Place - Tim Cresswell - ebook

Place ebook

Tim Cresswell

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Thoroughly revised and updated, this text introduces students ofhuman geography and allied disciplines to the fundamental conceptof Place, combining discussion about everyday uses of the term withthe complex theoretical debates that have grown up around it. * A thoroughly revised and updated edition of thishighly successful short introduction to Place * Features a new chapter on the use of Place innon-geographical arenas, such as in ecological theory, art theoryand practice, philosophy, and social theory * Combines discussion about everyday uses of the term'Place' with the more complex theoretical debates thathave grown up around it * Uses familiar stories drawn from the news, popularculture, and everyday life as a way to explain abstract ideas anddebates * Traces the development of the concept from the 1950sthrough its subsequent appropriation by cultural geographers, andthe linking of Place to politics

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Liczba stron: 433




Table of Contents

Title page

Copyright page

Dedication

Figures

Acknowledgments

Foreword

1: Introduction: Defining Place

Space and Place

Place and Landscape

Place as a Way of Understanding

The Remainder of the Book

References

2: The Genealogy of Place

The Emergence of Place in Western Thought

Describing Places in Regional Geography

Discovering Place: Humanistic Geography

Place as Home?

Radical Human Geography and the Politics of Place

Place as “Being-in-the-World” versus Place as Social Construct

Assembling Place

Conclusions: Versions of Place

References

3: Place in a Mobile World

Place, Practice, and Process

Place, Openness, and Change

The End of Place?

Place, Identity, and Mobility

Conclusion

References

4: Reading “A Global Sense of Place”

Historical Context

Harvey on Place

“A Global Sense of Place”

Beyond Reactionary and Progressive Senses of Place

Conclusions

References

5: Working with Place – Creating Places

Creating Place in a Mobile World

Place and Memory

Place and Architecture

A Nice Place to Live

Regions and Nations as Places

Digital Place

Place and Art

Conclusions

References

6: Working with Place – Anachorism

Sexuality Out-of-Place

The Homeless – People without Place

Animals Out-of-Place

Conclusions

References

7: Place Resources

Key Books on Place

Introductory Texts on Place

Key Papers on Place

Other Books and Papers on Place

Key Journals

Web Resources

Student Projects and Essays

Index

End User License Agreement

List of Illustrations

Figure 1.1    Demonstrations in Tahrir Square, Cairo, Egypt demanding the removal of President Mubarak and his regime in 2011. Source: photo by Jonathan Rashad (Flickr) [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 1.2    A Manhattan community garden. These were built on vacant lots by local residents when the land had been abandoned by the government. When land became valuable the city government demolished many of these in the East Village in order to build apartments and parking lots. Source: the photo was taken by participant/team Corn Fed Chicks as part of the Commons:Wikis Take Manhattan project on October 4, 2008. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0 CC-BY-SA-3.0 Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 truetrue (Contributed by author) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 1.3    Tompkins Square Park, New York City. Here sunbathers relax on the central knoll but this place has been the site of numerous protests and struggles. Source: photo by David Shankbone [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 1.4    St. Mark's Place in Manhattan's East Village. A busy shopping street full of boutiques, coffee shops, and other signs of a gentrified place. Source: photo by Beyond My Ken (own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 1.5    Graffiti on the Lower East Side, Manhattan. Some forms of place-making are less formal but are, nonetheless, important components in creating a sense of place. Source: photo by Summ (own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-SA-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5-2.0-1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 2.1    Gay liberation monument, Christopher Park, NewYork City. A positive form of identity construction through place. Source: photo by Dennis (DennisInAmsterdam on flickr.com) (http://flickr.com/photos/rith/298094205/) [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 2.2    The Millennium Gate at Chinatown, Vancouver, Canada. A generic symbol of Chinese identity? Source: photo by MRDXII (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 3.1    Desire lines on the Australian National University campus. Source: photo by User:Nick-D (own work) [CC-BY-SA-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 3.2    Cinderella's Castle at Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida. Authors have argued that tourist places such as Disney World are not real places but “placeless” places or “pseudo-places” with no real history and no sense of belonging. Source: photo by SteamFan (own work (Nikon D80)) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html), CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or CC-BY-2.5 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 3.3    Widecombe-in-the-Moor, a village on Dartmoor, England. When people think and write about place they often fix on old small places that seem “authentic” such as this village on Dartmoor. Think, for instance, of the way Heidegger wrote about a cabin in the Black Forest to make his argument about “being-in-the-world.” Source: photo by Manfred Heyde (Own work) [GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html) or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 3.4    Chhatrapari Shivaji Airport, Mumbai. Airports, by contrast, are frequently described as non-places or placeless. They do not appear to have histories and are marked by transience and mobility. Source: photo by Alex Graves from Lugano, Switzerland (Mumbai Airport) [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 5.1    “Out of rear window tenement dwelling of Mr and Mrs Jacob Solomon, 133 Avenue D, New York City.” Photo by Dorothea Lange. Source: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, FSA-OWI Collection [LC-USF34-009114-C DLC].

