African Research & Development (R&D) Africa - Verdiana Grace Masanja - ebook

African Research & Development (R&D) Africa ebook

Verdiana Grace Masanja

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Results of all Research Projects in 2007 to 2010 under NUR-SIDA Collaboration University of Rwanda (UR) through its Research Directorate has been funding its staff to carry out research projects in many areas. This book contains 24 research projects under the Research Commission research grants scheme. The Directorate of Research organised a conference where by all the 24 research grantees presented their research findings. These findings have a high scope not only in Rwanda but also many countries around the world who are interested in African research and research in Rwanda in particular. The research findings that appear in this book come under following domains: Agriculture, Arts, Media and Social Sciences, Conflict Management, Management, Law, and Medicine and in Basic Sciences. This book of proceedings contains the 11 extended abstracts; 10 presented works were already published in International Journals only their titles and authors are included in this book.

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National University of Rwanda,

Directorate of Research

Proceedings of the Coneference on the Results of Research Projects Funded in 2007 to 2010 under NUR- SidaCollaboration

Held at Gihindamuyaga,Butare, Rwanda

7th-8thSeptember 2010

ISBN 978-91-978436-4-5

National University of Rwanda, P.O. Box: 56 Butare, Rwanda.

Copyright © Verdiana G. Masanja

Tel:+250-252517876,-0255103090 | Fax: +250-252530210. Email: [email protected]

All rights reserved.

Cataloguing-in-Publication Data National Library of Sweden

ISBN 978-91-978436-4-5

Published by: Nordic ePublisher

Stockholm, Sweden

www.devexpgroup.com

Contents

1.

Rural Energy Options for Sustainable Development: A Social Cost-Benefit Analysis

By Baig M.SA, Birasa Nyamulinda, Samuel MUTARINDWA

Department of Management, Department of Economics

3

2.

Monthly Wind Characteristics and Wind Energy in Rwanda

By Bonfils SAFARI and Jimmy GASORE

10

3.

Analysis and strategies for improving productivity of integrated farming systems of southern Rwanda: Diagnosis of farming systems

By C. Bucagu, B. Uwumukiza, J.J. Mbonigaba Muhinda and L. Mbanzamihigo

15

4.

Acacia sieberiana: Seed germination and seedling performance under different soil moisture regimes

By E. Munyanziza, C.P. Mugunga and C.K. Ruffo

21

5.

Changes in soil and plant species composition as influenced by Acacia sieberiana in pastures of Songa Rwanda

By C.P. Mugunga, E. Munyanziza, D. Mugumo and C.K. Ruffo

24

6.

Acacias of Rwanda: description, conservation status and uses

By E. Munyanziza, C.P. Mugunga and C.K. Ruffo

29

7.

Prevalence of Atopy, Asthma and Copd in Huye District and Kigali Town, Rwanda (AFRICA).

By Musafiri S., Musango L., Seminega B., Rutayisire C., Van Meerbeeck J., Kabanda E

30

8.

Dance rwandaises traditionnelles INTORE (1925 -1959)

By Beata M. SHYAKA and Dr. Ignatiana MUKARUSANGA

34

9.

“Enhancing the “Culture of Reading” as a Tool for Public Policy Implementation in Rwanda”

By Dr. Abubakar KATEREGGA, Mr. Télesphore Ngarambe and Ms Charline MULINDAHABI

By Dr. Abubakar KATEREGGA, Mr. Télesphore Ngarambe and Ms Charline MULINDAHABI

40

10.

Le Genocide à l’Universite Nationale du Rwanda - Repèrage du role de l’élite intellectuelle (1963-1994)

By Paul RUTAYISIRE, Ernest MUTWARASIBO and Athanasie GAHONDOGO With the collaboration of Médard RUNYANGE, François MASABO and Justin MURWANASHYAKA

49

11.

