Basic Structural Dynamics - James C. Anderson - ebook

Basic Structural Dynamics ebook

James C. Anderson

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Opis

A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural dynamics problems. Conceptually composed of three parts, the book begins with the basic concepts and dynamic response of single-degree-of-freedom systems to various excitations. Next, it covers the linear and nonlinear response of multiple-degree-of-freedom systems to various excitations. Finally, it deals with linear and nonlinear response of structures subjected to earthquake ground motions and structural dynamics-related code provisions for assessing seismic response of structures. Chapter coverage includes: * Single-degree-of-freedom systems * Free vibration response of SDOF systems * Response to harmonic loading * Response to impulse loads * Response to arbitrary dynamic loading * Multiple-degree-of-freedom systems * Introduction to nonlinear response of structures * Seismic response of structures If you're an undergraduate or graduate student or a practicing structural or mechanical engineer who requires some background on structural dynamics and the effects of earthquakes on structures, Basic Structural Dynamics will quickly get you up to speed on the subject without sacrificing important information.

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Table of Contents

Title Page

Copyright

Dedication

Preface

Chapter 1: Basic Concepts of Structural Dynamics

1.1 The Dynamic Environment

1.2 Types of Dynamic Loading

1.3 Basic Principles

1.4 Dynamic Equilibrium

Chapter 2: Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

2.1 Reduction of Degrees of Freedom

2.2 Time-Dependent Force

2.3 Gravitational Forces

2.4 Earthquake Ground Motion

2.5 Formulation of Equation of Motion

2.6 Generalized Coordinates

Chapter 3: Free-Vibration Response of Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

3.1 Undamped Free Vibration

3.2 Damped Free Vibration

Chapter 4: Response to Harmonic Loading

4.1 Undamped Dynamic System

4.2 Damped Dynamic System

4.3 Tripartite Logarithmic Plot

4.4 Evaluation of Damping

4.5 Seismic Accelerometers and Displacement Meters (Seismographs)

Chapter 5: Response to Impulse Loads

5.1 Rectangular Pulse

5.2 Damped Rectangular Pulse

5.3 Triangular Pulse

5.4 Approximate Analysis for Short-Duration Impulse Load

Chapter 6: Response to Arbitrary Dynamic Loading

6.1 Duhamel Integral

6.2 Numerical Formulation of the Equation of Motion

6.3 Numerical Integration Methods

6.4 Newmark's Numerical Method

Chapter 7: Multiple-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

7.1 Elastic Properties

7.2 Undamped Free Vibration

7.3 Free Vibration

7.4 Betti's Law

7.5 Orthogonality Properties of Mode Shapes

7.6 Changing Coordinates (Inverse Transformation)

7.7 Holzer Method for Shear Buildings

7.8 Axial Load Effects (Linear Approximation)

7.9 Modal Equations for Undamped Time-Dependent Force Analysis

7.10 Modal Equations of Damped Forced Vibration

7.11 Modal Equations for Seismic Response Analysis

Chapter 8: Nonlinear Response of Multiple-Degree-of-Freedom Systems

8.1 Static Nonlinear Analysis

8.2 Dynamic Nonlinear Analysis

8.3 Gauss Reduction

8.4 MATLAB Applications

Chapter 9: Seismic Response of Structures

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Linear Elastic Response Spectra

9.3 Elastic Design Response Spectrum

9.4 Earthquake Response of SDOF Systems

9.5 Earthquake Response Analysis of MDOF Systems

9.6 Structural Dynamics in the Building Code

Appendix—Historical Development of Building Code Seismic Provisions

A.1 Historical Overview

A.2 1978 ATC 3-06 Resource Document for Model Codes

A.3 2000–2009 International Building Code (IBC 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009)

Selected References

Index

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Copyright © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

Published simultaneously in Canada.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

Anderson, J. C. (James C.), 1939-

Basic structural dynamics / James C. Anderson, Farzad Naeim.

pages cm

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN: 978-0-470-87939-9; 978-111-827908-3 (ebk); 978-111-827909-0 (ebk); 978-111-827910-6 (ebk); 978-111-827911-3 (ebk); 978-111-827912-0 (ebk); 978-111-827913-7 (ebk)

