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- Wydawca: Books on Demand
- Kategoria: Nauka i nowe technologie
- Język: angielski
- Rok wydania: 2015

The theory, which is developed in this book is based on the remake and expansion of an old idea. It was the idea of a central body, pref-erably in the shape of a ball, formed around or in concentric layers. Democritus was the first who took this idea with his atomic theory and thereby introduced himself to the atoms as fixed and solid build-ing blocks. Is the atom used as a wave model, that allows to interpret concentric layers as an expression of a spatial radial oscillator so you reach the current orbital model of atoms. Now, this book shows that these oscillatory order structures on earth and their layers are (geologically and atmospherically) implemented. In addition the theory can be applied on concentric systems, which are not spherical but flat, like the solar system with its planets, the rings that have some planets and the moons of planets or also the neighbouring galaxies of the milky way. This principle is applicable on fruits and flowers, such as peach, orange, coconut, dahlia or narcis-sus. This allows the conclusion that the theory of a central body as a spa-tial radial oscillator can be applied also to other spherical phenomena such as spherical galactic nebulae, black holes, or even the universe itself. This in turn suggests that the idea of the central body constitutes a general principle of structuring in this universe as a spatial radial os-cillator as well as macroscopic, microscopic and sub microscopic.

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SUMMARY

Part 1 – Basics

Introduction

1 – Theoretical approach

1.1 Classic physical systems

1.1.1 Geologic layers

1.1.2 Atmospheric layers

1.1.3 Earth magnetic field

1.1.4 Electric field of the earth

1.2 Polyhedron models of the earth

1.2.1 Polyhedrons and grids

1.3 Geometrical structuralisation

1.4 Assertions for an oscillation structure

2 – Approach for an oscillation model

2.1 Spherical harmonics

2.2 Addition and multiplication of waves

2.2.1 Zero-grid

2.2.2 Pole forming

2.2.3 Grid forming

2.3 Huygens-Fresnel principle

2.4 Basic oscillations

2.5 Radial structure

2.5.1 Stratification

2.5.2 Layer Calculation

2.5.3 Normalisation

2.6 Radial stationary waves

2.7 Stratification structure

2.8 Spatial grid

2.9 Spatial oscillation structure

2.10 Global net grids

2.11 General attempt

2.11.1 Angle part

2.11.2 Radial part

2.11.3 General remarks

Part 2 – Applications 1

3 – Frequencies of the earth

3.1 Sferics

3.2 Basic hull

3.3 Table of the earth layers

3.4 Analysis procedure

3.5 Geologic layers

3.6 Geologic layers and Laplace

3.7 Layers of the atmosphere

3.8 Layers of the atmosphere and Laplace

3.9 Planetary oscillation systems

3.10 Layers and frequencies

3.11 Schumann frequency

3.12 Summary

Part 3 – Applications 2

4 – Earth magnetic field

4.1 Gauß and Weber

4.2 Measuring stations

4.3 Total intensity – WMM 2005

4.4 Temporary stability

4.5 Fourier analysis of the earth magnetic field

4.5.1 Fourier analysis

4.5.2 Quantitative Fourier analysis

4.6 Further evaluations

4.6.1 Three-axle ellipsoid

4.6.2 Grid ZS

4.6.3 Tesseral field

4.6.4 Huygens source points

4.6.5 Summary

4.7 Huygens source points of the earth field

4.7.1 Ideal source points structure

4.7.2 Real source points structure

5 – Generating and generated elements

5.1 Core balls

5.1.1 Case 1

5.1.2 Case 2

5.2 Creation of geological layers

5.3 The electric field of the Earth

5.4 One oscillation structure

5.5 Sub structure

Part 4 – Demonstrability

6 – Measuring of magnetic waves

6.1 Classic Hall sensor

6.2 New functionality

6.3 Circuit to the measuring procedure

6.4 Experimentum crucis

6.5 Synthesis

7 – Converting a numerical sequence in an e-function

7.1 Numbering

7.2 Logarithmic

7.3 Linearization

7.4 Determination of the approximation line

7.5 Determination of the e-function

7.6 Determination of a new numbering

7.7 Global Scaling

8 – Concentric arrangements

8.1 The Sun

8.2 The orbits of the planets

8.3.1 Moons of the planets

8.3.2 Moons of Mars

8.4 Rings of planets

8.4.1 Rings of Saturn

8.4.2 Rings of Jupiter

8.4.3 Rings of Neptune

8.4.4 Rings of Uranus

8.4.5 Rings of Rhea

8.5 Satellite galaxies of the milky way

8.6 Planetary nebulae

8.7 Layer of the earth

8.8 Fruits and flowers

8.8.1 Peach

8.8.2 Narcissus

8.9 Result

9 – Epilog

Bibliography

Picture credits

This book is the essence and progression of two presentations, the author K. Piontzik has held on 3/14/2009 to the association for the support of the geobiology in Brügge and on the spring conference of the research group for geobiology in 4/24/2009 in Eberbach.

