Jenkins' diary represents a Journal of daily events during his campaign in the war to crush the rebellion in 1861. Contents: Author's Preface First Impressions Up And Down The Mississippi And Yazoo Encircling Vicksburg The Siege Of Vicksburg A Well-Earned Rest At Work Again En Route To Chattanooga With Grant At Chattanooga In Winter Quarters On To Atlanta Watching Hood Wintering At Nashville Garrisoning Chattanooga Awaiting Discharge Homeward Bound Home At Last
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An Artilleryman's Diary
Jenkin Lloyd Jones
The Diary Of An Artillery Private
Up And Down The Mississippi And Yazoo
The Siege Of Vicksburg
A Well-Earned Rest
At Work Again
En Route To Chattanooga
With Grant At Chattanooga
In Winter Quarters
On To Atlanta
Wintering At Nashville
Home At Last
An Artilleryman's Diary, Jenkin Lloyd Jenkins
Jazzybee Verlag Jürgen Beck
86450 Altenmünster, Germany
Whatever value this publication may have, lies in the fact that it offers a typical case—a small cross section of the army that freed the slave and saved the Union.
The Editor of the Commission's publications has asked me to state briefly something about myself. I am one of the multitude of "hyphenated" Americans, born across the water but reared under the flag. I am a Cambro-American, proud of both designations, and with abundant heart, loyalty, and perhaps too much head pride in both. Introduced to this world in Llandyssul, Cardiganshire, Wales, November 14, 1843, I celebrated my first anniversary by landing at Castle Garden, in New York City. My parents were sturdy "come-outers" who, after the manner called "heresy", even among Protestants, worshipped the God of their fathers. They came from what in orthodox parlance was known as the "Smwtyn Du" the heretical "black-spot" in Wales. I am the third Jenkin Jones to preach that liberal interpretation of Christianity generally known as Unitarianism. The first Jenkin Jones preached his first heretical sermon in his mother's garden way back in 1726, ninety-three years before Channing preached his Baltimore sermon (1819), from which latter event American Unitarianism generally dates its beginning.
My father was a prosperous hatter-farmer—making hats for the local markets during the winter months, tilling his little ten-acre farm during the summer time. My parents were lured to America by the democracy here promised. In our family, freedom was a word to conjure by. Hoping for larger privileges for the growing family of children, they brought them to the New World, the world of many intellectual as well as material advantages. The long sea voyage of six weeks in a sailing vessel, interrupted by a dismantling storm which compelled the ship to return for repairs after two weeks sailing, brought them into the teeth of winter, too late in the season to reach their objective point in the West. So the journey was suspended and the first winter spent in a Welsh settlement near Steuben, New York.
May, 1845, found us in the then territory of Wisconsin. The broad, fertile, and hospitable open prairie country in southern Wisconsin was visited and shunned as a desert land, "a country so poor that it would not grow a horse-switch." And so, three "forties" of government land were entered in the heavy woods of Rock River valley, forty miles west of Milwaukee, midway between Oconomowoc and Watertown, which then were pioneer villages. The land was bought at $1.20 an acre, then were purchased a yoke of oxen and two cows; and when these were paid for, there remained one gold sovereign ($5) to start life with—father, mother, and six children.
Trees were felled for the log house which for the first six months was roofed with basswood bark, for the shingles had not only to be made, but the art of making them had to be acquired. In this log house were spent the first twelve remembered years of my life. In it four more children were born. In the log school-house, built in the middle of the road because it was built before the road was there—we had arrived before the surveyor—I learned to speak, read, and love the English language. My first teacher was a Cambro-American who could by her bi-lingual accomplishment ease the way of the little Welsh immigrant children into English. I think I can remember crying when the teacher would speak to me in the then unintelligible English.
In 1856, my thirteenth year, the family began to realize that they had chosen a hard place in which to make a home. The battle would have been a grim one, with the tall trees and their stumps, the "hardhead" boulders, the marshes, the mosquitoes, and the semi-annual attack of ague, had it not been lightened with the blind hopes and the inspirations that bring to frontier lives the consolations and encouragements of the pioneer. So the home in Ixonia, that had welcomed the coming of the first plank-road and witnessed the approach of the La Crosse & Milwaukee Railroad as far as Oconomowoc, was sold, and in 1855 we moved to a farm of 400 acres in Sauk County.
The next year this was reached by the old Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad and the village of Spring Green was established, adjoining the farm. Here I worked on the farm in the summer time, and during the winter time grew with the growing village school in Spring Green. During the spring term of school, in 1861, the boys were organized into the Spring Green Guards. "Billy" Hamilton, a clerk in George Pound's store, was excused by his employer during the noon hour and the recesses, to come over to drill us. The tresses, black or golden, were sacrificed. Our hair was "shingled" and we wore cadet caps. Of course the boys had been stirred when they heard of the humiliation preceding the inauguration of Lincoln, of the firing on Sumter; and in the autumn all of the Spring Green Guards who were ripe enough heard and heeded the call of Father Abraham. Captain "Billy" Hamilton went out as sergeant in the 6th Wisconsin Battery, and four years later came back as colonel at the head of the 36th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry.
I was too young to go out in 1861. I cannot say that I panted for the fray. I dreaded the coming of the dire moment when conscience, not the government, would deliver me into a service that had no charm for me. Another winter's schooling in the Spring Green Academy, another sowing and harvest time, then leaving unstacked the hay that I had mown, and in the shocks the oats that I had cradled, I obeyed this "stern daughter of the voice of God"—to use Wordsworth's phrase—and turned my face to the South. I joined my old comrades of the Spring Green Guards in the 6th Wisconsin Battery, nine months or so after their first enlistment.
I was a "mother's boy", and with the exception of three months' district schooling at an aunt's house in Watertown, when a little lad, had never been away from home over night. I had not then and have not since, owned a firearm of any description. As I approach my three-score-and-ten, I can say that I have never sighted a gun, or pulled the trigger on anything smaller than a cannon, and that only when ordered.
