Beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics - Yorikiyo Nagashima - ebook

Beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics ebook

Yorikiyo Nagashima

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Opis

Eine sorgfältig und umfassend aufbereitete Präsentation unseres gesamten Wissens zu den großen Fragen der modernen Teilchenphysik mit Schwerpunkt auf Dunkler Materie und Dunkler Energie. Damit geht der Autor weit über das Standardmodell der Teilchenphysik hinaus, das die bekannten Elementarteilchen und ihre Wechselwirkungen beschreibt. Die theoretischen Modelle und Darstellungen werden in Beziehung gesetzt aktuellen Experimenten an modernen Beschleunigerzentren wie dem CERN. Ergänzt das ausführliche zweibändige Standardwerk des Autors zur Elementarteilchenphysik.

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Table of Contents

Cover

Related Titles

Title Page

Copyright

Preface

Acknowledgments

Glossary

Chapter 1: Higgs

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Higgs Interactions

1.3 Mass

1.4 Little and Big Hierarchy Problem

1.5 Higgs in the Supersymmetry

1.6 Is the Higgs Elementary?

1.7 Production and Detection of Higgs

1.8 Summary

Chapter 2: Neutrino

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Neutrino Mass

2.3 Electromagnetic Interaction

2.4 Neutrino Mixing

2.5 Neutrino Oscillation

2.6 Underground Detectors

2.7 Solar Neutrino

2.8 Three-Flavor Oscillation

2.9 Double Beta Decay

2.10 Supernova Neutrino

Chapter 3: Grand Unified Theories

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Why GUTs?

3.3 SU(5)

3.4 SO(10)

3.5 Hierarchy Problem

3.6 SUSY GUT

Chapter 4: Supersymmetry I: Basics

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Two-Component Formalism

4.3 Chiral Superfield

4.4 Vector Superfields

4.5 Action

4.6 Gauge Interaction

4.7 Summary of SUSY Lagrangian

4.8 Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

Chapter 5: Supersymmetry II: Phenomenology

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Minimum Supersymmetric Standard Model

