A state-of-the-art psychological perspective on team working and collaborative organizational processes This handbook makes a unique contribution to organizational psychology and HRM by providing comprehensive international coverage of the contemporary field of team working and collaborative organizational processes. It provides critical reviews of key topics related to teams including design, diversity, leadership, trust processes and performance measurement, drawing on the work of leading thinkers including Linda Argote, Neal Ashkanasy, Robert Kraut, Floor Rink and Daan van Knippenberg.
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About the Editors
About the Contributors
1 The Psychology of Teamwork and Collaborative Processes
What Are Teams?
The Developing Research Agenda for Teamwork
Part I: Overview of Team Effectiveness
2 Factors that Influence Teamwork
3 Team Performance in Knowledge Work
Past and Present Conceptualizations of Performance: A Brief Overview
A Flexible Definition: Performance as Functional Utility
Higher‐Order Dimensions of Team Functional Utility
An Integrated Framework for Team Effectiveness in Knowledge Work
4 Transnational Team Effectiveness
International Perspective and Cultural Constructs
Input–Process–Output vs. Input–Mediator–Output
Inputs to Team Effectiveness
Mediators/Processes of Team Effectiveness
Outputs of Team Effectiveness
Comprehensive Models of Team Effectiveness for the Future
Part II: Antecedents to Team Effectiveness
5 Team Design
What is Team Design?
Constituting the Team
Structuring the Team
Creating a Supportive Context
6 Team Composition
Teams and Team Types
Networks: A Bridge across Typologies, Roles, Positions, and Team Types
Network Measures as Related to Team Composition
Networks and Team Composition Moving Forward
7 Team Diversity
Consequences of Team Diversity
The Bi‐theoretical Approach to Team Diversity
Attributing Different Effects to Different Types of Diversity
The Contingency Approach to Team Diversity: The Categorization–Elaboration Model
Faultlines and Subgroups
Multilevel and Status‐based Approaches to Team Diversity
8 Change in Organizational Work Teams
9 Status Effects on Teams
Definition of Status
Status Effects on Teams
10 Cross‐Cultural Teams
The IPO Framework and Cross‐Cultural Team Effectiveness
Input–Output and Input–Process Relationships
Part III: Team Effectiveness
11 Teamwork Processes and Emergent States
Defining the Basics
Team Processes and Emergent States: The ABCs
12 Team Decision Making
Group Processes and Team Decision Making
Teamwork and Team Decision Making
Interventions for Improving Team Decision Making
13 Teamwork under Stress
Understanding Teamwork under Stress
Teams in Extreme Environments
Optimizing Teamwork under Stress
Measuring Team‐Level Stress
14 Conflict in Teams
Alternative Perspectives on the Study of Intragroup Conflict
15 Team Leadership
Teams and Leadership Effectiveness: Setting the Stage
Generic Approaches to Team Leadership
Team‐Specific Approaches to Team Leadership
16 Team Cognition
The Importance and Maturation of Team Cognition
Team Mental Models
Team Situation Awareness
Integration of Team Mental Models and Situation Awareness
17 Team Trust
Conceptual Issues and Clarification
Team Trust: Similarities and Distinctions with Interpersonal Trust
Team Trust: A Multilevel Perspective
Multilevel Antecedents of Team Trust
Multi‐Level Outcomes of Team Trust
18 Psychological Contracts in Teams
Multiple Foci Social Exchange Relationships and Psychological Contracts
LMX and Psychological Contracts
Fairness, Peer Justice and Psychological Contracts
Social support in teams and psychological contracts
19 Affect and Creativity in Work Teams
Affect and Individual Creativity
Affect and Creativity in Teams
Positive GAT and Team Creativity
Applying Individual‐Level Effects to Multiple Levels
Affect and Creativity in Teams as a Dynamic Process
20 Team Reflexivity and Innovation
A Model of Team Reflexivity
Implications for Practice
Part IV: Team Effectiveness Tools and Outputs
21 Team Performance Measurement
The Science of Teams and Performance Measurement
Requirements for Team Performance Measurement System Design
Emerging Methods of Unobtrusive Team Performance Measurement
Strategies for Team Performance Measurement
22 Developing and Managing Teams
Developing and Managing Teams
23 Team Performance in Extreme Environments
Cohesion and Conflict
24 Team Development Interventions
The Changing Nature of Teams
Team Development Interventions
Acknowledgement of Funding Support
Part V: The Future of Teams
25 The Future of Teams
Interconnectedness, Belonging and Compassion
Interconnectedness in a Digital World
Interconnectedness and Diversity
Interconnectedness Within and Across Organizations
Languishing or Flourishing Through Interconnection
Interconnection Promoting Belonging
Compassionate Cultures Sustain Interconnectedness
End User License Agreement
Table 2.1 Critical considerations.
Table 3.1 Types of team performance.
Table 6.1 Team member and replacement characteristics.
Table 6.2 Interdependent ties matrix.
Table 6.3 Affective ties.
Table 6.4 Familiarity ties.
Table 6.5 Network concepts and team composition.
Table 9.1 Empirical literature on the status effects.
Table 10.1 Literature review with an input–process–output framework
Table 11.1 Future research directions.
Table 12.1 Key concepts from the group processes literature relevant for team decision making (Brown, 2000).
Table 12.2 Principles of effective teamwork (adapted from Salas et al: 2007, p. 806).