It seems necessary for me to state further, that throughout the three years of camp life, as through all the succeeding years, I have been a total abstainer from all forms of liquor and tobacco. The strictures throughout the Diary concerning the over-use of intoxicants were written from this standpoint, and perhaps were over stated. At least truth requires that I should at this distance testify that the bulk of the Union Army, so largely made up of boys, was of stern stuff, with their lives rooted in seriousness and committed to sobriety, as the subsequent careers of those who were allowed to return amply prove. Many things set forth in this Diary were necessarily untrue to fact, but there is nothing but what was true to the thought and feeling of the writer at the time. The simplicity of the narrative and the lapse of time, will, I hope, take all the barbs out of any random shafts that may have been fired by a battery boy.
The monotonous story of this battery boy is told in long metre in the Diary here published. The only remarkable thing about the record is, that it exists and is still available fifty years after the writing. Of course every soldier lad started to keep a diary. Very few persisted to the end; rare is the private who did not outlast his own diary. And then again, the vicissitudes of the camp, the hopeless carelessness of the American people to contemporary history, have carried to oblivion most of such records. These ten little memorandum books would doubtless have suffered a like fate, were it not for the vigilance of the home folk, to whose care the successive volumes were promptly consigned. And then many years after, there was the loving, unsolicited persistency of a faithful amanuensis, who, unbeknown to me, in the "cracks of time," patiently and faithfully transcribed the entire story, which was fast becoming illegible in the original camp- and battle-stained little books, to the clear, typewritten sheets which made them available to the Wisconsin History Commission. To Miss Minnie Burroughs, now Mrs. Herbert Turner of Berkeley, California, belongs therefore the basic credit for this publication.
Further acknowledgment is due to the Editor of the Commission, and to several of his able assistants on the editorial staff of the Wisconsin Historical Society. They have with great painstaking verified every word of the transcription with my original gnarled manuscript, have corrected (so far as possible by the official rolls) the names of the persons whom I have mentioned in the Diary, have read the proof, and in general have put the book through the press. This has involved an amount of labor which under the circumstances I could not have given, and without which the publication would have been inexcusable. It is the Editor's intelligent hand also that furnished most of the geographical date-lines, the paragraphing, the folio headings, the sub-heads, and the countless other editorial embellishments so essential to a presentable publication. * * * Technical work of this sort is entirely lost on the reader, of course, but it is profoundly appreciated by at least the present grateful author.
The post-bellum story of this journalizing private of the 6th Wisconsin Battery does not belong in this book. Should anyone be curious to connect the soldier in uniform with the militant citizen, who, with more pacific weapons, has continued his contentions for freedom, justice, and union, let the following suffice. There was a year's work on the new farm in Iowa County; then a winter of teaching the common school at Arena, Wisconsin, with ninety children, ranging from the little German child grappling with her English A. B. C.'s, to students in algebra and geometry. During one year there was an honest attempt to accept the path apparently laid out for me—that of an honest, hard-working farmer. And then the hunger for books, the blind push on thought lines, the half-unrecognized leadings towards another career, broke beyond control, and I left the farm. Then came four years' study at the Theological Seminary at Meadville, Pennsylvania; a pastorate of a year at Winnetka, Illinois; nearly ten years of similar work at Janesville, Wisconsin, and lastly a thirty-two years' ministry in All Souls Church, Chicago, which I organized and in which I continue to work. For the last eight years I have been head resident of the Abraham Lincoln Centre, which I founded and which I still direct. For thirty-two years I have been Editor of Unity, a weekly independent religious magazine, devoted to "Freedom, Fellowship, and Character in Religion."
In 1890 I secured possession of a tract of land which was once the site of the prosperous early Wisconsin village of Helena, on the banks of the Wisconsin River in Iowa County, where in 1863 ex-Governor C. C. Washburn and C. C. Woodman, two young men, founded a shot-making manufactory. The old shot tower gave name to the summer encampment known as Tower Hill, where, in connection with the little farm adjoining, I have found vacation rest and renewal for the last twenty years.
Two graves have touched me with peculiar tenderness, and suggest the unwritten and too often cruelly-neglected pathos in the life of the immigrant pioneer, much of which I have seen, a part of which I have been. A little sister, two years my senior, a fair blossom, wilted on the journey and the little body was left in a roadside grave in Utica, New York. I was too young to remember her, but through all the succeeding years that unmarked and unvisited grave has left a hallowed touch of tenderness in the home, and given to the missing one a potency perhaps greater than abides with the unburied that remain.
Scarce a year had elapsed after the arrival in the "big woods" when the fatherly uncle, the bachelor-partner whose name I bear, fell before the relentless attack of fever—so easily controlled now, but so fatal then. He died in a saw-mill at Oconomowoc, and the first grave in the settlement was hollowed by the hands of his brother at the foot of a great tree in the deep forest. The father and brother, who was "priest unto his own household," read and prayed and woke the forest echoes with his own voice, as he sang a sustaining old Welsh hymn. Perhaps this devout tradition lying back of my memory has had much to do with what faithfulness may have characterized the services of the private whose Diary is here recorded, and the ministry whose career was bargained for, to a degree that cannot be estimated in the sombre forest and the tented field.
Perhaps another word may be pardoned. On the way to Camp Randall, the tears which had scarcely dried from the heart-break that followed a mother's last embrace, started afresh at the sight of the dome of the old University building at Madison. For the months preceding the enlistment, the struggle had been not choosing between home and camp. No! not even between danger and safety, life and death, but what seemed the final choice between a country to save and an education to acquire. For in the dim haze of the farmer boy's horoscope, the University outline was shaping itself. In choosing his country's cause it seemed to him that he was relinquishing forever the hope of the education of which he dreamed. Forty-seven years after the campus was dimmed with his tears, the University of Wisconsin invested this private of the 6th Wisconsin Battery with the degree of LL. D.
A great thing was done for humanity in America, between 1861 and 1865. If it could not have been done otherwise, it was worth all it cost. And if this same dire predicament were to come again, I would do my past all over again. But Oh! it was such a wrong way of doing the right thing! May the clumsy sentences of a boy's diary, so lacking in perspective, so inadequate in expression, contribute a few sentences to the Gospel of Peace.
Tower Hill, Wisconsin, September 9, 1913.
A Journal of daily events during my campaign in the war to crush the rebellion in 1861. If in the battle I may fall, or die away from the withering hand of disease in the hospital, this favor may I ask, to send this and what may accompany it to my aged parents. Addressed to R. Ll. Jones, Lone Rock, Richland Co.
