Der schnelle Weg zum Flugfunkzeugnis für IFR - Hans Ulrich Kriens - ebook

Der schnelle Weg zum Flugfunkzeugnis für IFR ebook

Hans Ulrich Kriens

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Opis

Alle Kapitel bauen sich auf einander auf. Sie erlernen den Lehrstoff ohne großes Nachblättern. Natürlich finden sie am Abschluss jeden Kapitels die entsprechenden Prüfungsfragen. Im Anhang sind die IFR-Karten für den Flughafen Düsseldorf vorhanden.

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Vorwort

Sie halten nun die 3. Auflage meines Arbeitsbuches „Der schnelle Weg zum Funksprechzeugnis“ in den Händen. Wie bei den meisten Lehrbüchern handelt es sich um „Kochbücher“, die dieses und jenes Rezept gut finden.

Das vorliegende Lehrbuch ist im Jahr 2002 auf Anregung der Studenten der FH Osnabrück entstanden. Dabei habe ich mich im Aufbau besonders an die Erfordernisse der Prüfung gehalten, jedoch auch einige Themen umfangreicher dargestellt.

Ich danke meiner Frau und allen Freunden, die mich bei dieser Arbeit tatkräftig unterstützt haben.

Auszüge aus FS-Veröffentlichungen und den Karten aus der AIP und AIP VFR mit freundlicher Genehmigung der DFS Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH.

Für die Überlassung von Bildern, Darstellungen und Texten bedanke ich mich bei den Firmen Bendix/King und Jeppesen.

Chapter 1

Abbreviation and definitions

Definitions

Aeronautical station A station in the aeronautical mobile service located on land or, in certain instances, on board of a ship or on a platform at sea

Air-ground communication Two-way communication between aircraft and stations or locations on the surface of the earth

Automatic Terminal Information Service The provision of current routine information to arriving and departing aircraft by means of continuous and repetitive broadcast throughout the day or a specific portion of the day

Blind transmission A transmission from one station to another station in circumstances where two-way communication cannot be established but where it is believed that the called station is able to receive the transmission

Broadcast A transmission of information relating to air navigation that is not addressed to a specific station or stations

Broken In meteorological report cloud coverage of 5 to 7 octas will be classified as broken

Clearance limit A point to which an aircraft is granted an air traffic control clearance

Estimated time of arrival The time at which it is estimated that the aircraft will arrive over that designated point defined by reference to navigation aids, from which it is intended, that an instrument approach will be commenced

Expected approach time The time at which ATC expects that an arriving aircraft, following a delay, will leave the holding point to complete its approach for a landing

Flight level A level in the atmosphere for vertical separation which is determined by setting the altimeter to 1013,2 hPa

Overcast When the term "overcast" is used in radio telephony in connection with meteorological conditions clouds are covering 100% of the sky.

Scattered When the term "scattered" is used in radio telephony in connection with meteorological conditions clouds covering half or less then half of the sky

Transition Level The transition level is the lowest usable flight level. At this level the altimeter will be changed from 1013,2 hPa to QNH during descend below the flight level system. It is determined on the basis of transition altitude and QNH and should be at least 1000 ft above the transition altitude. For example:

Abbreviation

(You must know those abbreviations shown in bold letters because they are part of the question catalogue.)

A

A/ A Air-to air

AAL Above aerodrome level

ABM Abeam

AC Altocumulus

ACA Advisory Center for Aviation

ACC Aera control centre or area control

ACFT Aircraft

ACL Altimeter check location

ACPT Accept or accepted

ACT Active or activated or activity

AD Aerodrome

ADA Advisory area

ADDN Addition or additional

ADF Automatic direction-finding equipment

ADR Advisory route

ADS Automatic Dependent Surveillance

AF Air Force

AFIL Flight plan filed in the air

AFIS Aerodrome flight information service

AFS Aeronautical fixed service

AFTN Aeronautical fixed telecommunication network

AFWA Automatic flight weather advisory

A/G Air-to-ground

AGL Above ground level

AGN Again

AIC Aeronautical information circular

AIP Aeronautical Information Publication

AIRAC Aeronautical information regulation and control

AIREP Air-report

AIRMET Information concerning enroute weather phenomena which may affect the safety of low-level operations