Table 13.1 A subset of stressors present in team contexts.
Table 13.2 Candidate stress training approaches.
Table 19.1 Recent findings regarding the relationship between group affect and creativity.
Table 21.1 Description of a team performance profile (adapted from Salas et al., 2007).
Table 21.2 Summary of requirements for a team performance measurement system.
Table 21.3 Summary of team competencies and example behavioral markers (adapted from Rosen et al., 2011).
Table 21.4 Overview of common scale types used for observational measures of team performance (adapted from Rosen, Salas, Wilson, et al., 2008).
Table 24.1 Training strategies.
Table 24.2 Team intervention meta‐analyses published since 2008.
Figure 2.1 Critical considerations of teamwork.
Figure 4.1 Normative model of team effectiveness.
Figure 4.2 Team effectiveness framework (Tannenbaum, Beard, & Salas, 1992) ); KSA = knowledge, skills, and abilities.
Figure 4.3 Model of teamwork (Dickson & McIntyre, 1997).
Figure 4.4 Input–throughput–output model of team adaptation (Burke et al., 2006).
Figure 4.5 The rhythm of team task accomplishment (Marks et al., 2001); I = output, P
= process 1 to process 2.
Figure 4.6 A general model of team evolution and maturation (Morgan et al., 1993).
Figure 4.7 Adapted input–mediator–outcome model (Mathieu et al., 2008).
Figure 4.8 The “Big Five” teamwork model (Salas et al., 2005); P = process.
Figure 4.9 The conditions and processes of team performance (Salas, Stagl, Burke, & Goodwin, 2007).
Figure 6.1 Network complexity.
Figure 6.2 Agent by knowledge meta‐network.
Figure 6.3 Agent by agent network with multiplex ties.
Figure 6.4 Agent by knowledge meta‐network with replacements.
Figure 6.5 Interdependence ties network.
Figure 7.1 Types and amounts of three meanings of within‐unit diversity according to Harrison and Klein (2007, p. 1202). © Academy of Management and the authors; reproduced with permission.
Figure 7.2 The categorization–elaboration model of work group diversity and group performance
Figure 7.3 Multilevel conceptual model of the effects of team diversity in organizations.
Figure 10.1 Input–process–output model of cross‐cultural team effectiveness.
Figure 10.2 A multilevel model of cross‐cultural team effectiveness.
Figure 11.1 Input–mediator–output–input framework (Ilgen et al., 2005; Mathieu et al., 2008), emphasizing the components included in this chapter.
Figure 12.1 Input–process–output model of team decision making adapted from McGrath’s (1964) model of group interaction and performance.
Figure 13.1 A model framework of the effects of stress on performance.
Figure 17.1 Multilevel antecedents and outcomes of team trust.
Figure 20.1 A model of antecedents and outcomes of team reflexivity.
Figure 21.1 Overview of the input–mediator–output framework.
Figure 22.1 Overarching chapter framework summarizing research around the input–mediator–output–input model.
Figure 24.1 Team development intervention model.
Table of Contents
Series Editor: Jonathan Passmore
The aim of the Wiley Blackwell Handbooks in Organizational Psychology is to create a set of uniquely in‐depth reviews of contemporary research, theory, and practice across critical sub‐domains of organizational psychology. Series titles will individually deliver the state‐of‐the‐art in their discipline by putting the most important contemporary work at the fingertips of academics, researchers, students, and practitioners. The series offers a complete reference for those seeking to develop a comprehensive understanding of the field.
The Wiley‐Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Coaching and MentoringEdited by Jonathan Passmore, David B. Peterson, and Teresa Freire
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The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Positivity and Strengths‐Based Approaches at WorkEdited by Lindsay G. Oades, Michael Steger, Antonella Delle Fave, and Jonathan Passmore
The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Team Working and Collaborative ProcessesEdited by Eduardo Salas, Ramón Rico, and Jonathan Passmore
The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Recruitment, Selection and RetentionEdited by Harold Goldstein, Elaine Pulakos, Jonathan Passmore, and Carla Semedo
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Edited by Eduardo Salas, Ramón Rico, and Jonathan Passmore
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Names: Salas, Eduardo, editor | Rico, Ramón, editor | Passmore, Jonathan, editor.Title: The Wiley Blackwell handbook of the psychology of team working and collaborative processes / edited by Eduardo Salas, Ramón Rico, and Jonathan Passmore.Other titles: Handbook of the psychology of team working and collaborative processesDescription: Hoboken : Wiley‐Blackwell, 2017. | Series: Wiley‐Blackwell handbooks in organizational psychology | Includes bibliographical references and index.Identifiers: LCCN 2016039779 (print) | LCCN 2017000426 (ebook) | ISBN 9781118903261 (hardback) | ISBN 9781118909973 (pdf) | ISBN 9781118909997 (epub)Subjects: LCSH: Psychology, Industrial. | Teams in the workplace–Psychological aspects. | BISAC: PSYCHOLOGY / Industrial & Organizational Psychology.Classification: LCC HF5548.8 .W5395 2017 (print) | LCC HF5548.8 (ebook) | DDC 658.4/022019–dc23LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016039779
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Eduardo Salas, Ph.D. Eduardo is a Professor and Allyn R. & Gladys M. Cline Chair in Psychology at Rice University. Previously, he was a Trustee Chair and Pegasus Professor of Psychology at the University of Central Florida, where he also held an appointment as Program Director for the Human Systems Integration Research Department at the Institute for Simulation and Training (IST). Before joining IST, he was a senior research psychologist and Head of the Training Technology Development Branch of the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division. During this period, Dr. Salas served as a principal investigator for numerous research and development programs that focused on teamwork, team training, simulation‐based training, decision‐making under stress, safety culture, and performance assessment. Dr. Salas has co‐authored over 450 journal articles and book chapters and has co‐edited 27 books. He is a Past President of the Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology and the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, and a recipient of the Meritorious Civil Service Award from the Department of the Navy. He is also the recipient of the 2012 Society for Human Resource Management Losey Lifetime Achievement Award, and the 2012 Joseph E. McGrath Award for Lifetime Achievement.