Spring Green, Wis., Thursday, Aug. 14, 1862. I enlisted under Lieutenant Fancher for the 6th Battery, Wisconsin Artillery.
Madison, Wis., Monday, Aug. 25. I bade good-bye to friends, relatives and companions most dear, and at 8 o'clock embarked for Madison to begin my soldier's life. Arrived at camp at 12 M. and slept my first night on the lap of mother earth with Uncle Sam's blanket for a coverlid and a few rough boards raised about four feet in the center for a roof. I laid down; my eyelids were heavy and demanded sleep but the mind wandered and the stars shone bright and it was long ere sleep threw her curtain over the scene.
Madison, Tuesday, Aug. 26. I got partially rested by my short sleep, but I was awake long ere the rising of the sun. I awoke to a different scene to which had hitherto been my lot. Instead of the lowing of cattle and the bleating of sheep, was the rattle of the drum and the "hooray" of the volunteers. To-day we were examined by the surgeon and went up-town for the purpose of drawing our bounty money, but the press of business was too large, and we were put off till the next day. In the evening I had to bid good-bye to my brother John, who had accompanied me to camp. It was a difficult task—my constant companion in labor, my adviser and counsel in everything. I had to part. It seemed as if I was like a ship on sea without a compass, without other safeguard than my own firmness and weight.
Madison, Wednesday, Aug. 27. I had to pass through the regular scramble-game for my rations, and drew the bounty in the afternoon, went around town and bought my outfit, ready to leave.
Enroute, Thursday, Aug. 28. To-day we were informed that we were to be sent on in the evening. I wrote my first letter home and in the evening we started for "Dixie" at 10 P. M. It was dark and we could not see anything to attract our attention so our minds had free scope to wander home to loved ones, and it was a saddening thought that we were to leave all of these, to meet at best a very uncertain fate. We passed on to Milton where our car was uncoupled and taken up by the Janesville R. R., and off we rocked for another four or five hours' ride, half asleep, and by this time somewhat fatigued. At Janesville we changed cars for Chicago, it being about 1 A. M.
Enroute, Friday, Aug. 29. The day dawned just in time to see the suburbs (Chicago). We being about five miles from town received a magnificent view of the Western metropolis. The immense clouds of smoke issuing from the massive stacks of manufacture, and the countless rigging of the vessels lying at the dock were great sights to my country eyes. We arrived at the end of the line at 6:30 A. M. We were immediately formed in line, and forward march to the depot of the I C R. R. about a mile distant. We were no sooner there than the shrill whistle told us we were again on a ride of three hundred and sixty-five miles to Cairo, without intermission. We crossed an arm of Lake Michigan having a fine view of the lake. Of our travel across the almost boundless prairies of Illinois I will not try to describe, but suffice it to say, we arrived at Cairo at 4 A. M.
Cairo, Ill., Saturday, Aug. 30. We were astir early to catch the first sight of the far-famed city of Cairo (Ill.), and certainly an unhappy surprise we found it; the combined medley of filth and disorder, the streets rough, the sidewalks torn and tattered, rendering it dangerous to travel, lest they should throw one headlong to the ditch.
Rienzi, Miss., Tuesday, Sept. 2. We went out in the morning to drill on the field but did not see much into the wild scampering way. I wrote to Sp Gr. Had no time to write home before mail went out. Was drilled on foot by Corporal Sweet in the evening.
1862 Camp Routine
Rienzi, Wednesday, Sept. 3. Woke by the bugle at 3:30 A. M.; went out to roll call and drill. The weather fine. Washed shirt and stockings for first time. Wrote home. Drilled by Syl. Sweet in the evening on the gun. The enemy skirmished our pickets, wounded three; our horses were harnessed ready.I felt a little flushed.
Rienzi, Thursday, Sept. 4. Acted as No. 6 on drill to-day. Made a galloping time of it. Did my first sweeping. Saw the first nigger dance; watered horses in the evening; fell in with clothes on.
Rienzi, Friday, Sept. 5. Went out as No. 6. Was a little unwell. Infantry preparing to move.Bad news from the Potomac.
Rienzi, Saturday, Sept. 6. Went through the usual routine of drill and camp life. Received my first mail since my arrival, consisting of two letters and a Sentinel. Changed mess. The 2nd Missouri Infantry left. Wagons moving, fires burning all night.
Rienzi, Sunday, Sept. 7. Arose to the sound of the bugle at 3 A. M. Prepared for a general inspection, but Captain, apprehending a move, did not call us out. Drew good bunks from the old camp of 2nd Missouri. After roll call at 9 P. M. I went to bed hoping to have a good night's rest, but I was doomed to disappointment, for ere two hours had elapsed, we were awakened by Corporal Dixon telling us to pack up all our clothing and be in readiness to march. We of course obeyed and waited for further orders, when about midnight, "Strike your tents" was given. This done, the mules began driving in, loading was commenced, the horses harnessed, and by one o'clock all was ready to march. That which could not be taken was piled up ready for the march, but the order did not come, so we were obliged to pick our place and lay down for a short and uneasy sleep.
Rienzi, Monday, Sept. 8. To-day was spent in anxious waiting. I stood guard for the first time while we were momentarily expecting orders to leave; slept in the open air.
Rienzi, Tuesday, Sept. 9. Another day dawned without any orders. Some of the boys pitched their tents. I went out foraging in the afternoon.
Rienzi, Wednesday, Sept. 10. This was another day of idle waiting; most of the boys slept in tents last night, and it was supposed we would have to stay here.I went out foraging in the morning.
Rienzi, Thursday, Sept. 11. I answered the summons of the reveille, but I did not feel very well; had an attack of the ague but got over it by dinner. Nothing to break the monotony of camp life. Reinforced by one regiment of infantry.
Rienzi, Friday, Sept. 12. Spent the morning as usual in suspense of leaving, but finally the orders came to send all the baggage train to Clear Creek, a distance of ten miles to the west, and that we were to be stationed as an out-post. Detailed to go a-foraging, brought in two loads of corn from the south. The 1st Section were ordered out to the front. Had the first rain storm in the evening, and ere the morning I had a regular old shake of the ague.
Rienzi, Saturday, Sept. 13. The 3rd Section, Lieutenant Hood, went out in front and the first fell back to its old grounds. Foraging party brought in two loads of corn, three neat cattle, one sheep, twelve geese, seven hens, two or three bushels of sweet potatoes.