AIS Aeronautical Information Service

ALA Alighting area (Landebereich)

ALERFA Alert phase

ALR Alerting message

ALS Approach lighting system

ALT Altitude

ALTN Alternate aerodrome

AMD Amend or amended

AMDT Amendment

AMS Aeronautical mobile service

AMSL Above mean sea level

ANM AFTM Notification Message

AOC Aerodrome obstacle chart

APAPI Abbreviated Precision Approach Path Indicator

APCH Approach

APP Approach control office or approach control

APR April

APRX Approximate or approximately

ARFOR Area forecast (in aeronautical meteorological code)

ARMET Forecast upper wind and temperature at specified points (in aeronautical meteorological code)

ARP Aerodrome reference point

ARR Arrive or arrival

ARR Arrival message

ARS Special air-report (message type designator)

AS Altostratus

ASC Ascent to or ascending to

ASDA Accelerate stop distance available

A-SMR Advanced Surface Movement Radar

ASPH Asphalt

ASR Airport surveillance radar

ATA Actual time of arrival

ATC Air traffic control

ATD Actual time of departure

ATFM Air Traffic Flow Management

ATIS Automatic Terminal Information Service

ATMC Airspace and traffic management centre

ATS Air traffic service

ATTN Attention

ATZ Aerodrome traffic zone

AUG August

AUW All up weight

AVBL Available

AVGAS Aviation gasoline

AWY Airway

AZ Azimuth station

AZM Azimuth

B

B Blue

BA Braking action

BASE Cloud base

BCFG Fog patches

BCN Beacon (aeronautical ground light)

BCST Broadcast

BDRY Boundary

BECMG Becoming

BKN Broken

BLDG Building

BLO Below clouds

BLSN Blowing snow

BLW Below …

BR Mist

BRG Bearing

BRKG Braking

BS Commercial broadcasting station

BTL Between layers

BTN Between

C

C Centre (Runway identification)

C Degrees Celsius (Centigrade)

CAT Category

CAT Clear air turbulance

CAVOKVisibility, cloud and present weather better than prescribed values or conditions (in Europe: visibility more than 10 km, no clouds below 5000 ft, no precipitation, no cb, no drifting snow, no sandstorm

CB Cumulonimbus

CC Cirrocumulus

CD Candela

CEST Central European Summertime

CET Central European Time

CEU-W Central Executive Unit West

CFM Confirm or I confirm

CH Channel

CHG Modification message

CI Cirrus

CIV Civil

CLR Clear or cleared to or clearance

CLSD Closed

Cm Centimetre(s)

CMPL Completion or completed or complete

CNL Cancel or cancelled

CNL Flight plan cancellation message

COM Communications

CON CONSOL

CONC Concrete

COND Condition

CONST Construction or constructed

CONT Continue or continued

COORD Corrdinates

COP Change-over point

COR Correct or corrected or correction

COV Cover or covered or covering

CPL Current flight plan message

CRAM Conditional routes available message

CS Call sign

CS Cirrostratus

CTA Control area

CTL Control

CTN Caution

CTR Control zone

CU Cumulus

CUST Customs

CVFR Controlled VFR flight

CW Continuous wave

CWY Clearway

D

“d” Thickness of flexible pavement (replaced by PCN)

D… Danger area (followed by identification)

