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Opis ebooka Great Inventors and Their Inventions - Frank P. Bachman

THIS book contains twelve stories of great inventions, with a concluding chapter on famous inventors of today. Each of the inventions described has added to the comforts and joys of the world. Each of these inventions has brought about new industries in which many men and women have found employment. These stories, therefore, offer an easy approach to an understanding of the origin of certain parts of our civilization, and of the rise of important industries. The story of each invention is interwoven with that of the life of its inventor. The lives of inventors furnish materials of the highest educative value. These materials are not only interesting, but they convey their own vivid lessons on how big things are brought about, and on the traits of mind and heart which make for success.  It is hoped that this book will set its readers to thinking how the conveniences of life have been obtained, and how progress has been made in the industrial world. While appealing to their interest in inventions and in men who accomplish great things, may it also bring them into contact with ideas which will grip their hearts, fire the imagination, and mold their ideals into worthier forms.

Opinie o ebooku Great Inventors and Their Inventions - Frank P. Bachman

Fragment ebooka Great Inventors and Their Inventions - Frank P. Bachman

Great Inventors and Their Inventions

[Illustrated]

Frank P. Bachman

Illustrated by

American Book Company, 1918

Bernard Westmacott

ILLUSTRATED &

PUBLISHED BY

e-KİTAP PROJESİ & CHEAPEST BOOKS

www.cheapestboooks.com

www.facebook.com/EKitapProjesi

Copyright,

2017 by e-Kitap Projesi

Istanbul

ISBN: 978-605-9496-64-3

©

Table of Contents

PREFACE

JAMES WATT AND THE INVENTION OF THE STEAM ENGINE

CHILDHOOD AND EARLY EDUCATION

LEARNING INSTRUMENT MAKING

JACK-OF-ALL-TRADES

CAPTURED BY STEAM

FINDING THE TROUBLE

MAKING THE INVENTION

BEELZEBUB, THE TRIAL ENGINE

COMPLETING THE ENGINE

MAKING THE BUSINESS PAY

OLD AGE AT HEARTHFIELD

ROBERT FULTON AND THE INVENTION OF THE STEAMBOAT

THE FIRST BOATS

THE FIRST STEAMBOATS

FULTON'S EARLY LIFE

STUDYING ART IN LONDON

ENGINEER AND INVENTOR

EXPERIMENTING WITH STEAMBOATS

BUILDING THE CLERMONT

FIRST TRIP OF THE CLERMONT

STEAMBOATS ON RIVER AND OCEAN

GEORGE STEPHENSON AND THE INVENTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE

INVENTION OF THE ELECTRIC ENGINE AND ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE

THE ELECTRIC BATTERY

THE MAGNETIC MAGNET

THE ELECTROMAGNET

THE FIRST DYNAMO

MAKING THE DYNAMO USEFUL

FINDING THE MOTOR

THE DYNAMO AND MOTOR AT WORK

THE INVENTION OF SPINNING MACHINES: THE JENNY, THE WATER FRAME, AND THE MULE

THE DISTAFF AND SPINDLE

THE SPINNING WHEEL

JAMES HARGREAVES AND THE SPINNING JENNY

RICHARD ARKWRIGHT AND THE WATER FRAME

SAMUEL CROMPTON AND THE MULE

ELI WHITNEY AND THE INVENTION OF THE COTTON GIN

BOYISH TRAITS OF WHITNEY

VISIT TO THE SOUTH

INVENTING THE COTTON GIN

SEEKING THE REWARD

MAKING MUSKETS

ELIAS HOWE AND THE INVENTION OF THE SEWING MACHINE

HIS EARLY TRAINING

BECOMES A MECHANIC

THE FIRST SEWING MACHINE

MAKING HIS FIRST SEWING MACHINE

EXHIBITING THE MACHINE

OFFERING THE MACHINE TO ENGLAND

FIGHTING FOR HIS RIGHTS

REAPING THE REWARD

CYRUS H. MCCORMICK AND THE INVENTION OF THE REAPER

THE SICKLE AND THE CRADLE

THE FIRST REAPING MACHINES

THE MAN WHO SUCCEEDED

MCCORMICK'S FIRST REAPER

SELLING REAPERS IN THE EAST

CARRYING THE REAPER TO THE WEST

THE SELF-RAKE REAPER

THE MARSH HARVESTER

THE WIRE SELF-BINDER

THE TWINE SELF-BINDER

THE COMPLETE HARVESTER

THE WORTH OF THE REAPER

HENRY BESSEMER AND THE MAKING OF STEEL

PRIMITIVE IRON FURNACES

THE BLAST FURNACE

PREPARING FOR WORK

MAKING ART CASTINGS AND STAMPING DIES

MAKING A STAMP DIE FOR THE GOVERNMENT

MAKING BRONZE POWDER

HIS MASTER INVENTION

SAVING THE NEW PROCESS FROM FAILURE

MAKING THE PROCESS A SUCCESS

JOHN GUTENBERG AND THE INVENTION OF PRINTING

SAMUEL F. B. MORSE AND THE INVENTION OF THE TELEGRAPH

ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL AND THE INVENTION OF THE TELEPHONE

THOMAS A. EDISON

ORVILLE AND WILBUR WRIGHT

GUGLIELMO MARCONI

JOHN P. HOLLAND AND THE SUBMARINE

***

 

 

PREFACE

 

PUFFING BILLY.