5.3 Minimum SUGRA

5.4 GMSB

5.5 AMSB and Extra Dimension

5.6 Summary of Mass Spectra

5.7 Searches for Sparticles

5.8 Current Status

Chapter 6: Extra Dimension

6.1 Introduction

6.2 KK Tower

6.3 Chiral Fermions

6.4 Gauge Field in ED

6.5 Gravitational Field

6.6 Warped Extra Dimension

6.7 Universal Extra Dimension (UED)

6.8 Searches for Generic ED

6.9 Black hole production

Chapter 7: Axion

7.1 Soliton

7.2 Strong CP Problem

7.3 Why Do We Need the Axion?

7.4 Constraints on Invisible Axions

7.5 Laboratory Axion Searches

Chapter 8: Cosmology I: Big Bang Universe

8.1 Why Do We Study Cosmology?

8.2 Cosmic Equation

8.3 Expanding Universe

8.4 Thermal Universe

8.5 Cosmic Distance, Horizon

8.6 Genesis

8.7 Last Scattering

8.8 Inflation

Chapter 9: Cosmology II: Structure Formation

9.1 Galaxy Distribution

9.2 CMB Anisotropy

Chapter 10: Dark Matter

10.1 Cosmic Budget

10.2 Evidences of Dark Matter

10.3 Relics of the Big Bang

10.4 How to Detect?

10.5 Searches for DMs in the Halo

Chapter 11: Dark Energy

11.1 Dark Energy

11.2 Cosmological Constant

11.3 Quintessence model

11.4 Other Dark Energy Models

11.5 How to Investigate the Dark Energy?

Appendix A: Virial Theorem

Appendix B: Chandrasekhar Mass

Appendix C: Production of KK Gravitons

Appendix D: Homotopy

Appendix E: General Relativity

E.1 Geodesic Equation

E.2 Ricci Tensor and Scalar

E.3 Gauge Degrees of Freedom

E.4 Gravitational Waves

Appendix F: Tensor Spherical Harmonic Function

Appendix G: Destiny of the Cosmos

Appendix H: Answers to Some Problems

References

Index

End User License Agreement

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Guide

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations

Figure 1.1

Figure 1.2

Figure 1.3

Figure 1.4

Figure 1.5

Figure 1.6

Figure 1.7

Figure 1.8

Figure 1.9

Figure 1.10

Figure 1.11

Figure 1.12

Figure 1.13

Figure 1.14

Figure 1.15

Figure 1.16

Figure 1.17

Figure 1.18

Figure 1.19

Figure 1.20

Figure 1.21

Figure 1.22

Figure 1.23

Figure 1.24

Figure 1.25

Figure 1.26

Figure 1.27

Figure 1.28

Figure 1.29

Figure 2.1

Figure 2.45

Figure 2.41

Figure 2.2

Figure 2.3

Figure 2.4

Figure 2.5

Figure 2.6

Figure 2.7

Figure 2.8

Figure 2.9

Figure 2.10

Figure 2.11

Figure 2.12

Figure 2.13

Figure 2.14

Figure 2.15

Figure 2.16

Figure 2.17

Figure 2.18

Figure 2.19

Figure 2.20

Figure 2.21

Figure 2.26

Figure 2.22

Figure 2.37

Figure 2.23

Figure 2.24

Figure 2.25

Figure 2.27

Figure 2.28

Figure 2.29

Figure 2.31

Figure 2.30

Figure 2.32

Figure 2.33

Figure 2.34

Figure 2.35

Figure 2.36

Figure 2.38

Figure 2.39

Figure 2.40

Figure 2.42

Figure 2.43

Figure 2.44

Figure 2.46

Figure 2.47

Figure 2.48

Figure 2.49

Figure 2.50

Figure 2.51

Figure 2.52

Figure 2.53

Figure 2.54

Figure 2.55

Figure 2.56

Figure 2.57

Figure 2.58

Figure 3.1

Figure 3.2

Figure 3.3

Figure 3.4

Figure 3.5

Figure 3.6

Figure 3.7

Figure 3.8

Figure 3.9

Figure 3.10

Figure 3.11

Figure 3.12

Figure 5.1

Figure 5.2

Figure 5.3

Figure 5.4

Figure 5.5

Figure 5.6

Figure 5.7

Figure 5.8

Figure 5.9

Figure 5.10

Figure 5.11

Figure 5.12

Figure 5.13

Figure 5.14

Figure 5.15

Figure 5.16

Figure 5.17

Figure 5.18

Figure 5.19

Figure 5.20

Figure 5.21

Figure 5.22

Figure 6.1

Figure 6.2

Figure 6.3

Figure 6.4

Figure 6.5

Figure 6.6

Figure 6.11

Figure 6.7

Figure 6.8

Figure 6.9

Figure 6.10

Figure 6.12

Figure 6.13

Figure 6.14

Figure 6.15

Figure 6.16

Figure 6.17

Figure 6.18

Figure 6.19

Figure 6.20

Figure 6.21

Figure 6.22

Figure 6.23

Figure 7.1

Figure 7.2

Figure 7.3

Figure 7.4

Figure 7.5

Figure 7.6

Figure 7.7

Figure 7.8

Figure 7.9

Figure 7.10

Figure 7.11

Figure 7.14

Figure 7.12

Figure 7.13

Figure 8.1

Figure 8.2

Figure 8.3

Figure 8.4

Figure 8.5

Figure 8.6

Figure 8.7

Figure 8.8

Figure 8.9

Figure 9.1

Figure 9.2

Figure 9.3

Figure 9.4

Figure 9.6

Figure 9.7

Figure 9.5

Figure 9.8

Figure 9.9

Figure 9.10

Figure 9.11

Figure 9.12

Figure 9.13

Figure 9.14

Figure 9.15

Figure 9.16

Figure 9.17

Figure 9.18

Figure 9.19

Figure 9.20

Figure 9.21

Figure 10.1

Figure 10.14

Figure 10.2

Figure 10.3

Figure 10.4

Figure 10.5

Figure 10.6

Figure 10.7

Figure 10.8

Figure 10.9

Figure 10.10

Figure 10.11

Figure 10.12

Figure 10.13

Figure 10.15

Figure 10.16

Figure 10.17

Figure 10.18

Figure 10.19

Figure 10.20

Figure 10.21

Figure 10.24

Figure 10.22

Figure 10.23

Figure 11.1

Figure 11.2

Figure 11.3

Figure 11.4

Figure 11.5

Figure 11.6

Figure 11.7

Figure 11.8

Figure 11.9

Figure 11.10

Figure 11.11

Figure 11.12

Figure 11.13

Figure 11.14

Figure 11.15

Figure 11.16

Figure B.1

Figure D.1

Figure D.2

Figure D.3

Figure D.4

Figure G.1

Figure G.2

List of Tables

Table 1.1

Table 1.2

Table 1.3

Table 1.4

Table 1.5

Table 2.1

Table 2.2

Table 2.3

Table 2.4

Table 2.5

Table 3.1

Table 3.2

Table 3.4

Table 3.3

Table 3.5

Table 3.6

Table 3.7

Table 5.1

Table 5.2

Table 6.1

Table 6.2

Table 6.3

Table 7.1

Table 7.2

Table 8.1

Table 9.1

Table 10.1

Table 10.2

Table B.1

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Beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics

Yorikiyo Nagashima

 

 

 

 

 

The Author

Yorikiyo Nagashima

Osaka University

Japan

[email protected]

Cover

© 2012 CERN, for the benefit of the CMS Collaboration

All books published by Wiley-VCH are carefully produced. Nevertheless, authors, editors, and publisher do not warrant the information contained in these books, including this book, to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data, illustrations, procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate.

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© 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Boschstr. 12, 69469 Weinheim, Germany

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Print ISBN: 978-3-527-41177-1

ePDF ISBN: 978-3-527-66505-1

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Preface

Modern particle physics started in 1935 when Fermi and Yukawa proposed theories of weak and strong interactions, respectively. The 40-year saga in the quest for the ultimate form of matter and the interactions that govern them culminated in the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics in the early 1970s.

Nearly 50 years have passed since the SM was established. It is a miracle that it still holds the status as the ultimate theory of matter at the most fundamental level. No experimental observations that contradict the SM have been discovered, with perhaps one exception. Even the neutrino oscillation, the exception, may be considered as a small extension of the SM that does not need modifications. As the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics were born as a result of searches beyond Newtonian mechanics and electromagnetism, we expect that a new physics exists beyond the SM.

The SM established a prescription to unify forces by way of the gauge symmetry and spontaneous symmetry breaking. The grand unified theories (GUTs), the super-gravity (SUGRA), and the string theories were developed as extensions of the SM. Problems were pointed out and hints and new ideas have been suggested in developing the unified theories. The hierarchy is an outstanding problem among them. Many theoretical ideas including the super-symmetry (SUSY) and the extra dimension (ED) have been proposed to solve the problem. Most of them suggest a new physics at the teraelectronvolt (TeV) energy scale.

It has also been pointed out from the very beginning that the SM will lose its predictive power on phenomena beyond the TeV energy range (or ∼ 10−19 m in size). This is because the dynamics of the Higgs that causes electroweak phase transition below ∼ 1 TeV is unknown. The SM also established a notion that discovery of a new particle is synonymous with the discovery of a new physics. Therefore, experimental searches for new particles in the hitherto unexplored energy region, especially in the TeV range, are the most orthodox way to explore the physics beyond the SM.

On the other hand, experiments at energy scale in the range ∼ 1010−19 GeV are required to probe the physics of the unified theories. They are beyond the reach of present-day technology. Fortunately, the advent of the unified theories found a way to elucidate the history of early universe. Cosmology and particle physics have become one and the same scientific field. Conversely, the advent of cosmology opened a new window to view and probe the high-energy phenomena that are inaccessible by today's technology. We can probe properties of particles by looking at cosmic relic particles, fossils of the Big Bang, so to speak. Nowadays, researches in particle physics that do not rely on accelerators occupy an important branch. They are generically referred to as non-accelerator physics. It is an unappealing name, nonetheless used for the reason that no other has been invented.

This book is the third of a series of textbooks on “Elementary Particle Physics” [1] and [2]. Part 1 of Volume I [1] introduced the quantum field theory at the level that is necessary to understand phenomenology and to derive at least tree-level formulas for various reactions. Part 2 of Volume I described a way, logically as well as historically, to reach the SM of particle physics. Content of Volume II [2] is the SM itself, an essential part of the electroweak interactions, and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This book, entitled “Beyond the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics” should be considered as Volume III. The title speaks of its content by itself but the discussions are limited to topics that will become experimentally accessible in the near future. Each of the three volumes is organized to stand on their own depending on the readers’ interest and level, except occasional references to equations that were derived previously. This book is organized as follows:

Chapter 1 describes the properties of the Higgs particle, which is within the SM but whose dynamics is unknown. The Higgs mechanism constitutes the basis of the SM. Clarification of its dynamics may consolidate or modify the foundation of the SM. Therefore, it is the most urgent topic. The large hadron collider (LHC) was built primarily to discover the Higgs and clarify the underlying mechanism. It is now producing data.