Ramón Rico, Ph.D. Associate Professor at the University of Western Australia Business School. He is the outgoing editor of the European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, and incoming associate editor of the Organizational Psychology Review. His work has been published in the Academy of Management Review, Journal of Management, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Business and Psychology, and European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. His current research interests include team adaptability and coordination, team cognition, team diversity, task design characteristics, multiteam systems, and team process and effectiveness. He is also a consultant to government agencies, corporations, and sport clubs (Bank of Spain, Unión Fenosa, Real Madrid CF).
Jonathan Passmore, D.Occ.Psych. Jonathan is Professor of Psychology at the University of Evora, Portugal, and managing director of Embrion, a psychology consulting company. Prior to this he worked for PricewaterhouseCoopers, IBM Business Consulting, and OPM. He is a chartered psychologist, holds five degrees, and has an international reputation for his work in coaching and leadership. He has written and edited over 25 books on the themes of leadership, personal development, and change, including editing the Association for Coaching series of coaching titles. He speaks widely at conferences across the world from the U.S. to Europe and Asia and has published over 100 journal papers and book chapters. He was awarded the Association for Coaching Global Coaching Award for his contribution to practice and research in 2010, the British Psychology Society Research Award for his research into safety coaching in 2012, and the Association for Business Psychology Chairman’s Award for Excellence in 2015. He sits on the editorial board of several journals including Coaching: An International Journal and the International Coaching Psychology Review. Jonathan lives with his wife and two small children in the U.K. In his spare time he likes to swim, walk, and run.
Carlos‐María Alcover, Ph.D. Carlos is a Professor of Social and Organizational Psychology at the Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain. He received his Ph.D. in social psychology from the Complutense University of Madrid. His research has focused on early retirement and psychological wellbeing, bridge employment, psychological contract and exchange relationships in organizations, and membership and temporal matters in work teams.
Neil Anderson, Ph.D. Neil is Professor of Human Resource Management and Research Director (HRM‐OB Group) at Brunel Business School, Brunel University London, U.K. His major research interests are in the areas of applicant reactions, employee selection, creativity and innovation at work, and science–practice relations.
Neal M. Ashkanasy, Ph.D. Neal is Professor of Management at the University of Queensland, Australia with research interests in ethical behavior, leadership, culture, and emotions. He is a past editor‐in‐chief of the Journal of Organizational Behavior. Professor Ashkanasy is a Fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
Mark C. Bolino, Ph.D. Mark is a Professor of Management and the Michael F. Price Chair in International Business in the Price College of Business at the University of Oklahoma. He received his Ph.D. from the University of South Carolina. His research interests include organizational citizenship behavior, impression management, global careers, and psychological contracts.
Tiffany Cooper Tiffany is a Ph.D. student in industrial and organizational psychology at Clemson University. Her current research interests revolve around the automated assistance of team behaviors through the use of physiological measures. Specifically, she is interested in automating the assessment of workload within teams to create more effective mutual monitoring and backup behaviors in working units.
John L. Cordery, Ph.D. John is the Provost and Senior Deputy Vice‐Chancellor at Curtin University. His primary research interests relate to work design and how it affects employee behavior and wellbeing, and the ways in which collaborative structures, such as teams and communities of practice, function in organizations.
Ana Cristina Costa Ana Cristina is Senior Lecturer Human Resource Management and Organizational Behavior at Brunel Business School, Brunel University, London, U.K. Her major research interests include trust in organizations, innovation and psychological wellbeing, applicant reactions, and employee turnover.
Jennifer E. Dannals Jennifer is a doctoral candidate at Stanford University’s Graduate School of Business. Her research is focused on how individuals use distributions of group behavior to infer the social norm. Other current research projects include: the role of uncertainty in influencing cooperative and competitive decisions; examining the market effects of diversity announcements from Google and other tech firms; and the effects of role differentiation on team coordination, perceptions of equality, and team performance in startup teams.
Gia DeMichele Gia is a doctoral candidate at Claremont Graduate University’s (CGU) Division of Behavioral and Organizational Sciences. She received an MA degree in positive organizational psychology from CGU. Her research is oriented around communication on complex teams in high‐risk environments.
Deborah DiazGranados, Ph.D. Deborah is an Assistant Professor at Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine. She earned her Ph.D. in industrial/organizational psychology from the University of Central Florida. Her research is focused on understanding the influence of teamwork and leadership processes on individual and team‐level outcomes. Dr. DiazGranados has developed curriculum that focuses on developing team and leadership competencies and skills within the healthcare context. Dr. DiazGranados’ research also considers the influence of context on how teams function and leaders lead.
