the 1994 U.S. Bureau of the Census estimates of the population. No changes were made to the items and scales of the K-TEA during the restandardization, but the norms were thoroughly updated. The renorming project involved four achievement batteries: the K-TEA, the Peabody Individual Achievement Test–Revised (PIAT-R), KeyMath–Revised (KeyMath-R), and the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests–Revised (WRMT-R). The instruments all measured one or more domains of academic achievement. During the renorming, each student was administered one of the primary batteries along with subtests from the other instruments. Thus, each of the primary batteries was administered to approximately one-fifth of the standardization sample. The renorming of the K-TEA was finalized with the publication of the K-TEA/Normative Update (K-TEA/NU) by Nadeen and Alan Kaufman in 1997.

Because professionals in school psychology and related fields used the K-TEA and K-TEA/NU so frequently, the test authors decided to revise the test beginning in 1995. Indeed, studies of test usage have shown that both the K-TEA and the K-TEA/NU were used frequently in educational and clinical settings (Archer et al., 1991; Hammill, Fowler, Bryant, & Dunn, 1992; Hutton, Dubes, & Muir, 1992; Laurent & Swerdlik, 1992; Stinnett et al., 1994; Wilson & Reschley, 1996). To ensure that the KTEA-II provided the most useful and practical information to clinicians, the Kaufmans developed their plan for the second edition based on current research and clinical practice. Four main goals were targeted in the revision of the K-TEA: (1) improve the measurement of the achievement domains measured by the original K-TEA; (2) add content that is appropriate for preschool and college-age students; (3) add subtests to assess written and oral expression, listening comprehension, and reading-related skills; (4) make error analysis more informative through the systematic representation of skills, and, on some subtests, a more fine-grained approach to classifying errors.

Generally, the first step in the development of each KTEA-II subtest was to define at a conceptual level which skills should be measured for a particular academic domain (Kaufman & Kaufman, 2004a). Both literature reviews and expert opinion were used to determine what should be measured within each academic domain. The original K-TEA items were reviewed to determine which item formats should be retained and which should be modified. Since four new achievement areas were added in the KTEA-II, expert advisors contributed suggestions for content and item formats for written expression, oral expression, listening comprehension, and reading-related skills. Part of the content development of the subtests involved making sure that certain skills were systematically represented. Developing subtests in this manner helped to make error analysis more informative and also allowed a more fine-grained approach to classifying errors on some subtests.

In 2009, planning and conceptual development of the KTEA-3 began. Several key goals and primary considerations were identified for the revision of the KTEA-II and development of the KTEA-3, which are outlined in Rapid Reference 2.1 (Kaufman & Kaufman, 2014b). Pilot