DA Decision altitude

DEC December

DEG Degrees

DEP Depart or departure

DEP Departure message

DER Departure end of runway

DES Descend to or descending to

DEST Destination

DETRESFA Distress phase

DF Direction Finder

DH Decision height

DIST Distance

DLA Delay message

DLA Delay or delayed

DME Distance measuring equipment

DNG Danger or dangerous

DOF Date of flight

DP Dew point temperature

DR Dead reckoning

DRG During

DRSN Drifting snwo

DTAM Descend to and maintain

DTG Date-time group

DTRT Deteriorate or deteriorating

DTW Dual tandem wheels

DUR Duration

DVOR Doppler VOR

DVORTAC Doppler VOR and TACAN

DW Dual wheels

DWD Deutscher Wetterdienst

DZ Drizzle

E

E East or eastern longitude

EAT Expected approach time

EEE Error

EET Estimated elapse time

EFAS Electronic flash approach light system

EHF Extremely high frequency (30000 to 300000 MHz

EL Elevation station

ELEV Elevation

ELT Emergency locator transmitter

EM Emission

EMBD Embedded

EMERG Emergency

En English

ENE East-northeast

ENR En-route (AIP Publication)

ENRT En-route

EOBT Estimated off-block time

EQPT Equipment

Es Spanish

ESE East-southeast

EST Estimate or estimated

ETA Estimated time of arrival or estimating arrival

ETD Estimated time of departure or estimating departure

ETO Estimated time over significant point

EUR European Region

Ev Every

EXC Except

EXER Exercise(s) or exercising or to exercise

EXP Expect or expected or expecting

EXTD Extend or extending

F

FAC Facilities

FAF French Air Force

FAF Final Approach Fix

FAL Facilitation of international air transport

FAP Final approach point

FATO Final approach and take-off area

FAWP Final approach waypoint

FBL Light (used to qualify icing, turbulence, interference or static reports)

FC Funnel cloud

FCST Forecast

FEB February

FG Fog

FIC Flight information centre

FIR Flight information region

FIS Flight information service

FL Flight level

FLG Flashing

FLT Flight

FLTCK Flight check

FLW Follow(s) or following

FLY Fly or flying

FM From

FNA Final approach

FLP Filed flight plan message

FPM Feet per minute

Fr French

FREQ Frequency

Fri Friday

FRNG Firing

FSL Full stop landing

FSS Flight service station

Ft Feet (dimensional unit)

FU Smoke

FZ Feezing

FZDZ Freezing drizzle

FZFG Freezing fog

FZRA Freezing rain

G

G Green

G/A Ground-to-air

G/A/G Ground-to-air and air-to-ground

GAF German Air Force

GCA Ground controlled approach system or ground controlled approach

GAFOR General Aviation forecast

GAMET Area forecast for low-level flights

GAT General Aviation Terminal

Ge German

GEN General

GEO Geographic or true

GLD Glider

GND Ground

GNDCK Ground check

GP Glide path

GPS Global Positioning System

GR Hail or soft hail

GRIB Processed meteorological data in the form of grid point values expressed in binary form (aeronautical meteorological code)

GS Ground speed

H

H24 Continuous day and night service

HBN Hazard beacon

HDF High frequency direction finding station

HDG Heading

HEL Helicopter

HF High frequency (3000 to 30000 kHz)

HGT Height or height above

HJ Sunrise to sunset

HLDG Holding

HN Sunset to sunrise

HOL Holiday

HPa Hectopascal

HR Hours

HS Service available during hours of schedule operation

HX Not permanently active, no specific working hours

Hz Hertz (cycle per second)

I

IAC Instrument approach chart

IAF Initial approach fix

IAL Instrument approach and landing chart

IAS Indicated air speed

IAWP Intitial approach waypoint

IBN Identification beacon

IC Ice crystals (very small ice crystals in suspension, also known as diamond dust)

ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation

ICE Icing

ID Identifier or identification or identify

Ident Identification

IF Intermediate approach fix

IFF Identification friend/foe

IFPS Integrated Initial Flight Plan Processing System

IFPZ Integrated Initial Flight Plan Processing Zone

IFR Instrument flight rules

IGA International general aviation

ILS Instrument landing system

IM Inner marker

IMC Instrument meteorological condition

IMPR Improve or improved

IMT Immediate or immediately

INA Initial approach

INBD Inbound

INCERFA Uncertainty phase

INFOBRIEF Information

INOP Inoperative

INS Inch(es) (dimensional unit)