Aaron S. Dietz, Ph.D. Aaron is a human factors psychologist and faculty at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine with dual appointments in the Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality and Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine.
Julie V. Dinh Julie is a doctoral student in industrial/organizational psychology at Rice University. After graduating with highest honors in psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, she conducted research in health and clinical behavioral sciences. She is a Graduate Research Fellow of the National Science Foundation.
James E. Driskell, Ph.D. James is the president and a senior scientist at Florida Maxima Corporation in Winter Park, Florida. He received his Ph.D. from the University of South Carolina in 1981.
Tripp Driskell, Ph.D. Tripp is a research scientist at Florida Maxima Corporation. He received his Ph.D. in applied experimental and human factors psychology from the University of Central Florida.
Amy C. Edmondson, Ph.D. Amy is Novartis Professor of Leadership and Management at Harvard University. She studies the social psychology of learning in organizations; her book, Teaming: How Organizations Learn, Innovate, and Compete in the Knowledge Economy, explores teamwork as a dynamic flexible process. Edmondson received her Ph.D. in organizational behavior from Harvard.
Naomi Ellemers, Ph.D. Naomi studied at the University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Groningen, the Netherlands, where she obtained her Ph.D. in 1991. She holds a chair as Distinguished University Professor at Utrecht University, the Netherlands. She also is member of the Supervisory Board of the consultancy and accounting firm PWC in the Netherlands.
Cynthia D. Fisher, Ph.D. Cynthia is Professor of Management at Bond Business School, Bond University, Australia. She writes on moods and emotions at work and employee attitudes and work behavior. Professor Fisher is a Fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
Michelle Flynn Michelle graduated from Clemson University with a degree in psychology and a minor in business administration. Her main research interests include leadership and team development, cross‐cultural teams, and organizational culture.
Sarit B. Friedman Sarit is a doctoral student in Hofstra University’s Applied Organizational Psychology program. Her research interests include teams, group dynamics, and conflict management. She obtained her M.A. in social organizational psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University, where she was also certified in conflict resolution and mediation at the Morton Deutsch ICCCR.
Lindred L. Greer, Ph.D. Lindred is Assistant Professor of Organizational Behavior at Stanford University. Her work focuses on the impact of team composition on intragroup conflict and team performance. She has a particular interest in how teams, especially early stage startup teams, are composed in terms of power, status, and leadership structures, and when and why particular forms of team composition may fuel power struggles and conflicts. Her research appears in academic journals such as the Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and Science.
Rebecca Grossman, Ph.D. Rebecca is an Assistant Professor of Industrial/Organizational Psychology at Hofstra University. Her research focuses on teams (team processes and emergent states, team diversity, measurement of team constructs), training (individual and team training, transfer of training, instructional features), and complex settings (multicultural, virtual, and/or distributed teams, extreme and/or high‐risk environments, multiteam systems).
Katherine Hamilton, Ph.D. Katherine is a lecturer in the College of Information Sciences and Technology at Penn State University. She received her Ph.D. in industrial/organizational psychology from Penn State in 2009. Her research focuses on how to improve team effectiveness, particularly as it relates to team cognition, team conflict, and team virtuality.
Qiong‐Jing Hu Qiong‐Jing Hu is a doctoral candidate at Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, China. His research interest is focused on organizational proactive behavior (e.g., voice), status and power, and ethical leadership.
Suman Kalra Suman is a Ph.D. student in the Applied Organizational Psychology program at Hofstra University. Previously, she was a training consultant, specializing in experiential learning workshops and interventions on areas like team building, leadership, and interpersonal skills. Her research interests include role negotiation and power dynamics and their impact on decision making in complex team structures.
Aimée A. Kane Aimée A. Kane is an Associate Professor of Management in at the Palumbo‐Donahue School of Business at Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA. She holds a Ph.D. and a M.S. in organizational behavior and theory from the Tepper School of Business at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh. Her research has been published in leading academic journals such as the Academy of Management Annals, Organization Science, and Organizational Studies. She currently serves on the editorial board of Organization Science.
Lauren B. Landon, Ph.D. Lauren is a Team Risk research portfolio scientist in NASA Johnson Space Center’s Human Factors and Behavioral Performance Element through KBRwyle, specializing in the training of spaceflight teams. She received her Ph.D. in industrial and organizational psychology from the University of Oklahoma.
Kun Luan Kun Luan is a doctoral candidate at the School of Management of the Zhejiang University, China. Her research interests include team diversity and faultlines, team learning, status and power, and team coordination behaviors.
John E. Mathieu, Ph.D. John is a professor and the Friar Chair in Leadership and Teams at the University of Connecticut. His interests include models of team and multiteam effectiveness, and cross‐level models of organizational behavior. He has worked with several Fortune 500 companies, the armed services, and federal, state, and public organizations.
Bertolt Meyer, Ph.D. Bertolt is a professor of organizational and economic psychology at Technische Universität Chemnitz, Germany. He received his Ph.D. in organizational and social psychology from Humboldt University, Berlin. His work focuses on teamwork, especially on team diversity and faultlines. He is an associate editor of Small Group Research.
Susan Mohammed, Ph.D. Susan is a professor of industrial/organizational psychology at Penn State University, investigating team cognition, team composition/diversity, and the role of time in team research. Her articles have appeared in Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, among others.