Figure 5.2    Christian cross at Auschwitz. Source: photo by Signalhead at en.wikipedia [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0) or GFDL (http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html)], from Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 5.3    The Statue of Liberty, New York City. The Statue of Liberty is a world-recognized symbol of the United States which celebrates and memorializes a particular story of American nationhood as a nation of more or less welcome immigrants. It is an official place of memory. Source: photo by William Warby (originally posted to Flickr as Statue of Liberty) [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 5.4    Ellis Island Immigration Museum hall. This room was used to process immigrants when Ellis Island was used as an immigration station. Now it is part of a museum built to commemorate the immigrant experience and its role in American life. Source: photo by Jean-Christophe BENOIST (Own work) [CC-BY-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figures 5.5 and 5.6    Ellis Island (above) and Angel Island (below). Unlike Ellis Island, Angel Island, in San Francisco Bay, has not become a nationally celebrated place of memory. While Ellis Island processed mainly European immigrants who have become part of the “melting pot” ideology of the nation, Angel Island was used to house Chinese would-be immigrants prevented from entering the nation. Source: Ellis Island photo by A. Coeffler, 24 February 1905, Library of Congress, via Wikimedia Commons. Angel Island photo by Hart Hyatt North

c

. 1943, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.

Figure 5.7    The inside of Nant-y-Cwm Steiner School in West Wales, designed by Christopher Day. Day believes in the necessity of building a holistic place that encourages well-being. Rounded corners are preferred to right angles, calming colors are used. Source: photo by Humphrey Bolton, http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/603950. Creative CommonsAttribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0).

Figure 5.8    Parc de la Villette, Paris, designed by Bernard Tschumi. Tschumi believed in radically departing from the historical context of the local area in designing this park. It is marked by modern abstract forms, straight lines, and right angles. Source: photo by Jean-Marie Hullot from France (Parc de la Villette Uploaded by paris 17) [CC-BY-SA-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figure 5.9    The Angel of the North. Source: photo by The Halo (taken by The Halo) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons.

Figures 5.10 and 5.11    “Nowhereisland” by Alex Hartley. As the island sculpture travelled around the southwest coast of England it was accompanied by a land-based converted horse van which acted as both a museum for the new nation and an embassy where citizens could sign up. Source: photos by author.

Figure 6.1    Illustration from

Harper's

magazine (1876). Here the domestic space of the home, complete with woman, child, and dinner on the table, is threatened by the tramp who comes to the door.

Figure 6.2    A ringnecked parakeet on a bird feeder in Bromley, London, UK. Source: photo by tiny_packages (originally posted to Flickr as Garden Parakeet) [CC-BY-2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons.

Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

Start Reading

CHAPTER 1

Index

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This edition first published 2015

© 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Edition history: Blackwell Publishing Ltd (1e, 2004)

Registered Office

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The right of Tim Cresswell to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher.

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Cresswell, Tim.

    Place: an introduction / Tim Cresswell. – Second edition.

        pages cm

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    ISBN 978-0-470-65562-7 (pbk.)

1.  Human geography.    2.  Geographical perception.    I.  Title.

    GF50.C74 2015

    304.2'3–dc23

                                                                        2014018394

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Cover image: Untitled, South East Spain, 2006, Ben Murphy. From the series The Riverbed. Copyright Ben Murphy 2014.

For Yi-Fu Tuan

Figures

1.1 Demonstrations in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt, 2011

1.2 A Manhattan community garden

1.3 Tompkins Square Park, New York City

1.4 St. Mark's Place in Manhattan's East Village

1.5 Graffiti on the Lower East Side, Manhattan

2.1 Gay liberation monument, Christopher Park, NewYork City

2.2 The Millennium Gate at Chinatown, Vancouver, Canada

3.1 Desire lines on the Australian National University campus

3.2 Cinderella's Castle at Walt Disney World, Orlando, Florida

3.3 Widecombe-in-the-Moor, Dartmoor, England

3.4 Chhatrapari Shivaji Airport, Mumbai

5.1 “Out of rear window tenement dwelling of Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Solomon, 133 Avenue D, New York City”