INT Intersection

INTL International

INTST Intensity

IR Ice on runway

IWP Intermediate approach waypoint

J

JAN January

JUL July

JUN June

K

Kg Kilogramme(s)

KHz Kilohertz

Km Kilometre(s)

KmH Kilometre(s) per hour

kt Knot(s)

kW Kilowatts

L

L Left (runway identification)

L Locator (see LM, OM)

l Litre(s)

LAT Latitude

lb Pound(s) (weight)

LBA Federal Office of Civil Aviation in Germany

LDA Landing distance available

LDG Landing

LDI Landing direction indicator

LEFT left (direction of turn)

LF Low frequency (30 to 300 kHz)

LGT Light or lighting

LGTD Lighted

LIH Light intensity high

LIL Light intensity low

LLZ Localizer

LM Locator , middle

LMT Local mean time

LNG Long (used to indicate the type of approach desired or required)

LO Locator , outer

LOC Locally or location or located

LONG Longitude

LRG Long range

LT Left turn

LTD Limited

LTT Landline teletypewriter

LYR Layer or layered

M

m Metre(s)

Mag Magnetic

MAHP Missed Approach Holding Point

MAHWP Missed Approach Holding Waypoint

MAINT Maintenance

MAP Aeronautical maps and charts

MAPT Missed approach point

MAR March

MATWP Missed Approach Turning Waypoint

MAWP Missed approach waypoint

MAX Maximum

MAY May

MBST Microburst

MDA Minimum descent altitude

MDH Minimum descent height

MEA Minimum en-route altitude

MEHT Minimum eye-height over threshold

MESZ Central European Summertime

MET Meteorological or meteorlogy

METAR Aviation routine weather report (in aeronautical meteorological code)

MEZ Central European Time

MF Medium frequency (300 to 3000 kHz)

MHz Megahertz

MIFG Shallow fog

Mil Military

MIN Minute(s)

MKR Marker radio beacon

MLS Microwave landing system

MM Middle marker

MNM Minimum

MNPS Minimum navigation perfomance specifications

MNT Maintain

MOC Minimum obstacle clearance (required)

MOD Moderate (used to qualify icing, turbulence, interference or static reports)

Mon Monday

MOTNE Meteorological Operational Telecommunications Network Europe

Mpa Megapascal

MPH Statue mile(s) per hour

mps Metre(s) per second

MPW Maximum permissible weight

MRA Minimum reception altitude

MRG Medium range (SAR aircraft)

MRP ATS /MET reporting point

MRVA Minimum radar vectoring altitude

MS Minus

MSA Minimum safe altitude

MSA Minimum sector altitude

MSG Message

MSL Mean sea level

MT Mountain

MTOM Maximum take-off mass

MTOW Maximum take-off weight

MTW Mountain wave

MWO Meteorological watch office

MX Mixed type of ice formation (white and clear)

N

N North or northern latitude

NAV Navigation

NC No change

NE Northeast

NfL Nachricht(en) für Luftfahrer

NGT Night

NLFS Night Low Flying System

NM Nautical mile(s)

NMC National Meteorological Forecast Centre

NML Normal

NNE Nort-northeast

NNW North-northwest

NOF International NOTAM office

NOSIG No significant change (used in trend-type landing forecast)

NOTAM A notice containing information concerning the establishment, condition or change on any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations

NOV November

Nr./No. Number

NS Nimbostratus

NW Northwest

NXT Next

O

OAT Operational air traffic

OBS Observe or observed or observation

OBS Omni bearing selector

OBSC Obscure or obscured or obscuring

OBST Obstacle

OCA Obstacle clearance altitude

OCH Obstacle clearance height

OCNL Occasional or occasionally

OCS Obstacle clearance surface

OCT October

OFZ Obstacle free zone

OM Outer marker

OPA Opaque, with type of ice formation

OPMET Operational meteorological (information)