Chapter 2 discusses the neutrino. Vanishing of the neutrino mass has always been the most outstanding topic from the beginning of its prediction by Pauli. The neutrino oscillation is a firm evidence that the neutrino is not massless, which is a topic on its own, and at the same time has provided the first and so far the only experimental data that goes beyond the SM. Clarifying relations among the three types of the neutrinos is the most direct approach to the flavor mystery, which is one of the unsolved problems of the SM. Furthermore, the neutrino provides important links to connect the SM with the GUTs and also with cosmology.

Chapter 3 discusses a basic structure of the GUTs. It does not aim to go deep in its structure but is meant to introduce problems that one encounters in trying to unify the forces. Above all, it has placed the so-called gauge hierarchy in limelight. The GUT is a topic by itself, but this chapter also serves as a prelude to the SUSY and the extra-dimensional theories.

Chapter 4 introduces basic algebra of SUSY that is necessary to derive formulas for the SUSY phenomenology. If the reader is interested only in the SUSY phenomenology, he or she may skip this chapter except the first introductory remarks and go directly to Chapter 5.

Chapter 5 discusses the phenomenology of the low-scale SUSY and how they are being examined by LHC data. The SUSY was offered as a remedy to solve the technical difficulties associated with the hierarchy problem. It also has a virtue that the gauged SUSY, referred to as SUGRA, can handle gravity and hence is a candidate for the unification of all forces. The super-string theory, the prime candidate for the ultimate unified theory, considers strings as fundamental building blocks of matter. It also respects the SUSY and works in 10- or 11-dimensional spacetime, which inspired the theory of the ED. However, the low-scale SUSY is treated as an independent phenomenological theory to solve the difficulties associated with the SM or its extension. It also offers a prime candidate for the dark matter (DM) in the universe.

The ED discussed in Chapter 6 provides an alternative to the SUSY to solve the hierarchy problem. Unlike the SUSY, which only solves the technical aspect of the hierarchy problem, ED offers a possible solution to deny the existence of the hierarchy itself, that is, that the energy scale of gravity may not be GeV but in the TeV region. Another interesting possibility is the gauge–Higgs unification, which might provide a symmetry to circumvent the hierarchy problem.

Chapter 7 discusses the axion and explains instantons, chiral anomaly, and the strong charge parity (CP) problem, which are in the realm of the SM but offer completely different aspects not provided by the perturbation theories. Existence of the axion seems an unavoidable outcome of these theoretical issues. It also provides an alternative candidate for the DM and a link between particle physics and cosmology. The first half of the chapter is devoted to these theoretical problems. Readers who are interested only in the phenomenology of the axion may skip this part.

Chapters 8 and 9 are devoted to cosmology. Chapter 8 describes a thermal history of the Hot Big Bang universe as a uniform and isotropic perfect fluid. Connections between particle physics and cosmology/astro-particle physics, including the inflation, are discussed. Chapter 9 deals with the deviation of matter distribution from uniformity, namely the large-scale structure of the universe, CMB (cosmic microwave background), and roles of the DM in forming them. Although these topics deserve treatments of their own, they are, in the author's mind, necessary introductions to tackle the problem of the DM and the dark energy (DE).

Chapter 10 discusses evidences and searches for the DM and possible candidates from the particle physics point of view. Finally, Chapter 11 discusses the DE. The field of DE is in its infancy. However, the author believes that both the DM and the DE will be the two main themes of particle physics in the twenty-first century.

Target readers of this book are experimental physicists, graduate students aiming at theories or experiments, and hopefully laymen in the field who are serious enough to follow the mathematical logics described in the book. They are expected to have a basic knowledge of particle physics at the level described in [1]. But they may be ignorant of each topic adopted in this book. Each chapter is basically independent and stands on its own, except Chapter 9 (Cosmology II) which quotes many results from the previous chapter. Some readers may also find it easier to read some parts of Chapter 8 (Cosmology I) first for understanding the invisible axions described in Chapter 7.