1862 Strategic Moves
Rienzi, Sunday, Sept. 14. Was begun with another of the "strategic moves". We were told to hitch up with the greatest speed—all our baggage, knapsacks, etc. were put in a wagon, nothing was left to encumber us from a rapid and a desperate fight which we were expected to share. The 3rd Section, two regiments of infantry, one of cavalry, started at 3 A. M. But all rumors of the enemy's presence proved false, and after lying in the shade, horses hitched, for an hour, we returned, unharnessed and lay quiet all day. The 3rd Section returned at 4 P. M. without seeing any enemy.
Rienzi, Monday, Sept. 15. To-day we began business in the old way. We had to sweep up for the first time in a week.I stood guard for the second time.
Rienzi, Tuesday, Sept. 16. We were aroused this morning with the same story of march and ordered to cook three days' rations and be ready to march at 1 P. M., but did not go and all quieted down again. The 3rd Section went out in the afternoon and stationed itself at bastion No. 5 at 9 P. M. Dispatches were brought around to the effect that McClellan had captured the rebel army of Virginia including General Lee. Nothing could induce us to restrain our joy but the fear of its being false.
Rienzi, Wednesday, Sept. 17. Was begun by a heavy shower of rain at about 9 A. M. I joined the foraging party and we started on the Corinth road. We had scarcely started before it began to rain and a perfect torrent poured until we returned, pretty well drenched. The rest of the day was spent inside of the tent as the rain continued nearly all day.
Rienzi, Thursday, Sept. 18. We awoke in a wet bed, it having rained very hard the latter part of the night. We received orders to march for Jacinto at 3 A. M. but countermanded before doing any harm save the usual harnessing up by the drivers about 9 A. M. The prisoners captured at Danville, twenty-three in number, including two captains, were marched to headquarters.
Rienzi, Friday, Sept. 19. On roll call the Captain told us that Burnside had captured the whole of Longstreet's command at Harpers Ferry after their first capturing the place and the whole army under Colonel Miles. Three cheers were given with a spirit. No mail. Went after berries in the afternoon.
Rienzi, Saturday, Sept. 20. There was nothing to break the monotony of camp life. Wrote two letters. Washed clothes. In the evening news of another battle at Iuka. They cleaned Price out and chased him four miles; 400 killed on both sides.
Rienzi, Sunday, Sept. 21. Was another repetition of that a week ago only on a little larger scale. The horses were harnessed at 1 A. M. and we went out on the Ripley road three quarters of a mile, laid there half an hour waiting for the enemy, then filed left on our drilling ground, drilled half an hour, then came home and unharnessed. Received new gun-carriages and caissons in the afternoon. Report of another great battle at Iuka in which 1000 of our men were killed in twenty-five minutes. Colonel Murphy of the 8th put under arrest for withdrawing his men.Stood guard duty.
Rienzi, Monday, Sept. 22. To-day I felt very weak, there was no local pain, but a general debility.
Rienzi, Tuesday, Sept. 23. To-day I felt but a little better, got some milk and corn bread. With the secesh had an encounter before I left.
1862 Battle of Corinth
Corinth, Miss., Sunday, Oct. 5. As it is seen from the last date, I have not written any for some time and I must write of the past from memory. Not getting any better, I went to the Company hospital on September 24 and there was treated for fever of which I had but a very slight touch. On the morning of October 1 every man that could not join his platoon was to be sent to Corinth as the Battery was going to move, so I and four others were put in the ambulance and driven to the depot, but the cars did not come till 2 P. M. When they came, they loaded all the commissary stores in the rooms. E. R. Hungerford and myself were lucky enough to get into the box car. We got to Corinth in about two hours, and after waiting an hour we were taken in a mule wagon to the Seminary Hospital situated on a hill about one mile and a half from Corinth.
We were put in a comfortable tent and lay there unmolested until the 3rd, when early in the morning heavy firing was heard and continued all day. We learned that the cannon had been attacked by the rebels consisting of Price, Breckinridge, Van Dorn and one other commander. In the afternoon we had to move down under the hill, we being right in the range of the guns should they open fire in that direction at night. We were ordered to have everything packed so as to leave at a moment's notice. At about 12 o'clock at night we were ordered out on the road, while the tents were struck and cots piled. Presently the teams began driving in and loading men and cots. At last our turn came, but not until the rebs had opened fire on the town with three guns throwing shells. We had to pass under the fire. The shells whistled over our heads in every direction, while off went the mules as fast as they could trot. It certainly was a rough ride. They drove us through town and left us on the east of it about 1/2 mile. By this time it was nearly daylight and the guns used by the rebs throwing shells were taken. About 9 o'clock the engagement became general. The noise of the musketry, occasionally broken in upon by the loud peal of artillery, made it truly terrific. The fight lasted about three hours, when the rebs were obliged to skedaddle.
All of this time we had heard nothing from the Battery. We supposed that it had been engaged, when at 12 o'clock Dr. Miller came around and told us that the Battery had been engaged that morning, and had been taken and retaken, but he could not give us a list of the casualties. We heard nothing more from the Battery until to-day, G. M. Spencer came with a list of casualties. He informed us that the sick and wounded were gathered in a company hospital about a quarter of a mile to the south.We remained in the general hospital until
Corinth, Tuesday, Oct. 7. The doctor came to take our names to be sent to a Northern hospital as they had no room for us . I asked permission to join the Company hospital, which was granted, so in the afternoon we joined our comrades; found the wounded all in good spirits.
Corinth, Saturday, Oct. 11. The Battery returned from its chase after the retreating rebs, of a week in length. In the evening the Captain and Sergeant Simpson rode into our camp, the Battery being in camp two and one half miles out.
Corinth, Sunday, Oct. 12. To-day it was a little warmer, the rain of the last two days having cleared. My anxiety to visit the Battery was such that I was induced to start out on foot in order to see them. The walk was rather fatiguing as it was rather warm, but we found them at last on a ridge in a shady grove. But it did not look much like the camp of the 6th Battery, as they had no tents pitched and were quartered in brush bivouacs or under tarpaulins; I found them all well but somewhat reduced by the march. I remained with them for an hour, then retraced my steps alone through the solitary woods. I enjoyed pleasant thoughts of the good times to come. I reached camp by sunset well pleased with my walk and not as fatigued as I expected.
