Digital Signal Processing for RFID - Feng Zheng - ebook

Digital Signal Processing for RFID ebook

Feng Zheng

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This book discusses the fundamentals of RFID and the state-of-the-art research results in signal processing for RFID, including MIMO, blind source separation, anti-collision, localization, covert RFID and chipless RFID. Aimed at graduate students as well as academic and professional researchers/engineers in RFID technology, it enables readers to become conversant with the latest theory and applications of signal processing for RFID. Key Features: * Provides a systematic and comprehensive insight into the application of modern signal processing techniques for RFID systems * Discusses the operating principles, channel models of RFID, RFID protocols and analog/digital filter design for RFID * Explores RFID-oriented modulation schemes and their performance * Highlights research fields such as MIMO for RFID, blind signal processing for RFID, anti-collision of multiple RFID tags, localization with RFID, covert RFID and chipless RFID * Contains tables, illustrations and design examples

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Table of Contents

Cover

Information and Communication Technology Series

Title Page

Copyright

Dedication

Preface

Acknowledgements

Abbreviations

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 What is RFID?

1.2 A Brief History of RFID

1.3 Motivation and Scope of this Book

1.4 Notations

References

Chapter 2: Fundamentals of RFID Systems

2.1 Operating Principles

2.2 Passive, Semi-Passive/Semi-Active and Active RFID

2.3 Analogue Circuits for RFID

2.4 Circuit Analysis for Signal Transfer in RFID

2.5 Signal Analysis of RFID Systems

2.6 Statistical Channel Models

2.7 A Review of RFID Protocol

2.8 Challenges in RFID

2.9 Summary

Appendix 2.A Modified Bessel Function of the First Kind

References

Chapter 3: Basic Signal Processing for RFID

3.1 Bandpass Filters and Their Applications to RFID

3.2 Matching Filters and their Applications to RFID

3.3 A Review of Optimal Estimation

3.4 Summary

Appendix 3.A Derivation of Poles of the Chebyshev Filter

References

Chapter 4: RFID-Oriented Modulation Schemes

4.1 A Brief Review of Analogue Modulation

4.2 Amplitude- and Phase-Shift Keying and Performance Analysis

4.3 Phase-Shift Keying and Performance Analysis

4.4 Frequency-Shift Keying and Performance Analysis

4.5 Summary

Appendix 4.A Derivation of SER Formula (4.24)

Appendix 4.B Derivation of SER Formula (4.40)

References

Chapter 5: MIMO for RFID

5.1 Introduction

5.2 MIMO Principle

5.3 Channel Modelling of RFID-MIMO Wireless Systems

5.4 Design of Reader Transmit Signals

5.5 Space-Time Coding for RFID-MIMO Systems

5.6 Differential Space-Time Coding for RFID-MIMO Systems

5.7 Summary

Appendix 5.A Alamouti Space-Time Coding for Narrowband Systems

Appendix 5.B Definition of Group

Appendix 5.C Complex Matrix/Vector Gaussian Distribution

Appendix 5.D Maximum Likelihood Receiver for Unitary STC

References

Chapter 6: Blind Signal Processing for RFID

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Channel Model of Multiple-Tag RFID-MIMO Systems

6.3 An Analytical Constant Modulus Algorithm

6.4 Application of ACMA to Multiple-Tag RFID Systems

6.5 Summary

References

Chapter 7: Anti-Collision of Multiple-Tag RFID Systems

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Tree-Splitting Algorithms

7.3 Aloha-Based Algorithm

7.4 Summary

Appendix 7.A Inclusion-Exclusion Principle

Appendix 7.B Probability of Successful Transmissions in Some Particular Time Slots in Aloha

Appendix 7.C Probability of an Exact Number of Successful Transmissions in Aloha

References

Chapter 8: Localization with RFID

8.1 Introduction

8.2 RFID Localization

8.3 RFID Ranging – Frequency-Domain PDoA Approach

8.4 RFID AoA Finding – Spatial-Domain PDoA

8.5 NLoS Issue

8.6 Summary

References

Chapter 9: Some Future Perspectives for RFID

9.1 Introduction

9.2 UWB Basics

9.3 Covert RFID

9.4 Chipless RFID

9.5 Concluding Remarks

References

Index

End User License Agreement

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Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

Preface

Begin Reading

List of Illustrations

Chapter 2: Fundamentals of RFID Systems

Figure 2.1 An illustration of RFID principle.