Tom W. Reader, Ph.D. Tom is an assistant professor in organizational psychology at the London School of Economics, U.K. He is an expert on organizational psychology and workplace safety in “high‐risk” industrial settings (e.g., aviation, medicine, energy). His research examines how organizational decision‐making is shaped by team dynamics and organizational culture.
Floor Rink, Ph.D. Floor is a full professor in organizational behavior at the Faculty of Economics and Business at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. She is an expert on identity processes within and between groups, and uses this expertise to explain organizational issues such as diversity, mobility, and group innovation. She conducts field studies as well as experiments, and has published her work in psychological and management outlets. Her research is (partially) funded by scientific funding agencies, government agencies, and private organizations.
Michael A. Rosen, Ph.D. Michael is a human factors psychologist and associate professor at the Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine with joint appointments in the School of Nursing and Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Management.
Maritza R. Salazar, Ph.D. Maritza is an assistant professor at the Paul Merage School of Business at the University of California at Irvine. She earned her Ph.D. degree in management from the Stern School of Business at New York University. Her research centers on the mechanisms that facilitate effective collaborative processes and outcomes in interdisciplinary teams.
Miriam Sánchez‐Manzanares, Ph.D. Miriam is Assistant Professor of Organizational Behavior in the Department of Business Administration at Carlos III University of Madrid, Spain. Currently she is Vice‐Dean of Business Administration at the same university. Her papers have appeared in the Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Management, Journal of Business and Psychology, and European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, among others. Her current research interests include team diversity, team cognition, team adaptability and coordination, and virtual teams.
Michaéla C. Schippers, Ph.D. Michaéla is Professor of Behavior and Performance Management at the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, the Netherlands. Current research concentrates on team reflexivity, team diversity and team leadership, as well as goal setting, and academic performance. Other projects concern virtual teams, behavioral operations management, and social exclusion/inclusion.
Charles P. R. Scott Charles is a doctoral candidate in Florida Institute of Technology’s Industrial Organizational Psychology program and the research manager for the Institute for Cross‐Cultural Management. His specialties include team effectiveness, team leadership, and complex team dynamics and structures (global teams, diverse teams, virtual teams).
Marissa L. Shuffler, Ph.D. Marissa has over 10 years of experience conducting basic and applied research in the areas of teamwork, leadership, and organizational effectiveness. She is an assistant professor of industrial/organizational psychology at Clemson University. Her areas of expertise include team and leader training and development with an emphasis on high‐risk and complex environments. Her work to date includes an edited book, over 45 publications, and over 100 presentations.
Mary Jane Sierra, Ph.D. Mary Jane is an organizational psychologist for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. She earned her Ph.D. in industrial and organizational psychology from the University of Central Florida.
Daniel J. Slyngstad Daniel is a doctoral candidate at Claremont Graduate University’s (CGU) Division of Behavioral and Organizational Sciences. He received an M.A. degree in organizational behavior and evaluation from CGU. His research is oriented around information processing and innovation for teams and organizations operating in highly complex, dynamic environments.
Ningyu Tang, Ph.D. Ningyu Tang is a professor at Antai College of Economics and Management, Shanghai Jiaotong University, China. Her current research focuses on cross‐cultural management, diversity management, inclusion management, and inclusive leadership.
Amy W. Tian, Ph.D. Amy Tian is currently a Senior Lecturer in HRM in the School of Management at Curtin Business School, Curtin University. Amy received her PhD in Management in 2011 from Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University, UK. Her current research focuses on three main areas: (1) the relationship between strategic HRM practices impact upon employees’ work‐related attitudes and behavior, as well as organizational performance; (2) the relationship between strategic HRM and knowledge management processes at the individual and organizational level; and (3) strategic HRM and multiculturalism at work. A theme unifying these interests is the importance of strategic HRM in enabling and/or promoting positive employee work‐related outcomes and organizational performance.
March L. To March is Assistant Professor of Management in the Business School of the Hong Kong Baptist University. His research interests include wellbeing, creativity, moods and emotions, and multilevel conceptualization of the work phenomena. His primary methodological interest is experience sampling methodology.
William H. Turnley, Ph.D. William is the Forrer Chair of Business Ethics and a professor of management at Kansas State University. He received his Ph.D. in organizational behavior from the University of South Carolina. His research interests include psychological contracts, organizational citizenship behavior, impression management, and business ethics.
Gerben van der Vegt Gerben is a professor of organizational behavior and academic director of the Research Institute SOM at the Faculty of Economics and Business at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. His research focuses on the processes associated with the integration of knowledge and expertise in work teams and organizations, team learning, and interteam and multi‐organizational coordination and collaboration. His work has been published in journals like the Academy of Management Annals, Academy of Management Journal, and Journal of Applied Psychology.
Daan van Knippenberg, Ph.D. Daan is Professor of Organizational Behavior at the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, the Netherlands. His research interests include leadership, diversity, team performance, creativity, and social identity. Daan is editor‐in‐chief of Academy of Management Annals.
Dana Verhoeven Dana is a Ph.D. student in industrial and organizational psychology at Clemson University. She graduated from the University of Central Florida with a B.S. in psychology and her research interests include team process, shared leadership, team trust/distrust, and team training. Specifically, she is interested in identifying individual and team profiles to create effective teams.