OPN Open or opening or opened

OPR Operator or operate or operative or operating or operational

OPS Operations

O/R On request

ORCAM Originating Region Code Assignment Method

OTP On top

P

P… Prohibited area (followed by identification)

PANS Procedures for air navigation services

PAPI Precision Approach Path Indicator

PAR Precision Approach Radar system

PCN Pavement classification number

PDG Procedure design gradient

PERM Permanent

PJE Parachute jumping exercise

PL Ice pellets

PLA Practice low approach

PLN Flight plan

PN Prior notice required

PO Dust/sand whirls (dust devils)

POB Persons on board

PPI Plan position indicator

PPR Prior permission required

PRFG Aerodrome partially covered by fog

PRKG Parking

PROB Probability

PROC Procedure

PROV Provisional

PS Plus

PSN Position

PSP Pierced steel plank

PTN Procedure turn

PWR Power

Q

QDM Magnetic heading (zero wind)

QDR Magnetic bearing

QFEAtmospheric pressure at aerodrome elevation (or at runway threshold)

QFU Magnetic orientation of runway

QNHAtmospheric pressure reduced to MSL by ICAO Standard Atmosphere and altimeter sub-scale setting to obtain aerodrome elevation when on the ground

QTETrue bearing from the station

R

R Red

R… Restricted area (followed by identification)

R… Radial (followed by Mag track

R Right (runway identification)

RA Rain

RAF Royal Air Force

RAG Runway arresting gear

RASN Moderate rain and snow

RCA Reach cruising altitude

RCAF Royal Canadian Air Force

RCC Rescue coordination centre

RCF Radio communication failure message

RCL Runway centre line

RDH Reference datum height (for ILS )

RDL Radial

RDO Radio

REC Receive or receiver

REF Reference to… or to …

REG Registration

REP Reporting point

REQ Request or requested

RFL Requested flight level

RFP Replacement Flight Plan

RG Range (lights)

RIF Reclearance öin flight

RMK Remark

RNAVArea Navigation

RNG Radio Range

ROFOR Route forecast (in aeronautical meteorological code)

RON Receiving only

RPL Repetitive flight plan

RPS Radar position symbol

RPT Repeat or I repeat

RQS Request supplementary flight plan message

RSC Rescue sub-centre

RSP Responder beacon

RSR En-route surveillance radar

RT Right turn

RTD Delayed (used to indicate delayed meteorological messages)

RTF Radiotelephone

RTG Radiotelegraph

RTT Radioteletypewriter

RUT Standard regional route transmitter frequencies

RV Rescue vessel

RVR Runwayvisual range

RWY Runway

S

S South or southern latitude

SA Duststorm, sandstorm, rising dust or rising sand

SAP As soon as possible

SAR Search and Rescue

SARPS Standards and Recommended Practices (ICAO)

Sat Saturday

SB Self-Briefing

SC Straticumulus

SCT Scattered

SE Southeast

SEC Seconds

SELCALSelective Calling System (A system which permits the selective calling of individual aircraft over radiotelephony channels linking a ground station with the aircraft)

SEP September

SEV Severe (used e.g. to qualify icing and turbulence reports)

SFC Surface

SG Snow grains

SH Showers

SHF Super high frequency (3000 –30000 MHz)

SHRA Moderate rain shower

SHRASN Moderate shower with rain and snow

SHSN Moderate snow shower

SID Standard instrument departure

SIF Selective identification feature

SIGMET Information concerning en-route weather phenomena which may affect the safety of aircraft operations

SIGWX Significant weather

SIMUL Simultaneous or simultaneously

SIWL Single isolated wheel load

SKC Sky clear

SKED Schedule or scheduled

SLAP Slot Allocation Procedure

SMC Surface movement control

SMR Surface movement radar

SN Snow