Figure 2.2 An illustration of electromagnetic field coupling between reader and tag.

Figure 2.3 An illustration of backscattering coupling between reader and tag.

Figure 2.4 Classification of RFID tags according to power sources.

Figure 2.5 An example circuit for the load modulation RFID tag with subcarrier communications. (Reproduced with permission from Figure 3.18, K. Finkenzeller. RFID Handbook, 3rd ed. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 45, 2010.)

Figure 2.6 General equivalent circuit for RFID load modulation.

Figure 2.7 A generic communication link with antennas and its equivalent circuit.

Figure 2.8 An equivalent circuit for load modulation analysis.

Figure 2.9 A further equivalent circuit for load modulation analysis.

Figure 2.10 An equivalent circuit for the analysis of a tag's backscattering modulation.

Figure 2.11 An illustration for calculating re-radiated power from the tag's antenna.

Figure 2.12 An illustration of a Rayleigh channel.

Figure 2.13 An illustration of Ricean channel.

Figure 2.14 A comparison among Rayleigh, Ricean and Nakagami distributions.

Figure 2.15 An illustration of RFID forward and backward channels.

Figure 2.16 An illustration of PIE symbols.

Figure 2.17 An illustration of reader-to-tag signalling.

Figure 2.18 An illustration of Miller and FM0 encoding schemes.

Figure 2.19 The structure of tag memory.

Figure 2.20 An illustration of sessions and states.

Figure 2.21 A sketch of the transition of tag states, where the words in italics represent the commands from the reader.

Figure 2.22 An illustration of the modified Bessel function of the first kind .

Chapter 3: Basic Signal Processing for RFID

Figure 3.1 An illustration for the specification of lowpass filters.

Figure 3.2 An illustration of Chebyshev polynomial, where the curves for and , as two examples, are plotted.

Figure 3.3 An illustration of the specification of bandpass filters.

Figure 3.4 An illustration of the frequency mapping between a lowpass filter and a bandpass filter.

Figure 3.5 The amplitude of the frequency response of the bandpass filter (3.40), where , , and .

Figure 3.6 The amplitude of the frequency response of the bandpass filter (3.41), where , , and .

Figure 3.7 The amplitude of the frequency response of the Butterworth bandpass filter for a microwave-frequency RFID system.

Figure 3.8 The amplitude of the frequency response of the Chebyshev bandpass filter for a microwave-frequency RFID system.

Figure 3.9 An illustration of a matching filter.

Figure 3.10 An illustration of a linear system to maximize the output SNR.

Figure 3.11 Matching filters for PIE symbol detection at RFID tags.

Figure 3.12 An illustration for the AEE: the measurement noise is Gaussian. LS, MMSE and ML estimates of coincide with each other.

Figure 3.13 An illustration for the AEE: the measurement noise is Laplace distributed.

Chapter 4: RFID-Oriented Modulation Schemes

Figure 4.1 An illustration of the spectra of message signal and AM modulated signal. (a) The spectrum of message signal; (b) the spectrum of AM signal, where stands for the maximal frequency of the message signal.

Figure 4.2 A realization scheme of SSB modulation.

Figure 4.3 Block diagram of a product demodulator.

Figure 4.4 An envelope demodulator.

Figure 4.5 Constellations of 4-QAM and 16-QAM.

Figure 4.6 QAM modulator (coherent).

Figure 4.7 QAM demodulator.

Figure 4.8 An illustration of SER calculation for 16-QAM system.

Figure 4.9 The average SER of QPSK modulation for RFID and Rayleigh channels with and .