The present material represents a progression and completion of the book "Gitterstrukturen des Erdmagnetfeldes". The basic material (about 60%) of the book "Gitterstrukturen des Erdmagnetfeldes" is also on the Internet in English accessible at: www.pimath.eu.

Seen from today's perspective „lattice structures of the earth magnetic field“ delivers a collection of facts and basic informations. A closed homogeneous model is recognizable in attempts, but the golden threat is still missing.

Now in cooperation with the biophysicist Dr. Claude Bärtels the new work „Planetary systems“ forms a closed uniform working hypothesis, with that the physical layer structures of the earth (geologic bowls, atmospheric layers, earth magnetic field, electric earth field) can be explained.

This book is a working hypothesis, which can be falsified after the today's epistemology by Popper.

From it the information of a physical measuring method occurs which represent the experimentum crucis for this working hypothesis.

Overall, the model shown here, represents a holistic approach on an oscillation base that explains several structures of the earth.

What is valid on the earth, must be valid also "in" the earth and with it is valid both on the large and small scale. What means for the authors that the macroscopic oscillation structures have her correspondences also in the (sub) microscopic (atomic) area.

The course of the development in the last both years has shown, that the whole themes about stratifications, oscillations and grids can be attributed to a central concept with which all phenomena can be explained: it is the concept of the planetary system.

The question which raises here is: What is to be understood by a planetary system? In addition the concept must be examined such closer.

Planetary means a global earth phenomenon. And the concept system implies that a certain order exists.

Planetary systems are so global or earth-enforcement structures. Two systems are recognised in the following picture: the earth's surface even with her lying underneath geologic bowls and the atmosphere with her stratifications.

Illustration 1.0 – the earth

Earth System

The neighbourhood of the planet Earth can be explained by a spherical space with a radius of 2 or 3 Earth radii. Here, the concept of neighbourhood is reminiscent of the definition from the topology.

Planetary System

The geometrical structure would have to be defined even closer. This happens in the following chapters.

1) Geologic bowls

2) Atmospheric layers

3) Earth magnetic field

4) Electric field of the earth

5) Polyhedron models of the earth

In the following we will have a look at the listed systems.

Illustration 1.1.1 – geologic layers

The geometrical structuralisation of the geologic bowls exists as concentric balls in the earth.

Illustration 1.1.2 – atmospheric layers

The geometrical structuralisation of the atmospheric layers exists as concentric balls round the earth.

Illustration 1.1.3 – magnetic field of the earth

The geometrical structuralisation exists (simplisticly) as concentric balls in the earth and round the earth. Polar (north south pole) and radial structures (magnetic flux density) still appear.

Illustration 1.1.4 – electric field of the earth

The geometrical structure exists as concentric spheres round the earth. Polar (plus minus poles) and radial structures (electric field strength) still appear.

Geologic spheres, atmospheric layers, earth magnetic field and the electric field own a geometrical structuralisation which exists of concentric spheres.

The geologic bowls lie within the earth. The atmospheric layers and the electric field lie outside, around the earth.

The earth magnetic field exists in the earth as well as round the earth. With magnetic field and electric field radial and polar structures still appear.

At the end of the 19th century the geologists W.L. Green and A. de Lapparent compared the shape of the earth with a tetrahedron.

A similar comparison did in the sixties of the twentieth century B.L. Litschkow and N.N. Schafranowski with an octahedron. Litschkow published a little later the model of a dodecahedron and an icosahedron for the earth shape.

In 1974 Nikolai F. Gontscharow, Wjatscheslaw S. Morosow and Walerij A Makarow published in the Russian magazine "Chimi-ja i Zisn" (chemistry and life, No. 3, March) the model of a dodecahedron of the earth.

Tetrahedronend of 19. century W.L. Green A. de Lapparent

Octahedronin the 60. years of 20. century B.L. Litschkow N.N. Schafranowski

Illustration 1.2.1 – polyhedron models of the earth

IcosahedronIn the 60. years of 20. century Litschkow

Dodecahedron1974 Nikolai F. Gontscharow Wjatscheslaw S. Morosow Walerij A. Makarow 1999 – S. Prumbach

Illustration 1.2.2 – polyhedron models of the earth

These polyhedron models of the earth were developed primarily by geologists. There is only one body missing to receive a certain set from bodies.

There is only the cube missing to complete the Platonic solids. Platonic solids are regular bodies which are built up from regular bases. There exist only five Platonic solids as shown here.

Illustration 1.2.3 – cube

The corner points of the polyhedrons lie on the infolding sphere. All edges are transferred to the ball surface. In contrast to all other planetary systems lines with finite lengths occur here, due to the structure of the polyhedron.

Illustration 1.2.4 – polyhedron in cross section

You can project the edges or corners of the polyhedron on the enveloping ball.