Corinth, Monday, Oct. 13. The troops on the outskirts of the town were all moved in, among which were the 6th Battery. They passed our encampment at about 8 A. M.; their designation was unknown but supposed not to be far. Quartermaster-Sergeant Simpson brought new clothing to camp in the afternoon. I drew one jacket, pair of pants and a hat.
Corinth, Tuesday, Oct. 14. Having learned the locality of our Battery, it being encamped on the south side of the town, the wounded men were removed to the general hospital, and the sick were taken to the Battery, with the exception of N. B. Hood and Byron Babcock.
Corinth, Thursday, Oct. 16. I joined my Platoon, went into tent with E. W. Evans and T. J. Hungerford as before. Owing to my weakness I was not put on full duty immediately, being excused from mounted drill, etc.
1862 Memorials for the Dead
Corinth, Friday, Oct. 17. Resolutions relative to those who fell in battle on the 4th inst. were offered by H. S. Keene and unanimously adopted by the camp on roll call P. M.
Corinth, Saturday, Oct. 18. Roll call in the evening. —— made an explanation as to his whereabouts on the day of battle, and the orderly read a certificate from the commander of the 11th Ohio Battery, corroborating his statement.
Corinth, Sunday, Oct. 19. To-day we were told the sad news of the death of one of our number, John Haskins, who died during the night of chronic diarrhea. We had an inspection at 9 A. M. and in the afternoon we paid the last tribute of respect which one man can pay to another, to the remains of our comrade, Haskins. He was buried by the side of the brave five that fell in the battle of Corinth.
Corinth, Monday, Oct. 20. To-day we had to police the entire camp ground as it was reported that General Rosecrans was going to inspect camp. The ground was shoveled and swept over, but no Rosecrans came.
Corinth, Tuesday, Oct. 21. Finished policing around the guns. In the afternoon after the Company was formed for drill, as Orderly Hayward was returning after reporting to the Captain, his horse stumbled, falling on him, spraining his right ankle and fracturing the cap bone.
Corinth, Wednesday, Oct. 22. While on drill in the afternoon, I, in attempting to mount, lost my balance and fell, the hind wheel of the caisson running over my left ankle, luckily without any dislocation. After drill I was taken to the hospital, my foot being very painful during the night.
Corinth, Thursday, Oct. 23. The weather turned very windy and cold, water freezing in the night 1/4 inch in thickness.
Corinth, Friday, Oct. 24. My foot was a little easier. Dr. Arnold of the 12th Wisconsin Battery dressing it and keeping it cool by water.The weather still cold.
Corinth, Saturday, Oct. 25. We were moved from the tent this morning to an old deserted house a quarter of a mile from camp. In the afternoon it snowed and by night the earth was clothed in white.
Corinth, Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, etc. The troops were engaged in fortifying. All the buildings on the outskirts were torn down regardless of worth and hauled away by the troops to build stables, barracks, etc.
Corinth, Saturday, Nov. 1. Orders were given to Battery to cook three days' rations in their haversacks and three days' in the wagons, all ready to march on the following morning.
1862 Hospital Cases
Corinth, Sunday, Nov. 2. I walked up to the Battery, the farthest I had walked since my lameness. Saw the boys off; they left their tents standing, their knapsacks etc. under charge of Lieutenant Simpson, and those unfit for the march. The inmates of the hospital were taken to the general hospital under Dr. Arnold, nine in number, viz: Orderly J. G. S. Hayward (fractured ankle), Corporal G. B. Jones (chronic diarrhea; waiting for discharge); W. W. Wyman (waiting for discharge); G. W. Benedict (diarrhea); E. W. Evans (fever); David Evans (convalescent); Alex. Ray (convalescent); E. R. Hungerford (chronic diarrhea); Jenk. L. Jones (bruised ankle), remained in the hospital until
Corinth, Sunday, Nov. 9. Learning that the Battery had gone to camp at Grand Junction, Tenn., Sergeant Hamilton was sent back to bring forward the baggage, etc., etc. and was to start by train in the morning. E. W. Evans, David Evans and myself procured a dismissal from the hospital and bade good-bye to our comrades (who were all doing well except E. R. Hungerford, who was very low) at 6:30 A. M. and reported at the depot. We found the boys and baggage on the platform, but owing to the rush of troops we could not get off to-day. We laid around all day, exchanged our tents, drew some quartermaster stores.
Corinth, Monday, Nov. 10. We were again disappointed, the train leaving us behind and nothing to do but wait another twenty-four hours. In the afternoon E. W. Evans and I went to the hospital where we learned that our comrade E. R. Hungerford had died at about 2 P. M. Sunday, and was to be buried in the evening.
Corinth, Tuesday, Nov. 11. Lay on the platform all day, and at night we were furnished a car to load our baggage.We loaded it by 12 P. M.
Grand Junction, Tenn., Wednesday, Nov. 12. It having rained during the night, the dust was converted to mud. Ate a breakfast of cold beef and bread, filled our canteens with water, when we scrambled on top the freight cars in order to procure transportation. It was raining, and when the train was in motion the smoke and cinders were torturing. Arrived at Jackson at 1 P. M. Waited an hour for dinner, then took Mississippi Central R. R. for Grand Junction. Remained at Medon Station till 6 P. M. when G. M. Spencer and I spread our blankets and laid down; awoke at Grand Junction at 3 A. M.
Grand Junction, Thursday, Nov. 13. Lieutenant Simpson went in search of the Battery early and left us to unload and guard the baggage. The teams arrived from the Battery 3 P. M. We loaded and started out about three miles and encamped where the team that left Corinth on the 8th had bivouacked for the night.
Davis Mills, Miss., Friday, Nov. 14. Reached the Battery about 10 A. M., it being situated one mile south of Davis Mills in an open field; church and cemetery hard by.
Davis Mills, Saturday, Nov. 15. Heard from home. Received two letters, from John and Thomas, which eased my anxiety.Listened to the first sermon .
Davis Mills, Sunday, Nov. 16. 10 A. M. we had a general inspection by U. S. Grant and General Quinby of the 3rd Division.