Figure 4.10 The average SER of 16-QAM modulation for RFID and Rayleigh channels with and .

Figure 4.11 Constellations of BPSK and 8-PSK.

Figure 4.12 PSK demodulator.

Figure 4.13 The average symbol error rate of -PSK modulation for RFID channels with : (a) RFID channel, (b) Rayleigh channel. The results for BPSK can be obtained by either (4.34) or via simulation, which are coincidental.

Figure 4.14 FSK demodulator (coherent), where stands for RFID channel fading.

Figure 4.15 The average symbol error rate of -FSK modulation for RFID channels with and coherent detection. The results for BFSK can be obtained by either (4.38) or via simulation, which are coincidental.

Chapter 5: MIMO for RFID

Figure 5.1 A block diagram of an RFID-MIMO system.

Figure 5.2 BER of the RFID-MIMO system: , .

Figure 5.5 BER of the RFID-MIMO system. A single data symbol is transmitted across the multiple antennas at the tag in one time slot. , 1, 2, 3, or 4.

Figure 5.4 BER of the RFID-MIMO system: , .

Figure 5.3 BER of the RFID-MIMO system: , .

Figure 5.6 SER of RFID-MIMO systems for Scheme I with QPSK modulation: SER versus .

Figure 5.12 A comparison among Scheme I, Scheme II and the Alamouti STC. For the curves marked with ‘Scheme I’, ‘Scheme II’ and ‘Alamouti’, and .

Figure 5.7 SER of RFID-MIMO systems for Scheme I with QPSK modulation: SER versus .

Figure 5.8 BER of RFID-MIMO systems for Scheme II with BPSK modulation: BER versus .

Figure 5.9 BER of RFID-MIMO systems for Scheme II with BPSK modulation: BER versus .

Figure 5.10 BER of RFID-MIMO systems for Scheme I with BPSK modulation: BER versus .

Figure 5.11 BER of RFID-MIMO systems for Scheme I with BPSK modulation: BER versus .

Figure 5.13 Code error rate for unitary DSTC (5.33)–(5.34) for the case of two tag antennas.

Figure 5.14 Code error rate for unitary DSTC (5.45)–(5.46) for the case of four tag antennas.

Figure 5.15 Alamouti STC scheme for narrowband MIMO.

Figure 5.16 Alamouti STC scheme for narrowband MIMO.

Chapter 6: Blind Signal Processing for RFID

Figure 6.1 An illustration for the schema of blind signal processing problem.

Figure 6.2 An illustration of multiple-tag RFID-MIMO systems.

Figure 6.3 An illustration of blind signal processing technique.

Figure 6.4 The constellation of the transmitted signal at each tag.

Figure 6.5 Scatter plots of the processed signal as a function of the number of measurements , where , , , dB and and 26, respectively.

Figure 6.7 The average modulus error of the processed signal vs. K (the number of measurements) for different SNR, where , and .

Figure 6.6 Scatter plots of the processed signal as a function of the number of measurements , where , , , dB and and 1000, respectively.

Figure 6.8 Scatter plots of the processed signal for different SNR, where , , , and dB and 6 dB, respectively.

Figure 6.10 The average modulus error of the processed signal versus SNR for different , where , and .

Figure 6.9 Scatter plots of the processed signal for different SNR, where , , , and dB and 20 dB, respectively.

Figure 6.11 Scatter plots of the processed signal for different SNR, where , , and .

Figure 6.12 Scatter plots of the processed signal for different , where , , , dB and and 6, respectively.

Figure 6.14 The average modulus error of the processed signal versus for different SNR, where , and .

Figure 6.13 Scatter plots of the processed signal for different , where , , , dB and and 12, respectively.

Figure 6.15 Scatter plots of the processed signal for two critical cases: , , and dB.

Figure 6.16 Scatter plots of the processed signal for different , where , , , dB and and 10, respectively.

Figure 6.18 The average modulus error of the processed signal versus for different SNR, where , and .