Impact de la culture sur la pandémie du Sida au Rwanda. Analyse discursive

Par Uwiringiyimana Jean Claude ([email protected]),

Bayisenge, Jeannette Murenzi, Gashayija Jean-Paul, Nkejabahizi Jean-Chrysostome

58

Preface

Since 2003 the National University of Rwanda (NUR) through its Research Directorate has been funding its staff to carry out research projects with funds from the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida). Two agreement phases 2003-2006 and 2007-2010 were funded. By September 2010, the NUR-Sida program had supported 24 research projects under the Research Commission research grants scheme. As the program second agreement funding phase was coming an end in December 2010, the Directorate of Research organised this conference where by all the 24 research grantees were invited present their research projects findings where they already exist so as to take stock of achievements.

The conference was held at Gihindamuyaga, in Butare, Rwanda, from the 7th - 8th September 2010. The theme of the Conference was: “Results of all Research Projects Funded in 2007 to 2010 under NUR-SIDA Collaboration”. In total, 21 grantees were able to make presentations as follows: 2 in Agriculture, 5 in Arts, Media and Social Sciences, 1 in Conflict Management, 2 in Management, 1 in Law, 8 in Medicine and 2 in Basic Sciences. This book of proceedings contains the 11 extended abstracts; 10 presented works were already published in International Journals only their titles and authors are included in this book. Verdiana Grace Masanja is the current (and first) Director of the National University of Rwanda Directorate of Research since December 2007. She also coordinates university wide Research, Consultancy, and Doctoral and Master by Research Degrees. She is a Full Professor of Mathematics and a Gender Expert. Prof. Masanja is published widely in the area of Fluid Dynamics, Mathematical Modelling (pollution, oceanography, food security and control of diseases), Mathematics education, and gender issues. In case if you wish to get in touch with us our Address is: National University of Rwanda, Butare (main) Campus, University Avenue, B.P. 117, Huye (Butare), Rwanda. Telephone: +250788494984

Prof. Verdiana Grace Masanja

Director,

NUR Directorate of Research.

Introduction

Verdiana Grace Masanja

This book focuses on a selection of research projects with a direct application aimed to address social economic problems of Rwanda. The Research Projects have been conducted by academic staff and students of the National University of Rwanda. These are among the 75 research projects funded by the Research Directorate of the National University of Rwanda for the period 2003 - 2013 under the collaboration with the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida).

On 7th and 8th September 2010, twenty one research projects supported in the period 2007 – 2010 made presentations of their progress at a conference organised by the National University of Rwanda Research Directorate. This book contains extended abstracts of eleven research projects whose works had not been published at the time.

The topics in this book cover a range of multidisciplinary themes such as Rural Energy Options for Sustainable Development, Wind Energy Characteristic in Rwanda, Farming systems with the aim to improve productivity, and innovative methods to improve the environmental protection through usage of indigenous tree species of Acacia tree.

Other themes that were covered are on reading culture and Rwanda traditional dances, understanding of issues that resulted in the 1994 Genocide within the National University of Rwanda with the aim to inform the ongoing transformational processes, and health related research on prevalence of respiratory diseases in Huye District and the impact of culture on the spread and prevention of HIV and AIDS in the southern part of Rwanda.

Findings from these researches have informed policy in Rwanda and all have resulted in scientific publications and International Conference presentations. Some of these research projects have been extended to theses at the level of master’s and doctorate.

I take this opportunity to acknowledge profoundly the support extended to NUR by Sida in the area of research capacity building including research projects, short trainings in research methodology and academic writing, PhD training of NUR staff, establishing masters programs, supporting research infrastructure and equipments and supporting research dissemination.

I also thank the NUR executive, for ensuring the improved research environment at NUR and my colleagues in the Research Directorate, Dr. Jean Marie Ntaganda, at that time he was the Deputy Director; Mr. Cyprien Mucyo Ntaganda, the Publications Attaché, Ms Alice Dukuize, the Administrative Assistance, Ms Violaine Akimana, the Secretary and two Internship students Ms betrice Byukusenge and Mr. Jean de Dieu Niyigaba for their tireless efforts to make the conference a success.