1862 On the March
La Grange, Tenn., Monday, Nov. 17. Awoke to hear the rain pattering briskly on the Sibley above me. We were called out, and with expectations to march, we drew three days' rations in our haversacks. 8 A. M. the rain cleared off and the column of infantry began to move by on the road leading to Holly Springs. At 9 A. M. we fell in rear of column. We marched west about three quarters of a mile, then turned north toward La Grange; travelled through very pretty country. We halted at Wolf River to water our horses, fill our canteens and ate a dinner of hard crackers and sugar. Ascended a steep hill, half a mile in length, on the top of which was situated La Grange, when we turned westward and travelled until 7 P. M. Encamped on a hill.Killed a beef for supper.
Moscow, Tenn., Tuesday, Nov. 18. Up at 4 A. M., cooked our breakfast and again on the road by 6 o'clock, and after a four hours' march through a broken country, well cleared, persimmons plenty, we arrived at Moscow, where we went into camp for the time. Rode to water through a town completely deserted, no trace of a citizen. I, as could be expected, was bothered on the march by my foot and could not have kept up, were it not for S. E. Sweet, who allowed me to ride his colt part of the time.
Moscow, Wednesday, Nov. 19. To-day, ordered to pack our knapsacks, mark them preparatory to turning them over, and take them to be stored until we were to be permanently camped.
Moscow, Thursday, Nov. 20. Mail arrived to-day. Received two letters; weather rather cold. Went foraging in the morning; returned with fresh pork, beans, corn and fodder in plenty.
Moscow, Friday, Nov. 21. Weather cold and frosty. 2 P. M. bugle sounded the assembly, "Fall in", when we were given orders to prepare to march immediately. The horses were harnessed, everything packed ready for further orders which after an hour waiting, came, to unharness. It proved to be an alarm caused by a party of guerrillas making a dash upon our foraging train, capturing some seventy mules, then skedaddling before the escort could come up.
Moscow, Saturday, Nov. 22. Griffith Thomas, E. W. Evans and myself went to the spring in woods, washed our clothes and returned by one o'clock. Weather warm and pleasant during the day but very cold nights.
Moscow, Sunday, Nov. 23. Laid in tent all day. Mail arrived in the afternoon. Received two very welcome letters from home and Thomas L.
Moscow, Monday, Nov. 24. I felt rather unwell, having had a lusty old shake with the ague. In the night went to the doctor, had four pills and an excuse from duty. Foraging party brought in twenty-five bushels sweet potatoes, four hogs, a hive of honey and two loads of corn.
Moscow, Tuesday, Nov. 25. Orders were sent to Captain to have two best non-commissioned officers to report at Colonel Powell's headquarters by 8 A. M. Sergt. A. J. Hood and Corporal Hauxhurst were sent, acting as orderlies. Tent moved back. The whole camp policed. 2 o'clock the howitzers (3rd and 5th pieces) were ordered out on picket duty without caissons, one extra horse.
Moscow, Wednesday, Nov. 26. Cold and chilly. Troubled with diarrhea; felt rather bad.
Moscow, Thursday, Nov. 27. Our boys returned in the afternoon having been out to Collierville, eighteen miles distant, burned a bridge, came upon a party of rebs, capturing three.Weather cold and clear. Health improving.
1862 Facing the Enemy
Moscow, Friday, Nov. 28. Awoke before daylight with orders to prepare to march. All was ready by 6:30 A. M. Started at about 7:30, fell in rear of the column and marched toward Holly Springs; traveled all day with the exception of the necessary halts in the train. Passed through Early Grove 4 P. M., Hudsonville 7 P. M. Traveled until 9 P. M. Encamped near Coldwater River for the night. The country was all woodland except the cleared plantations; after dark the air was illumined, the raging fire caused by the dry leaves and fences, running for miles, it being set out by the advance. Came into park in a grove, made a "shebang" of shakes and laid down about 11:30 P. M.
Holly Springs, Miss., Saturday, Nov. 29. The bugle's notes awoke me in the same position as that I fell asleep in three hours before. Prepared for march and started with the sun, in advance of the artillery; passed through Holly Springs about 11 A. M.; passed through the streets where twenty-four hours before the last of the rebels skedaddled. Holly Springs passed my expectations in size and beauty, being the largest place I have seen in Secession.
We traveled on in a southward course towards Waterford. General Hamilton and troupe passed us about 4 miles beyond Holly Springs. Two miles farther on we heard two guns discharged and heard rumors of a battle ahead. On the brow of a hill we were shown the grounds where the cavalry were engaged in the morning with the Rebs' pickets, killing a Michigan boy and three Rebs. Ascended the hill which overlooked Waterford, consisting of a mill and a small creek, branch of Coldwater River. Here the enemy opened fire on our troops in the morning with two pieces which were taken. We forded the stream about 5 P. M., went into camp on the banks, got some flour from the mills (ground by the secesh for supper), and laid down under the gun on soil twenty-four hours ago occupied by Rebs, seven miles south of Holly Springs.
Lumpkin's Mill, Miss., Sunday, Nov. 30. This was a dark and sultry morning, and about 8 A. M. while sitting upon the ground, I felt the earth shake a kind of a dull roll, which was felt by many. Firing with siege guns was commenced at about nine o'clock and kept up briskly through most of the day. While listening to the firing, expecting momentarily to be called upon, the orders came to hitch up, get two days' rations in haversacks, and ready to march in half an hour. 11 A. M. At this time L. N. Keeler rode up for one man to go foraging. Sergeant Hamilton detailed me. We started with two teams and three men, Bowman, Leffart and myself. We went to the northeast one and one fourth miles, crossed the railroad, found our corn in an old log barn. We had to turn around before loading in order to be ready to leave in case of necessity, as the pickets close by were expecting an attack. We loaded our corn got three quarters of a barrel of salt from the smoke house and returned in a hurry. Found the Battery still there, unharnessed and cooled down. The firing gradually ceased, and by night was heard no more. We went to bed without knowing anything of the result in the front.
P. S. This place represented as Waterford proved to be called Lumpkin's Mill.
Lumpkin's Mill, Monday, Dec. 1. Awoke to find it a muddy morning, it having rained very hard in the night, blowing the fifth tent to the ground. Our tent leaked considerably. Laid quiet all day. No firing heard. Evie went foraging, gone nearly all day. In the evening ordered to have two days' rations ready to march at sunrise.