Figure 6.17 Scatter plots of the processed signal for different , where , , , dB and and 12, respectively.

Chapter 7: Anti-Collision of Multiple-Tag RFID Systems

Figure 7.1 An illustration of tree splitting algorithm for the case of and .

Figure 7.2 An illustration of calculating the total transmission time for TS algorithm for the case of .

Figure 7.3 An illustration of calculating the total transmission time for TS algorithm for the case of .

Figure 7.4 An illustration of calculating the total transmission time for TS algorithm for the case of .

Figure 7.5 An illustration of calculating the total transmission time for TS algorithm for the case of .

Figure 7.6 An illustration of calculating the total transmission time for TS algorithm for the case of .

Figure 7.7 An illustration of calculating the total transmission time for TS algorithm for the case of .

Figure 7.8 An illustration of calculating the total transmission time for TS algorithm for the case of .

Figure 7.9 An illustration of calculating the total transmission time for TS algorithm for the case of .

Figure 7.10 The mean identification delay for the cases of binary and trinary TS algorithms versus the number of tags. .

Figure 7.11 The transmission efficiency for the cases of binary and trinary TS algorithms versus the number of tags. .

Figure 7.12 Average transmission time for the cases of binary and trinary TS algorithms versus the number of tags. .

Figure 7.13 Transmission efficiency versus and , and optimal , where is fixed at .

Figure 7.16 Transmission efficiency versus and , and optimal , where is fixed to be at .

Figure 7.15 Transmission efficiency versus and , and optimal , where is fixed at .

Figure 7.14 Transmission efficiency versus and , and optimal , where is fixed at .

Figure 7.17 The mean identification delay of the static Aloha versus the number of tags for different . .

Figure 7.18 The transmission efficiency of the static Aloha versus the number of tags for different frame size. .

Figure 7.19 The relationship between and , where .

Figure 7.20 The transmission efficiency and mean identification delay of AFSA1 and AFSA2 versus the number of tags. , .

Figure 7.22 The transmission efficiency and mean identification delay of AFSA1 and AFSA2 versus the number of tags. , .

Figure 7.21 The transmission efficiency and mean identification delay of AFSA1 and AFSA2 versus the number of tags. , .

Figure 7.23 The transmission efficiency of AFSA1 and AFSA2 versus the number of tags for different , where .

Figure 7.26 The transmission efficiency of AFSA1 and AFSA2 versus the number of tags for different , where .

Chapter 8: Localization with RFID

Figure 8.1 RFID Localization via the AoA measurement.

Figure 8.2 An illustration of the deployment of readers and tags for 2D localization problem using the proximity approach.

Figure 8.3 An illustration for the situation where some tags are of the same range of RSSEs as that of the tag to be localized, but their positions are far from that of the tag to be localized.

Figure 8.4 A schematic diagram of the transmitter and receiver structure of a dual-frequency RFID system, where Tx, Rx, PA, LNA and LPF stand for transmit antenna, receive antenna, power amplifier, low-noise amplifier and low-pass filter, respectively.

Figure 8.5 An illustration for the reader's transmitter and receiver structure for spatial domain PDoA localization problem: for the case of a single tag.

Figure 8.6 An illustration for the reader's transmitter and receiver structure for spatial domain PDoA localization problem: for the case of multiple tags.

Chapter 9: Some Future Perspectives for RFID

Figure 9.1 FCC spectral mask for UWB indoor applications.

Figure 9.2 The basic monopulses for IR-based UWB systems and their normalized power spectrums ( ns).

Figure 9.3 An illustration for the temporal focusing and spatial discrimination properties. (a) The CIR of the equivalent composite channel for the targeted user. (b) The CIR of the equivalent composite channel for an unintended user.

Figure 9.4 Block diagram of a TR filter at the transmitter side, where is receiver noise and stationary, is the information symbol to be transmitted, , and . The composite channel is called equivalent composite channel of the TR system.

Figure 9.5 Block diagram of the TR system for RFID with multiple antennas at both readers and tags.