1. Structural dynamics–Textbooks. I. Naeim, Farzad. II. Title.

TA654.A65 2012

624.1′71–dc23

2012013717

Preface

Our experience of over 30 years of teaching structural dynamics has demonstrated to us that, more often than not, novice students of structural dynamics find the subject foreign and difficult to understand. The main objective of this book is to overcome this hurdle and provide a textbook that is easy to understand and relatively short—a book that can be used as an efficient tool for teaching a first course on the subject without overwhelming the students who are just beginning their study of structural dynamics. There is no shortage of good and comprehensive textbooks on structural dynamics, and once the student has mastered the basics of the subject, he or she can more efficiently navigate the more complex and intricate subjects in this field. This book may also prove useful as a reference for practicing engineers who are not familiar with structural dynamics or those who want a better understanding of the various code provisions that are based on the dynamic response of structures and/or components.

This book is also perhaps unique in that it integrates MATLAB applications throughout. Example problems are generally worked by hand and then followed by MATLAB algorithms and solutions of the same. This will help students solve more problems without getting bogged down in extensive hand calculations that would otherwise be necessary. It will also let students experiment with changing various parameters of a dynamic problem and get a feel for how changing various parameters will affect the outcome. Extensive use is made of the graphics in MATLAB to make the concept of dynamic response real. We decided to use MATLAB in many of the examples in the book because (1) it is a very powerful tool, (2) it is easy to use, and (3) a free or nominally priced “student version” is available to virtually all engineering students. We have consciously decided not to include a tutorial on basic MATLAB operations simply because such information is readily available within the help files supplied with MATLAB and in the documentation that is shipped with the student version of MATLAB.

More than 20 years ago, it was decided that, because of the seismic risk in California and the fact that at that time most of our undergraduate students came from California, a course titled “Introduction to Structural Dynamics” was needed. This course was intended for seniors and first-year graduate students in structural engineering. During this time period, much has changed in this important area of study. There has been a tremendous change in both computational hardware and software, which are now readily available to students. Much has also been learned from the occurrence of major earthquakes in various locations around the world and the recorded data that have been obtained from these earthquakes, including both building data and free field data. This book attempts to draw on and reflect these changes to the extent practical and useful to its intended audience.

The book is conceptually composed of three parts. The first part, consisting of Chapters 1 to 6, covers the basic concepts and dynamic response of single-degree-of-freedom systems to various excitations. The second part, consisting of Chapters 7 and 8, covers the linear and nonlinear response of multiple-degree-of-freedom systems to various excitations. Finally, the third part, consisting of Chapter 9 and the Appendix, deals with the linear and nonlinear response of structures subjected to earthquake ground motions and structural dynamics–related code provisions for assessing the seismic response of structures. It is anticipated that for a semester-long introductory course on structural dynamics, Chapters 1 to 7 with selected sections of the other chapters will be covered in the classroom.

This book assumes the student is familiar with at least a first course in differential equations and elementary matrix algebra. Experience with computer programming is helpful but not essential.

James C. Anderson, Los Angeles, CA

Farzad Naeim, Los Angeles, CA

Chapter 1

Basic Concepts of Structural Dynamics

1.1 The Dynamic Environment

Structural engineers are familiar with the analysis of structures for static loads in which a load is applied to the structure and a single solution is obtained for the resulting displacements and member forces. When considering the analysis of structures for dynamic loads, the term dynamic simply means “time-varying.” Hence, the loading and all aspects of the response vary with time. This results in possible solutions at each instant during the time interval under consideration. From an engineering standpoint, the maximum values of the structural response are usually the ones of particular interest, especially when considering the case of structural design.

Two different approaches, which are characterized as either deterministic or nondeterministic, can be used for evaluating the structural response to dynamic loads. If the time variation of the loading is fully known, the analysis of the structural response is referred to as a deterministic analysis. This is the case even if the loading is highly oscillatory or irregular in character. The analysis leads to a time history of the displacements in the structure corresponding to the prescribed time history of the loading. Other response parameters such as member forces and relative member displacements are then determined from the displacement history.

If the time variation of the dynamic load is not completely known but can be defined in a statistical sense, the loading is referred to as a random dynamic loading, and the analysis is referred to as nondeterministic. The nondeterministic analysis provides information about the displacements in a statistical sense, which results from the statistically defined loading. Hence, the time variation of the displacements is not determined, and other response parameters must be evaluated directly from an independent nondeterministic analysis rather than from the displacement results. Methods for nondeterministic analysis are described in books on random vibration. In this text, we only discuss methods for deterministic analysis.

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