William B. Vessey, Ph.D. William is a research scientist for KBRwyle with the Team Risk research portfolio in NASA’s Human Factors and Behavioral Performance Element at Johnson Space Center, focusing on team functioning in spaceflight. He received his Ph.D. in industrial and organizational psychology from the University of Oklahoma.
Yumei Wang Yumei is a doctoral candidate at Antai College of Economics and Management, Shanghai Jiaotong University, China. Her current research interests include cross‐cultural management and values in the workplace.
Sallie J. Weaver, Ph.D. Sallie is an industrial‐organizational psychologist and assistant professor in the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Her Ph.D. is from the University of Central Florida.
Michael A. West, Ph.D. Michael is Senior Fellow at the King’s Fund, London; Professor of Organizational Psychology at Lancaster University Management School, U.K; and Emeritus Professor at Aston University, Birmingham, U.K. The focus of his research over 30 years has been team and organizational innovation, culture and effectiveness, particularly in healthcare organizations.
Jessica L. Wildman, Ph.D. Jessica is Assistant Professor and Institute for Cross‐Cultural Management Research Director at the Florida Institute of Technology. She earned her Ph.D. in industrial/organizational psychology from the University of Central Florida in 2011. Her research interests include interpersonal trust dynamics, multicultural work performance, and global team processes.
Jesse A. Wingate Jesse earned a MEd (Higher Education Administration) from the University of Vermont, a B.S. (Psychology) from St. Lawrence University, and is currently a Ph.D. candidate in Counseling Psychology at Virginia Commonwealth University. He formerly worked as a career advisor at Dartmouth College and the University of Richmond.
Mikhail A. Wolfson Mikhail is a doctoral student in the Department of Management at the University of Connecticut. He received his B.A. in psychology at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst in 2011. His primary areas of interest include team composition, informal learning, multilevel modeling, network analysis, and unobtrusive measures.
Xiao‐Yun Xie, Ph.D. Xiao‐Yun Xie is an professor of leadership and organization. Since completing his Ph.D., he joined the faculty of School of Management of Zhejiang University, China. Currently, his research focuses on faultlines, identification, and intragroup conflict in a teamwork setting.
The World Bank reported in 2012 that capital investment in teams represented approximately 20% of the world’s economy, owing to the necessity for organizations to increase their efficiency and effectiveness. Little or no work in organizations is performed today by an individual who is working alone. Thus, the ability of an individual is important, but not sufficient, for enhancing a team’s effectiveness. This is because of the amount of communication, coordination, mutual support, and sharing of information required of the individuals that comprise a team.
A team consists of two or more individuals who have the same goals to attain. These individuals perform interdependent tasks collaboratively to produce shared deliverables. Because of the intense global competition for increasing market share, increasing profits, and decreasing costs, organizations are forming cross‐functional teams to examine ways in which they can improve customer service, discover new revenue streams, and meet, if not exceed, shareholder demands. Consequently, a team’s performance is a more complex interactive undertaking than solely improving the skills of an individual. A team’s leader must foster in the team’s members a shared mental model of the goals and ways of attaining them, the role each member plays in goal pursuit, as well as the interdependent roles of the other team members. A team’s leader must foster widespread agreement within the team of what success looks like. A team will fail if its members perceive that they are being pulled in different directions by competing goals.
All of the above is easy to espouse, not so easy to put into practice. Hence, the reason why this book was commissioned and forms part of a wider series of eight titles across the industrial organizational psychology domain. The team of editors for this title represents an outstanding group of academics, lead by Eduardo Salas. Ed is an eminent scientist practitioner who is as interested in practice as he is in developing evidence‐based frameworks for guiding practice in different contexts. He is one of only two people who have received both the awards for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology as a Science and as a Profession from the prestigious Society for Industrial‐Organizational Psychology. Under Ed’s leadership, the editorial team have selected “the” experts on all aspects of forming, developing, and maintaining high‐performing teams. Hence, this book will prove to be a stimulus for action in the workplace that is based on solid empirical research. In doing so, this book also points out areas for researchers to pursue to further enhance team effectiveness.
Secretary of State Professor of Organizational Effectiveness
Rotman School of Management
University of Toronto
Welcome to this sixth book in the Wiley Blackwell Industrial and Organizational Psychology series. The focus of this series title is on teams and collaborative processes at work and builds on the previous five titles in the series on leadership and change, coaching and mentoring, training and development, health and safety, and positive psychology.
Collaboration has for centuries been a key feature of success for any enterprise. Since the industrial revolution and rise of large‐scale manufacturing of the nineteenth century, through to the development of global corporations of the twenty‐first century, team working and collaboration, both within and across the organization boundary, are essential. Teams are the only way NASA, Google, or IKEA can operate to deliver their products, services, or mission. Understanding how to recruit, develop, and manage teams is what this book is all about.
This title is, however, just one of eight books in this series totaling over 200 chapters and two million words on industrial and organizational psychology, and we believe this is the largest single contribution to the field. We believe this series differs in four ways from other titles in the field.
First, the focus for the title is aimed at the academic researcher and student, as opposed to the practitioner, although scholar‐practitioners may also find this an interesting read. The aim of this book is to offer comprehensive coverage of the main topics of inquiry within the domain and in each of these to offer a comprehensive critical literature review of the main topic areas. Each chapter is thus an attempt to gather together the key papers, book chapters, and ideas and to present these for the serious researcher, student, and academic as a starting point for research in the key topics of industrial and organizational psychology in a focused (10,000 word) chapter. The book thus aims to operate as a starting point for any in‐depth inquiry into the field.