Enroute, Tuesday, Dec. 2. Advanced about five miles, starting at about 8 o'clock, marched south, leaving Waterford on our left. Halted some three hours on the road, it raining continually. We were passed by General Hamilton and staff, also General Grant and suite. Came into camp at 4 P. M. some three miles from the Tallahatchie in open field near large mansion used as Quinby's headquarters.Stretched our tarpaulin and slept sound.
Enroute, Wednesday, Dec. 3. A sunny and bright day, dried up the mud and made things cheerful. Hitched up at 8 A. M., stayed harnessed until 3 P. M. We then moved out to the river and went to camp in sight of the rebels' fortifications. Some of the boys crossed the river while watering . Pitched our tents.
Enroute, Thursday, Dec. 4. We remained quiet all day. Rained in the evening. Pitched Quartermaster's tent.Felt symptoms of the ague, felt rather bad.
1862 Taking Prisoners
Enroute, Friday, Dec. 5. Took up the line of march through mud and rain early. In the morning the rain that was continually falling made the road almost unpassable for the artillery. Crossed the Tallahatchie with difficulty, passed fortifications which might have given us much trouble to pass had they been held by their builders. Met thirty prisoners. Halted at Abbeville about two hours at noon, then pushed on. Night overtook the train while crossing a lagoon , which was very difficult. Stood in the road till 8 P. M., when finding it impossible to cross, we came into park on the roadside in an old cornfield, slept on the tarpaulin, no shelter.
Oxford, Miss., Saturday, Dec. 6. Awoke with an unpleasant feeling, a racking pain in back and head. Started out early, the road having frozen hard enough to bear footmen, marched without much difficulty. Reached Oxford by noon. Neat place, two-thirds the size of Holly Springs; compared favorably with it in building but not in situation. Went into camp on the southern limits, saw some 700 prisoners marched in from the advance. Price still ahead. One darky reported him almost to hell.
Oxford, Sunday, Dec. 7. Nothing new. Laid in camp. Many rumors afloat of Richmond taken, Bragg defeated, etc.Health improving.
Oxford, Monday, Dec. 8. A lazy day for the Battery. Nothing transpired to excite the drowsiness of the soldier. Received a paper of the 3rd containing the President's Proclamation.
Oxford, Tuesday, Dec. 9. Warm and pleasant, Quinby's Division inspected by U. S. Grant and suite.Troubled with diarrhea.
Oxford, Wednesday, Dec. 10. Warm and pleasant. Health improving. Diarrhea checked by abstaining from all eatables except hard crackers.All teams sent foraging. 3rd Platoon had 1 hog, 2 geese.
Oxford, Thursday, Dec. 11. Rumors of march. Logan's Division left to-day. Troops passing in the afternoon. Had standing gun drill. Ordered to have five roll calls in a day. Order No. 1 from Colonel Marsh, 20th Illinois, post commander of Oxford, read.
Near Oxford, Friday, Dec. 12. Orders given at roll call in the morning to be ready to march at 7 A. M. 3 days' rations. Took up the line of march back towards town much to the dissatisfaction of all, which was relieved by turning south and once more on the track of old Price, travelled six miles, then went into park. Took a team to drive, the center team on the gun formerly driven by A. Dearborn.
Near Oxford, Saturday, Dec. 13. All quiet. Foraging party started out at 6 A. M. Gone all day. They report a poor country, with much more loyalty apparently than could be expected. Citizens refuse to take Confederate scrip as heretofore, many exhibiting a white flag on their dwellings upon which was inscribed "Union".Received letters from John from Jefferson, Wis.
1862 Negro Cooks
Near Oxford, Sunday, Dec. 14. A day of excitement which came near ending in a serious affair, caused by certain members of the 1st Missouri Regular Battery assailing the colored cooks as they were going after water. After dinner as Anthony was passing by, he was assaulted and abused. He appealed to the boys, when a rush was made, and in an instant a crowd was gathered consisting of the 6th and 12th Wisconsin and 11th Ohio against the Regulars, armed with clubs, revolvers, knives and axes. The officers interposed, which closed it with but a few bloody noses and several knock downs.Warm and heavy.
Near Oxford, Monday, Dec. 15. It rained nearly all day, making it very muddy, hard for our horses.No mail for two days.
Near Oxford, Tuesday, Dec. 16. Pleasant and sunny. Health never better. Lost my needle book, very sorry. Received three days' mail; had two papers and a letter from home.
Near Oxford, Wednesday, Dec. 17. The day was spent in the common routine of camp duties; drill in the afternoon by infantry and artillery, presenting a lively scene.Received a State Journal from T. L. Jones.
Near Oxford, Thursday, Dec. 18. Warm and pleasant. Health excellent. Dr. Miller returned from Wisconsin in the afternoon, much to the satisfaction of all. After roll call in the evening, he appeared before the Company and made a speech, after which three cheers were given to him.Seventy-five loads of cotton brought into headquarters.
Near Oxford, Friday, Dec. 19. Bright and sunny. The delightful weather succeeded in enticing most of the boys from their well worn decks and cribbage boards, bringing them out in ball playing, pitching quoits, etc.Tallied for an interesting game of base ball.
Near Oxford, Saturday, Dec. 20. Weather still warm. Several of the boys went to Oxford in the afternoon with Captain. Returned with eight new horses, also with the report that the Rebs were in possession of Holly Springs with 5,000 cavalry. Had taken several prisoners, one of whom was Colonel Murphy, 8th Wisconsin; fears also were entertained that the paymasters had been captured with their capital.
Oxford, Sunday, Dec. 21. Reveille earlier than usual; orders to hold in readiness to march, such orders being anticipated. 7 A. M. the whole Division took up the line of march back toward Oxford. Hitched up. The caisson fell in the train, but the pieces with the 59th Indiana, Colonel Alexander, were left for a rear guard. The Division passed by 9 A. M. but as the train could not take all of the commissary stores and cotton at headquarters, we had to lay there all day hitched up, waiting for the trains to return from Oxford. They arrived at 4 P. M., loaded, and started back as soon as possible. We were ordered to hitch up, as we could hear the drums beat for roll call on the right of us; supposed to be Logan's Division. We fell in rear of 59th about 8 P. M., leaving the place all quiet, the Rebs making slight demonstrations upon the infantry during the day notwithstanding. Pushed silently along towards Oxford, proceeded toward our old camping ground. Brought into line by Lieutenant Clark on the right of the road in the flat. Captain Dillon went up to the old camp. The caisson drivers being already on the start, after pitching their tents and again striking, we passed up the hill again, on the top of which, countermanded again, unhitched and left the horses at the bottom.Laid down at 1 A. M.