Figure 9.6 A resonator-based chipless tag. (Reproduced from Figure 3, S. Preradovic, I. Balbin, N. C. Karmakar, and G. F. Swiegers. Multiresonator-based chipless RFID system for low-cost item tracking. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 57:1412, 2009.)

Figure 9.7 Layout of a spiral resonator. (Reproduced from Figure 5, S. Preradovic, I. Balbin, N. C. Karmakar, and G. F. Swiegers. Multiresonator-based chipless RFID system for low-cost item tracking. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 57:1413, 2009.)

Figure 9.8 Amplitude attenuation and phase ripple of the tag's backscattered signal caused by the cascaded resonators. (From [26]. Reproduced with permission from S. Preradovic, I. Balbin, N. C. Karmakar, and G. F. Swiegers. Multiresonator-based chipless RFID system for low-cost item tracking. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., 57:1411–1419, 2009.)

Figure 9.9 Operating principle of a SAW-tag RFID system.

Figure 9.10 A typical time response of a SAW-tag RFID system.

List of Tables

Chapter 2: Fundamentals of RFID Systems

Table 2.1 Typical RFID operating frequencies and characteristics

Table 2.2 Five classes of EPCglobal RFID standards. Here WORM stands for ‘write once and read many’, and WMRM ‘write many and read many’

Chapter 5: MIMO for RFID

Table 5.1 BER comparison for a fixed SNR and different system configuration. SNR = 18 dB, and

Table 5.2 A comparison of the required SNRs to achieve the same SER for different RFID-STC systems, where the notation DSTC I means that the system uses DSTC (5.33)–(5.34) and is equipped with antennas at its reader and antennas at its tag. Similar notations apply to ASTC and DSTC II schemes too

Chapter 7: Anti-Collision of Multiple-Tag RFID Systems

Table 7.1 The relationship between and for a fixed

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Digital Signal Processing for RFID

 

 

Feng Zheng and Thomas Kaiser

University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany

 

 

 

 

This edition first published 2016

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to Zhiying and Anna Yuhan

Feng Zheng

 

to Petra and Hendrik

Thomas Kaiser

Preface

Identification is pervasive nowadays in daily life due to many complicated activities such as bank and library card reading, asset tracking, toll collecting, restricted access to sensitive data and procedures and target identification. This kind of task can be realized by passwords, biometric data such as fingerprints, barcode, optical character recognition, smart cards and radar. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technique to identify objects by using radio systems. It is a contactless, usually short distance, wireless data transmission and reception technique for identification of objects. An RFID system consists of two components: the tag (also called transponder) and the reader (also called interrogator).

Generally, signal processing is the core of a radio system. This claim also holds true for RFID. Several books are available now addressing other topics in RFID, such as the basics/fundamentals, smart antennas, security and privacy, but no book has appeared to address signal processing issues in RFID. We aim to complete this task in this book.

The book is organized as follows. Chapter 1 (Introduction) reviews some basic facts of RFID technology and gives an introduction about the scope of the book. In Chapter 2 (Fundamentals of RFID Systems), the operating principles and classification of RFID will be briefly introduced, some typical analogue circuits of RFID and their basic analysis will be addressed, channel models of RFID will be presented and RFID protocols will be briefly reviewed. In Chapter 3 (Basic Signal Processing for RFID), we will discuss some basic signal processing techniques and their applications in RFID. In Chapter 4 (RFID-oriented Modulation Schemes), we will address those modulation schemes that are suitable to RFID tags, which include binary amplitude shift keying and frequency/phase shift keying. The performance of these modulation schemes for RFID channels will be investigated. In Chapter 5 (MIMO for RFID), we examine the problems of transmit signal design and space-time coding at the tag for MIMO-RFID systems. In Chapter 6 (Blind Signal Processing for RFID), we will investigate the possibility of identifying multiple tags simultaneously from signal processing viewpoint in the PHY layer by using multiple antennas at readers and tags. In Chapter 7 (Anti-Collision of Multiple-Tag RFID Systems), we deal with the problem of identifying multiple tags from the viewpoint of networking. The basic tree-splitting and Aloha-based anti-collision algorithms for multi-tag RFID systems and their theoretical performance analysis will be examined. Some improvements for the corresponding algorithms will be discussed. Chapter 8 (Localization with RFID) is devoted to localization problems. Several localization algorithms/methods by using RFID systems will be described. In Chapter 9 (Some Future Perspectives for RFID), covert radio frequency identification by using ultra wideband and time reversal techniques, as an example of high-end RFID applications, and chipless tags, as an example of low-end RFID systems, will be presented.