RuralEnergyOptionsforSustainableDevelopment: A SocialCost-BenefitAnalysis

M.S.A.Baig&Samuel Mutarindwa–Deparment of Management

Birasa Nyamulinda-Department of Economics

Many studies contend that energy is paramount for development. Importantly the role of energy on rural economic development is unarguable. This research was designed to study options of energy used in rural areas in Rwanda and their implications on sustainable development. The social cost-benefit analysis was used to determine this. Rural energy and electrification form an integral part of Rwanda’s overall rural transformation and poverty reduction strategy. Given the fact that more than 98.4% of energy for cooking has continued to be drawn from vegetal sources, there is no doubt that the environment is being threatened. Rural electrification level of Rwanda is as low as 1%, generally per capita electric energy consumption in Rwanda is as low as 30 KWh/annum/person, (UNIDO, 2007).

This study had four major objectives: To establish the rural energy requirements of Rwanda within the precincts of the long term goals defined in Vision 2020, Vision Umurenge, EDPRS2008-2012, and MDGs; to identify the rural energy options for Rwanda within the outlook of sustainable development; to make comparative assessment of the identified rural energy options by applying social cost-benefit analytical framework and to offer recommendations for implementation of the rural energy schemes towards the sustainable development of Rwanda.

To conduct this study a sample size of 600 households was selected from seven districts chosen purposely after consultation with provincial authorities. Respondents were selected from rural sectors basing on the energy used. Questionnaire was used as the tool to collect primary information from the respondents. The main energy source considered during the study was: biogas, main electricity grid, solar, biomass, and others. The SPSS was used for data analysis. In order to show the cost and benefits of each energy use, the system thinking approach was used. This is the simple mode of analysis which shows how energy is linked to socio-economic change of respondents and community in general. The concept is used to understand the causal relationships and feedbacks of a problem.

Our research findings demonstrated that the consistent barriers of rural renewable energy in Rwanda are associated with initial cost. We recommended government and other development partners to scale-up the implementation of renewable energy supply to reach as many people as in rural areas. This will partly support other undergoing development policies like Universal Primary Education, and rural industrialization.

Methods

The sample size was 600 households selected from seven districts chosen purposely after consultation with provincial authorities. Respondents were selected from rural sectors basing on the energy used. Questionnaire was used as the tool to collect primary information from the respondents. The main energy source considered during the study was: Biogas, Main grid, solar, biomass, and others. The SPSS was used for data analysis. In order to show the cost and benefits of each energy use, the system thinking approach was used. This is the simple mode of analysis which shows how energy is linked to socio-economic change of respondents and community in general. The concept is used to understand the causal relationships and feedbacks of a problem. Arguably, the information gathered from the respondents was vital to determining the costs and benefits of each energy at household level and community in general. Some of the costs or benefits were not quantifiable and thus, it was difficult to determine their monetary values, hence, this system enabled the use of inter-linked variables to assess the socio-economic costs-benefits of energy in Rwanda rural areas.

Results and Discussion

It was discovered during the study that, in the rural sectors surveyed the major occupation is agriculture. Apart from respondents who are employed by the local governments or in few private activities in sectors visited, the major occupations identified are agriculture, business, and carpentry. There are other people involved in pot making, welding, and etcetra as their major income generating activities.

Lack of adequate energy source was identified as the major setback to the enhancement and development of income generating activities. For example rural farmers visited during the survey expressed enormous loss caused by lack of reliable energy to store their agricultural products which are perishable and sometimes forced to sell them at a throw away prices or getting rid of them by supplying to their neighbors freely. Indeed, recent studies show that, rural electrification or provision of cheaper and reliable energy is the milestone for the development of the rural area as well as reducing imbalances between regions. Hence the supply of viable energy to rural areas is the cornerstone to enhancing its sustainable development through reducing difficulties faced by people especially women and children, and strains on environment.

Electricity is also used to operate various rural household appliances such as television sets, radios, iron, cell phones battery recharging, etc. Thus, it was imperative to know the type of appliances owned by the household and their mode of recharging. It was found that only 36% of respondents own radio and mobile phones. The sectors of Kabarondo and Gishyita are leading in the number of people with two devices with 55% and 51% respectively.

Figure I: Example of Mode of recharging mobile phones in rural areas

Source: Field study, 2009