Second, while many books take a UK/European or a US/North American approach with contributors drawn predominantly from one continent or the other, in this series we have made strenuous efforts to create an international feel. For each title in the series, we have drawn contributors from across the globe, and encouraged them to take an international as opposed to a national or regional focus. Such an approach creates challenges. Challenges in terms of language and spelling, but also in the way ideas and concepts are applied in each country or region. We have encouraged our contributors to highlight such differences. We encourage you as the reader to reflect on these to better understand how and why these differences have emerged and what implications these have for your research and our deeper understanding of the psychological constructs that underpin these ideas.
Third, the chapters avoid offering a single perspective, based on the ideas of a single contributor. Instead we have invited leading writers in the field to critically review the literature in their areas of expertise. The chapters thus offer a unique insight into the literature in each of these areas, with leading scholars sharing their interpretation of the literature in their area.
Finally, as series editor I have invited contributors and editors to contribute their royalties to a charity. Given the international feel for the title we selected an international charity – The Railway Children – a charity that supports runaway and abandoned children across the world. This means approximately 10% of the cover price has been donated to charity and in this way we collectively are making a small contribution to making the world a slightly better place.
With any publication of this kind there are errors. As editors we apologize in advance for these.
Series Editor, Wiley Blackwell Handbooks in Organizational Psychology
Railway Children supports children alone and at risk on the streets of India, East Africa, and in the UK. Children migrate to the streets for many reasons, but once there they experience physical and sexual abuse, exploitation, drugs, and even death. We focus on early intervention, getting to the street kids before the street gets to them, and where possible we reunite them with their families and communities.
In addressing the issue, we work through our three‐step change agenda to:
Meet the immediate needs of children on the streets – we work with local organizations to provide shelter, education or vocational training, counseling and, if possible, reintegration to family life.
Shift perception in the local context – we work with local stakeholders to ensure that street children are not viewed as commodities to be abused and exploited, but as children in need of care and protection.
Hold governments to account – if we are to see a long‐term, sustainable change for the children with whom we work, we must influence key decision‐makers, ensuring that provisions for safeguarding children are made within their policies and budgets.
Last year we reached over 27,000 children; 14,690 of these were in India where we reunited 2,820 with their families. In the UK, we launched our research, “Off the Radar,” which revealed the experiences of over 100 of the most detached children in the UK. Many of these children received no intervention either before leaving home or once they were on the streets. We have made recommendations that include emergency refuge for under 16 s and a wrap‐round of other services, such as Misper schemes, local helplines, outreach, and family liaison to allow children and young people to access interventions in a variety of ways.
To find out more about our work, or to help us support more vulnerable children, please go to www.railwaychildren.org.uk or call 00 44 1270 757596
Eduardo Salas, Ramón Rico, and Jonathan Passmore
Teams are an integral part of society. This handbook endeavors to tease apart the psychological aspects of teamwork and understand the applications and ramifications of teams, both within organizations and in society at large. In this short introductory chapter, we aim to briefly review the nature of teams and the developing research agenda, before highlighting the chapters contained in this book.
While the layperson may understand a team simply as a group of people, the scientific literature has spent considerable effort exploring and defining distinguishing characteristics. What makes a given group of people a team – that is, what sets it apart from any other unit? At its core, a team can be operationalized as a set of two or more individuals that adaptively and dynamically interacts through specified roles as they work towards shared and valued goals (Dyer, 1984; Salas, Dickinson, Converse, & Tannenbaum, 1992). Researchers have also identified several other features that characterize the unique dynamics specific to teams, including: existing to perform organizationally relevant tasks; exhibiting task interdependencies (e.g., workflow, goals, knowledge, and outcomes); interacting socially (face‐to‐face or virtually); maintaining and managing boundaries; and being embedded within an organizational context that sets boundaries, constrains the team, and influences exchanges with other units in the broader entity (Arrow, McGrath, & Berdahl, 2000; Hackman, 1987; Kozlowski & Bell, 2003; Kozlowski, Gully, Nason, & Smith, 1999; Salas et al., 1992). Clearly, teams are more than just a collection of people; they are functional units, a complex and crucial component of broader human systems. While the science of teams has been expanding rapidly in academic spheres, so too has their import in practice.
Since the late 20th century, the global economy has seen drastic changes economically, strategically, and technologically. In response, organizations have shifted, from focusing on hierarchically structured, individual work to structuring of collective efforts more efficiently (Lawler, Mohrman, & Ledford, 1995). Owing to increasing competition, consolidation, and innovation, organizations must tap into, and make sense of, diverse skills, expertise, and experience. Accordingly, teams have emerged as a core building block of organizations (Kozlowski & Bell, 2012). Much can be accomplished when many minds are put together.