Oxford, Monday, Dec. 22. Awakened by Sergeant Hamilton, while the stars were yet bright, with orders to feed. I, unsatisfied with the short sleep, again laid down till daylight, until the orders to water aroused me. Hitched up, drank a cup of coffee, ate hard bread. The blankets were ordered off the guns and put in the wagon. Expectations of a fight somewhere, but I know not where. The troops were moving out all night.
Evening. At 9 A. M. the troops that had been called out in the night returned to their old camp with the intelligence that it was a false alarm of the enemy advancing upon Oxford.12 M. we unhitched, unharnessed and pitched our tents.
Enroute, Tuesday, Dec. 23. Struck our tents and took up the line of march northwards at 8 A. M. Followed the same road as that which we came in on, passed through Abbeville at noon, recrossed the Tallahatchie at night, coming into camp on the same ground as on the 2nd inst. To-day we passed the 23rd Wisconsin Regiment, many of the boys met old acquaintances; reported occupation of Jackson, Tenn., by the enemy.
Lumpkin's Mill, Wednesday, Dec. 24. A day of fasting to Quinby's Division, the rations having run out yesterday and none having arrived. I ate parched corn and drank coffee. Marched to Lumpkin's Mill, went into camp 1 P. M. Drew rations in the evening.A heifer found.
Lumpkin's Mill, Thursday, Dec. 25. Christmas! Christmas! resounded through the camp this morning; everyone turning the gay reminiscence of the past in their minds and hoping again to enjoy. Laid quiet during the day. Ate a Christmas dinner of dumplings and unleavened bread. The howitzers ordered to prepare to march, going in charge of a provision train to Memphis.Troubled with bad cold.
Tallaloosa, Miss., Friday, Dec. 26. Aroused early to prepare to march. High wind, appearance of a storm. We were hitched up with the rest of the Battery by 7 A. M., when it began to rain heavy. The howitzers, under charge of Lieutenant Clark, with two Parrott guns of the Regulars, two howitzers of the 11th Ohio, started out with four teams on the guns, two on the limbers of the caissons, the hind wheels having been sent to Holly Springs the night before. We passed on towards Memphis with the infantry of Quinby's Division paddling on the best they could; marched on through very rough country till 4 P. M. Came into park at Tallaloosa, a God and man forsaken place. Rained nearly all day. Supped on confiscated chickens, geese and fresh pork.
Byhalia, Miss., Saturday, Dec. 27. Rained nearly all day. Hitched up in the morning. The other sections took the road, but as we were to be the rear guard, and the roads were so bad that teams could not all come on for some time, we again unharnessed, laid in a good supply of disloyal pork and beef and a few rebel chickens. 3 P. M. again hitched up and fell in the rear of the train. It had cleared up and the roads considerably improved. We were enabled to travel at very good time. Travelled till 10 P. M. Came into camp at Byhalia, Marshall County, Miss., having travelled about ten miles on a most beautiful evening. A woman drew a pistol on one of our boys, driving him from the yard.
Near Memphis, Tenn., Sunday, Dec. 28. Slept out-doors. Awoke at 5 A. M. A beautiful morning. Byhalia, unlike Tallaloosa, was a bright and lively little village, with a large school house, church, lodge room, with a scientific laboratory, out of which the boys jay-hawked numerous books, writing utensils, etc. etc. Picked up two horses and two mules. The owner of the horses came and pleaded hard, but could receive no other satisfaction than a receipt from Lieutenant Clark. He was reported to be a rank Secesh, as well as everybody else.
1862 Brush with Guerrillas
We started with the 1st Brigade in rear of the train at 9 A. M. Twenty-eight miles from Memphis, passed a house where a woman stood in the yard, bravely holding the Stars and Stripes in her hand (to protect her chickens I suppose). Marched along quietly; nothing of importance save the appropriation of considerable molasses along the road until half an hour of sundown when a small party of guerrillas dashed up in our rear, discharging some fifteen or twenty pieces, then legging it before their fire could be returned. We halted, the cannoneers sprang to their posts, got their equipments, when the 48th Indiana formed their line. But it was all over with. They were gone, and we started on. Two of the balls took effect, wounding two boys of the 48th Indiana in the arms. An assistant adjutant general and surgeon had wandered a little from the train, were taken also by a few of Jackson's cavalry, divested of their accoutrements and horses, then paroled.
7 P. M. Drew up three-fourths of an hour to feed our horses, then started on, travelled till 10 P. M. Came into camp seven miles from Memphis.
Memphis, Monday, Dec. 29. We passed into Memphis as fast as the necessary detentions would permit, through a very beautiful country and handsome buildings. Passed through the town at about sundown, came into park alongside of the other sections on the south of the town. Watered our horses at the wharves about one and one half miles north, passing through the town. Memphis presented a more lively appearance than I expected under the present circumstances.
Memphis, Tuesday, Dec. 30. Awakened by the morning gun at the fort; fell in for roll call, Sergeant Hamilton acting orderly. Saw a Memphis Bulletin of the 30th, the first newspaper since that bearing the date of the 12th. Watered my horses, then rode into the fort with Colburn. Met Milton Campbell of the 23rd Wisconsin Regiment. The Regiment had gone down the river, leaving twenty-nine convalescents behind. The boys were furnished with a pass to go to town, others taking leg bail, by night.Several heavy heads. Drew six days' rations.
Germantown, Tenn., Wednesday, Dec. 31. The train took up the line of march back. Our Section being in the center started at 9 A. M., passing through town up Main Street. It was an amusing sight, nearly two-thirds of the soldiers were drunk, having run Memphis as they pleased almost for the last twenty-four hours. We followed the Memphis and Charleston R. R. Came into park at Germantown at dark, having travelled fifteen miles. Partook of a soldier's supper, made our bed neath the starry canopy of heaven, and laid down, ending the year as we began it, by sleeping.Thus endeth the year 1862.
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