The best way is to depict all corners of a polyhedron as intersections of circle of latitude and meridians, such like the geographical system.

Illustration 1.2.5 – Gitterbildung

The points of intersection of the resulting grid correspond to the corners of the polyhedron. And the edges of the polyhedron are usually on the circles of latitude or meridians.

The octahedron is the only platonic solid in which all edges of the polyhedron and grid lines fully match. The grid is used by three, each perpendicular on each other standing circles formed. As a result, the spherical surface is decomposed into eight equal parts.

The cube has a decomposition which is formed by four circles and also forms a symmetrical grid. All horizontal edges of the cube are identical with the circles of latitude. All vertical edges of the cube are included with the meridians as parts.

The tetrahedron has the same separation as the cube, a tetrahedron can be represented as an inside body of a cube. Edges of the polyhedron occur but they are not directly represented in the coordinate system.

Another possibility for the tetrahedron is to see this as a triangular pyramid. So one would get three meridians, and a parallel, but also an irregular grid.

Also the icosahedron provides a regular grid with five meridians and two circles of latitude. Edges of the polyhedron occur, but that are not directly represented in the coordinate system.

Only the dodecahedron builds irregular distances with five meridians and four circles of latitude.

All together the following statement can be formulated:

Polyhedron ⇔ Grid

Polyhedrons are equivalent to grids on a ball surface.

For the systems to be looked exist, according to 1.1 and 1.2, following geometrical structuralisations:

ball shape, concentricity

north-south poles plus-minus poles

magnetic flux density electric field strength

Polyhedrons

Oscillation structure

This vibration structure form usually spatial structures, whose basic patterns include geometric solids, both have harmonical ratios to each other.

According to definition 1.0.2 is valid:

The aim of this chapter is the description of basic mathematical and physical terms and conditions, that serve the development of an equation for an oscillation structure and allow a quantification of the model. The approach is based on oscillations around a ball.

Examples for oscillation possibilities:

sine

cosine

Illustration 2.0.1 – oscillations

Applies to physical oscillations:

(Frequency multiplied with wavelength is equal to speed of light)

How to get vibrations around a ball? - Analogous to the Bohr model of the atom, if it contains the surrounding Electron as a wave by de Broglie:

Illustration 2.0.2 – oscillations around a ball

It fits only an integer number of oscillations around the globe.

The wavelength is proportional to the circle angle alpha:

Illustration 2.0.3 – wave length and circle angle

Condition for n vibrations around a globe:

Theoretically, the following form is possible:

Here, the oscillation circle does not close after one revolution, but only take m turns.

A standing wave around a sphere can be interpreted as a stationary state. Thus, each state of a wave is spatially fixed. The question now is: how many waves fit around a globe?

In classical mechanics, degrees of freedom is the number of freely selectable, independent movements of a system

Because a sphere is rotationally symmetric, so rotations are irrelevant. A ball has therefore 3 freedoms regarding a wave propagation. Therefore, three independent waves around the globe are possible.

Due to the spherical shape, the three freedoms can be represented as spherical coordinates.

Example earth:

1) A wave starts from North Pole via the South Pole to the North Pole

2) The second wave runs around the equator

3) The third standing wave runs radially - based from the center

There exists a mathematical concept namely for the first two examples, that is suitable for a representation - the spherical harmonics.

Standing waves on the surface of a sphere can be treated as spherical harmonics. There are 3 types:

Zonal spherical harmonics only depend on the latitude.

sinϕcosϕ

Illustration 2.1.1 – zonal spherical harmonic

Sectorial spherical harmonics depend only by the degree of longitude.

sinλcosλ

Illustration 2.1.2 – sectorial spherical harmonic

Tesseral spherical harmonics depend of the latitude and the longitude.

sinϕ · sinλsinϕ · cosλcosϕ · sinλcosϕ · cosλ

Illustration 2.1.3 – tesseral spherical harmonic

tesseral spherical harmonicgrid

A complete route in terms of square grid on a sphere can not materialize. Only grid systems are developed, which are designed as the geographic grid system. There are always two poles. The corresponding "meridians" and "circle of latitude" then make the grid.

spherical harmonics can present itself as two sine- or cosine waves, which are perpendicular to one another and additative or multiplicative overlap.

Illustration 2.2.1 – zero-grid

The zero points of both waves are transferred on the consideration level, as shown in Illustration 2.2.1 right.

Two vertical waves can be added by following qualitative rules:

2.2.2 – Pole forming:

1) + and + is +

2) – and – is –

3) + and – is 0

Illustration 2.2.2 – multiplication

This procedure results in fields with different portents or different states. There exist three oscillations states: positiv(+), negativ(-), neutral(0)

2.2.3 – Grid forming:

It is striking that all zero fields are diagonal to each other.

Connecting the zero fields as shown in Illustration 2.2.3.

Illustration 2.2.3 – generated grid