The growing awareness of teamwork in the public consciousness, however, is not the only compelling reason for its study. Teams are historically and demonstrably essential to the functioning of organizations and societies. Failing to value and invest in teamwork can have catastrophic consequences, varying in scope from the relatively personal (e.g., a surgery) to the international (e.g., a military engagement). Oftentimes, such unfortunate turns of events can be prevented or contained if participants had been able to coordinate their efforts, adapt to the environment, and overcome stressors as a unit (Salas, Stagl, & Burke, 2004). The promotion of synchronicity in teams has therefore come to the forefront as a crucial way to affect change and influence outcomes. This handbook therefore begins by breaking down the basic theoretical underpinnings of teams before understanding their importance across differing contexts, and looking towards the future of research and practice.
Our hope in writing this book was to develop a rich, comprehensive resource on the psychology of teamwork for those in academia and industry alike. This handbook is intended to offer students breadth and depth of knowledge and researchers a sound and stimulating basis upon which to build their lines of inquiry, while also elucidating evidence‐based practices useful to scholar‐practitioners. In order to facilitate deeper understanding, it has been organized to take readers from a macro to a micro perspective on teams, beginning with broad strokes and narrowing down to more specific, detailed components.
The first section of the handbook gives a bird’s‐eye view of the teamwork literature. The authors describe factors that influence team performance, in terms of overall effectiveness, contextual efficiency, and intrateam synchronicity. These chapters give a general summary of teams in terms of psychological dynamics and greater societal significance.
Part I begins with a chapter by Julie V. Dinh and Eduardo Salas, which provides an overview of the processes underlying teamwork. While both taskwork (e.g., work‐related goals) and teamwork (the behavioral, attitudinal, and cognitive interactions that drive such performance) are critical for efficient team performance, it is paramount to understand and strongly implement the latter across contexts. In particular, nine critical considerations, based on earlier work (Salas, Shuffler, Thayer, Bedwell, & Lazzara, 2015), shape the nature of teamwork, including core processes and emergent states – conflict, coordination, communication, coaching, and cognition – and contextual factors – composition, culture, and context. The model examined in this chapter captures the team dynamics explored in further detail later in the handbook.
In Chapter 3, Daniel J. Slyngstad, Gia DeMichele, and Maritza R. Salazar discuss team performance. The chapter provides a thorough review of conceptualizations of performance before proposing a three‐dimensional framework by which to judge team functional utility. They pay special attention to knowledge work, which, due to its inherent complexity, can pose unique challenges in performance measurement. The conclusion synthesizes strong theoretical and empirical research into an integrative framework for team effectiveness in knowledge work.
Chapter 4 examines team effectiveness from a transnational perspective. Dana Verhoeven, Tiffany Cooper, Michelle Flynn, and Marissa L. Shuffler explore team performance through a theoretical lens of cultural diversity within a team. This approach is particularly useful given today’s rapid globalization and its ramifications for team performance across contexts (such as the development and functioning of geographically dispersed teams). The chapter follows the input–process–output (IPO) framework to discuss, in detail, the components of team effectiveness, before offering alternate, comprehensive models and future directions for research.
Having set a comprehensive framework through which to understand teams, the second section of the handbook focuses on antecedents of team effectiveness. Each of the chapters addresses considerations regarding the formation and structure of teams, including design, composition, diversity, membership, and status.
The first step in creating a team is understanding and responding to the constraints in which it will operate. Current socioeconomic trends have forced researchers and practitioners to rethink how they organize the work and design teams that compose organizations. Today, teams are frequently formed and disbanded rapidly, distributed across multiple sites, and composed of members simultaneously working on myriad projects, with different bosses competing for their attention. “Further, these teams’ work increasingly demands substantial coordination and integration of specialized expertise within and outside of the team” (Cross, Ehrlich, Dawson, & Helferich, 2008, p. 75). As such, it is critical to understand how these new realities affect the way in which we design teams. Chapter 5 explores the fundamental design elements that express what it means to be a team. Authors John L. Cordery and Amy W. Tian review recent research and theory relating to team constitution, team structure, and external support as it informs the effective design of organizational teams.
Beyond the design of teams, it is important to compose teams appropriately. In Chapter 6, Mikhail A. Wolfson and John E. Mathieu summarize research and advancements in the vast team composition literature. After describing conventional team composition approaches and their shortcomings, the authors propose the incorporation of network theory and methods as a potential solution. In particular, meta‐networks and multiplex ties may help model the complex nature of teams, exposing areas of need, revealing unique combinations of interpersonal ties, and, in combination, helping optimize individual knowledge, skills, and abilities. The authors thus contribute to the literature by clearly delineating a social network approach that can facilitate a better understanding of team composition.
An important piece of team diversity is found within composition. Research on team diversity has produced many promising, but also many inconsistent, findings. In Chapter 7, Bertolt Meyer organizes the literature on this regard into different streams, differentiated by the ways in which they resolve the bi‐theoretic approaches to diversity: the information/decision‐making paradigm, which predicts positive effects of team diversity, and the social categorization paradigm, which predicts negative effects. Taken in summary, the conceptualizations suggest that practitioners who seek to reap the benefits of team diversity should increase team members’ diversity beliefs and avoid the formation of homogeneous subgroups. Finally, new multilevel/contextual and status‐based models of team diversity extend the theoretical foundations of diversity research beyond the bi‐theoretical approach.
Membership change in organizations inevitably results in the introduction of newcomers, who typically represent a numerical minority in the teams that they join (Choi & Levine, 2004). Theories propose that newcomers, with their different background, are important sources of innovation that facilitate team performance and can thus enhance the long‐term survival changes of teams. Chapter 8
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