This book is targeted at graduate students and high-level undergraduate students, researchers in academia and practicing engineers in the field of RFID. The book can be used as both a reference book for advanced research and a textbook for students. We try our best to make it self-contained, but some preliminary background on probability theory, matrix theory and wireless communications are helpful.

Acknowledgements

In July 2012, Professor T. Russell Hsing, a Co-Editor-in-Chief of the Wiley ICT Book Series, invited us to write a book proposal summarizing our recent research results. In the meantime, we were planning to deliver a lecture on RFID-related signal processing techniques. Therefore, the book idea for Digital Signal Processing for RFID came to us. Dr. Simone Taylor, Director of Editorial Development, and Diana Gialo, Senior Editorial Assistant at John Wiley, also supported this book idea. We received constant encouragement from Professor Hsing in writing and revising the detailed book proposal. Therefore, we wish to express our deep gratitude to Professor Hsing, Dr. Taylor, and Diana Gialo for their direct initiative of this book project.

We are grateful to the four anonymous reviewers for their constructive advice and comments on the initial book proposal. In particular, one reviewer suggested that we add a chapter addressing radar-embedded communications. This leads to the concept of coverting RFID, which forms the main part of Chapter 9. The reviewers also motivated us to add some sections on RFID protocols and MIMO principles. All these suggestions and comments helped improve the organization and quality of this book. In this regard, our thanks also go to Anna Smart, Acting Commissioning Editor at John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, for her coordinaton of the proposal reviewing.

We are particularly grateful to Liz Wingett, Clarissa Lim, Tiina Wigley, and Victoria Taylor, Project Editors at John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, for their superb support and coordination of the project.

The results in Chapter 5 were obtained with the support of German Research Foundation (DFG) via the project ‘MIMO Backscatter-Übertragung auf Basis von Mehrantennen-Transpondern in RFID-basierten Funksystemen’ (Project No. KA 1154/30-1). The support of DFG is greatly appreciated.

We are happy to acknowledge fruitful cooperation with Dr Bernd Geck and Mr Eckhard Denicke at the Leibniz University of Hannover and Dr. Kiattisak Maichalernnukul at Rangsit University in RFID-related projects. We are grateful to Professor Qing Zheng at Gannon University, Mr. Yuan Gao and Mr. Marc Hoffmann at the University of Duisburg-Essen for their carefully proofreading the book and helpful comments.

Finally, we want to thank our families Zhiying, Anna Yuhan, Petra and Hendrik for their unwavering love, support and patience. Without their spiritual support and tolerance in time, this book could not have been finished. Without their love, our expedition in this exciting field could never succeed. Therefore, we would like to dedicate this book to them.

Abbreviations

ACK

acknowledgement signal

ACMA

analytical constant modulus algorithm

AEE

average estimation error

AM

amplitude modulation

AME

average modulus error

AoA

angle of arrival

ASK

amplitude-shift keying

ASTC

Alamouti space-time coding

ATT

average transmission time

AWGN

additive white Gaussian noise

BER

bit error rate

AFSA1

adaptive frame size Aloha 1

AFSA2

adaptive frame size Aloha 2

BFSK

binary frequency-shift keying

BLF

backscatter link frequency

BPSK

binary phase-shift keying

BSP

blind signal processing

BSS

blind signal (or source) separation

C1G2

Class 1, Gen 2

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Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

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Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!