5.2 Christian cross at Auschwitz

5.3 The Statue of Liberty, New York City

5.4 Ellis Island Immigration Museum hall

5.5 and 5.6 Ellis Island and Angel Island

5.7 The inside of Nant-y-Cwm Steiner School in West Wales

5.8 Parc de la Villette, Paris

5.9 The Angel of the North

5.10 and 5.11 “Nowhereisland” by Alex Hartley

6.1 Illustration from Harper's magazine (1876)

6.2 A ringnecked parakeet on a bird feeder in Bromley, London, UK

Acknowledgments

Thinking and writing about place has, for me, been an interactive activity for many years. I have been fortunate enough to have encountered some outstanding teachers as a student. These include Peter Jackson, Jacquie Burgess, Denis Cosgrove, Yi-Fu Tuan, and Robert Sack. They have all inspired me in different ways and I hope some of that inspiration is evident in this book. Now that I am a teacher myself I find myself increasingly indebted to students who have taken ideas and run with them in startling directions. They include Gareth Hoskins, Peter Adey, Bradley L. Garrett, Kimberley Peters, Craig Martin, Amy Cutler, Andre Novoa, terri moreau, Rupert Griffiths, Weiqiang Lin, and Laura Prazeres. In the years between the first edition and this edition I spent seven happy years at the Geography Department at Royal Holloway, University of London, which proved to be a remarkable site of intellectual endeavor for a cultural geographer such as myself. Landscape Surgery was a particularly wonderful arena to discuss ideas about place, landscape, mobility, material culture, and just about anything else a cultural geographer could wish for. I am more particularly indebted to Carol Jennings for her careful reading of this manuscript and many useful suggestions. Michael Brown is the true inventor of the word anachorism that appears in Chapter 6. Finally, many thanks to Gerry Pratt and Nick Blomley for the invitation to write the original version of this book and to the good people at Wiley-Blackwell for helping along the way. Justin Vaughan at Wiley-Blackwell has been consistently encouraging and has provided much needed prods in the years since I agreed to write the second edition.

Extracts from Space, Place, and Gender (1994) by Doreen Massey are used by permission of Polity Press, University of Minnesota Press, and the author.

Foreword

The first edition of Place: A Short Introduction was published in 2004 as part of a series of short introductions in geography. The idea was to focus on a concept rather than a traditional subfield. I had some doubt as to whether such a book would have a market as a teaching tool. While a concept such as place is clearly central to the discipline of geography – the discipline I was writing for and from – it is rarely the case that there is a course with place as its singular focus. I have been delighted, therefore, at the way the first edition has been used so widely both in geography and beyond. It was much more successful that I ever imagined. It certainly has been widely used as a text book in geography courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. What is more encouraging is the way it has been used across disciplines it was not explicitly aimed at. These include creative writing, English literature, American studies, religious studies, architecture, and interdisciplinary liberal arts. There are even courses with the title “place studies” that use it.

In addition to the obvious importance of place across a range of disciplines in the academy, there has been a resurgence of place issues in the wider world beyond. The events of the Arab Spring and Occupy were frequently framed around place issues. There have been lively discussions about the effects of multinationals and chain stores on the downtowns of cities. The idea of the local (a derivative of place) has been powerful in the rise of new-old forms of food culture and economic systems. Writing about place in the form of creative non-fiction has seen a renaissance in the United Kingdom (the place I know best) with place-based books appearing in national newspapers and in the bestseller lists. Art, too, has continued to ask questions of place and belonging.

Researching and writing about place, then, is clearly both an interdisciplinary endeavor and a practice that extends beyond the academy. For this reason the second edition of Place: A Short Introduction is a more interdisciplinary and outward-looking book, less focused on the discipline of geography. Geography has a lot to offer, thanks to its history of focusing on place, but it is not the sole owner of the concept. This is an offering, from the place of geography, to the wider world. This edition is about 50 percent longer than the first edition and, therefore, not so “short.” I hope, nevertheless, to have maintained the accessibility of the first edition. In addition to a more generally interdisciplinary sense to the book, there are added sections which reflect the engagement with place across disciplines. These include sections on philosophy, architecture, art and place, information technologies, assemblage theory, and animal geographies amongst others. Otherwise encouraging notes from a few readers noted a number of errors in the first edition and I am grateful to them. I have kept a list and have hopefully rectified these issues.

1Introduction: Defining Place

Place is one of the two or three most important terms for my discipline – geography. If pushed, I would argue that it is the most important of them all. Geography is about place and places. But place is not the property of geography – it is a concept that travels quite freely between disciplines and the study of place benefits from an interdisciplinary approach. Indeed, the philosopher JEFF MALPAS (2010) has argued that “place is perhaps the key term for interdisciplinary research in the arts, humanities and social sciences in the twenty-first century.”

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Lesen Sie weiter in der vollständigen Ausgabe!