LHC made a historic discovery of the Higgs particle with mass 125 GeV in 2012. No indications of new physics have been found so far (as of summer 2013). The SM turned out to be much better than expected by many theorists. The validity of the SM is now extended at least by a factor 10 in the energy scale to ∼O(10 TeV). People began to cast doubt about the naturalness, which has been the guiding principle in proposing new models. This book faces the danger of becoming obsolete soon if LHC makes another revolutionary discovery during the rest of its operations. The most likely chapters to be affected by it are Chapters 1 and 5, which describe the Higgs and/or SUSY. Otherwise, the author hopes that most contents in this book will keep their usefulness longer. The author's optimism and decision to publish this book at this time are based on the following notions.

Usually, reviews of forefront topics are best provided by specialists in the field because their contents change fast and keeping track of the most recent idea/data without making mistakes is hard for nonspecialists. Indeed, if you search for available books by the title ‘Beyond the Standard Model’, you will find most of them are conference reports. The reason the author dared to challenge these topics is as follows. For some class of readers, organized reviews of frontier fields in a consistent style by the same author may have some merit of its own. As time goes, the data may become somewhat obsolete, but the basic concepts to pursue the subject will hopefully last longer unless its central idea is drastically changed by revolutionary discoveries.

Acknowledgments

The author would like to express his gratitude to the authors cited in the text and to the following publishers for permission to reproduce various figures and tables:

American Astronomical Society, publisher of the Astrophysical Journal for permission to reproduce Figures 2.24, 2.56b, 6.14, 9.1, 9.2, 9.6a, 10.1, 10.5, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4b, 11.6a, 11.14a and Table 10.1.

American Physical Society, publisher of the Physical Review, Physical Review Letters and the Review of Modern Physics, for permission to reproduce Figures 1.12a,b, 2.9, 2.12, 2.13a, 2.18, 2.19, 2.21a,b, 2.26a,b, 2.29a,b, 2.30, 2.32b, 2.33a,b, 2.37, 2.39a,b, 2.40a,b, 2.48a,b, 2.49a,b, 3.7a,b, 5.14a,b, 5.15a,b, 6.11, 6.12, 6.21a,b, 7.12b, 10.11, 10.12a,b, 10.20b, 10.21a, 10.23b, 11.13b, and 11.15.

Annual Reviews, publisher of Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science and Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics for permission to reproduce Figures 2.25b, 2.54, 9.14, 10.8, 11.1a,b, and 11.12b.

Elsevier Science Ltd., publisher of Astroparticle Physics, Nuclear instruments and Methods, Nuclear Physics, Physics Letters, Physics Report, Progress of Particle and Nuclear Physics for permission to reproduce Figures 1.4, 1.6b, 1.9, 1.10a, 1.15b, 1.18a,b, 1.28b, 2.1a, 2.6, 2.16a, 2.20, 2.31b, 2.58, 3.11, 6.15a,b, 7.9, 9.7a,b, 10.10, 10.16a, 10.17b, 10.22b, 10.23a, 10.24, and 11.11a,b.

Institute of Physics Publishing Ltd., publisher of Journal of Instrumentation, Physica Scripta, and Report on Progress in Physics for permission to reproduce Figures 2.31a, 2.45, 2.47a,b, and 8.6.

Particle Data Group, publisher of Review of Particle Physics for permission to reproduce Figures 1.2a,b, 1.6a, 1.17, 1.27a, 2.8b, 2.13b, 2.15, 2.27, 5.8a,b, 6.1, 7.10, 7.11, 8.7, 9.6b, and 9.8.

Springer, publisher of European Journal of Physics and Journal of High Energy Physics for permission to reproduce Figures 1.11, 1.29, 5.13b, 6.18a,b, 6.23a,b, and 9.10a.

World Scientific, publisher of International Journal of Modern Physics for permission to reproduce Figures 2.42, and 10.18a,b.

Glossary

ACT

Atacama Cosmology Telescope

AD

anti-neutrino detector

ADD

Arkani-Hamed–Dimopoulos–Dvali

ADMX

Axion Dark Matter eXperiment

AFTA

Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets

AGB

asymptotic giant branch

ALPs

axion-like particles

AMSB

anomaly mediated symmetry breaking

ATLAS

A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS

BAO

baryon acoustic oscillation

BB

beta-beam

BBN

Big Bang nucleosynthesis

BE

Bose–Einstein

BH

black hole

BOSS

Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

Bq

Becquerel

BR

branching ratio

BS

blue stragglers

CAST

CERN Axion Solar Telescope

CC

charged current

CCD

charge-coupled device

CDM

cold dark matter

CDMS

cryogenic dark matter search

CGH

central galactic halo

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Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

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Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!

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