 

THIS book contains twelve stories of great inventions, with a concluding chapter on famous inventors of to-day. Each of the inventions described has added to the comforts and joys of the world. Each of these inventions has brought about new industries in which many men and women have found employment. These stories, therefore, offer an easy approach to an understanding of the origin of certain parts of our civilization, and of the rise of important industries.

The story of each invention is interwoven with that of the life of its inventor. The lives of inventors furnish materials of the highest educative value. These materials are not only interesting, but they convey their own vivid lessons on how big things are brought about, and on the traits of mind and heart which make for success.

It is hoped that this book will set its readers to thinking how the conveniences of life have been obtained, and how progress has been made in the industrial world. While appealing to their interest in inventions and in men who accomplish great things, may it also bring them into contact with ideas which will grip their hearts, fire the imagination, and mold their ideals into worthier forms.

 

List of Scientists / Inventors and their Inventions:

Scientist’s / Inventor’s Name

Invention

A. Celsius

Centrigrade scale

A.L. and J.L. Lumiere

Cenema

A.L. Breguet

Watch

A.Parker

Celluloid 

Adolph Rickenbacker

electric guitar

Alessandro Volta

Electric Battery

Alexander Fleming

Penicillin

Alexanderson

Radio transmitter

Alfred B. Nobel

Dynamite

Alfred Binet

I.Q. Test

Alfred Kinsey

Human Sexuality

Alfred Wegener

Continental Drift

American Viscose Co.

Rayon

Amundson (1912)

South Pole

Anderson

Positive Electrons

Andreas Vesalius

New Anatomy

Andre-Marie Ampere

Galvanometer

Antoine Joseph Sax

Saxophone

Antoine LaurentLavoisier

Revolution inChemistry

Archimedes

Specific Gravity

Archimedes

Principle for lever(S.P.Gravity)

Archimedies

Archimedean Screw

Arthur Eddington

Modern Astronomy

August Kekule

Chemical Structure

Avogadro

Avogadro’s Hypothesis

B. F. Goodrich

Zipper

B. F. Skinner

Behaviorism

Baird

Television

Bardeen, Shockley,Brattain

Transistor

Benjamin Franklin

Bifocal Lens

Benjamin Franklin

Lightning Conductor

Bessemer

Steel Melting Process

Binet

Intelligence test

Bohr

Electron Theory

Bohr and Rutherford

Atomic Structure

Boyle

Boyle’s law

Braille

Printing for the Blind

Braun, Dr.Wernher Von

Space flying

Broquett

Helicopter

Bunsen

Spectroscope

C. F. Brush

Arc Lamp

C. Hugyens

Clock (pendulum)

C. Sholes

Typewriter

C.V.Raman

Crystal Dynamics

C.V.Raman

Raman effect

Carl Gauss (KarlFriedrich Gauss)

Mathematical Genius

Carl Linnaeus

Binomial Nomenclature

Carlton Mcgee

Parking meter

Carothers

Nylon Plastic

Cartwright

Powerloom

Casimir Funk

Vitamin B1

Cavandish

Rare Gas

Cavendish

Hydrogen

Chadwick

Neutron

Chandrasekhar

Mathematical AstroPhysics

Charles Babbage

Computer

Charles Babbage 

Difference engine

Charles Darwin

Evolution

Charles Darwin

Evolution (theory)

Charles Darwin

Origin of Species

Charles Goodyear

rubber (vulcanized)

Charles Goodyear

Vulcanised Rubber

Charles Lyell

Modern Geology

Charles Macintosh

Raincoat

Charles Macintosh

Rubber (waterproof)

Charles Macintosh

Waterproof Rubber

Charles Sherrington

Neurophysiology

Chester Carlson

zerox machine

Christiaan Huygens

Wave Theory of Light

Christian Barnard

Replacing human heart

Christopher Cockerell

Hovercraft

Claude Bernard

Founding of ModernPhysiology

Claude Levi-Strauss

StructuralAnthropology

Col. J. Schick

Razor (electric)

Columbus (1492)

West Indies

Conrad Elvehjem

Vitamin Niacin

Copernicus (1540)

Solar System

Coulomb

Fundamental Laws ofElectric Attraction

D. T. Smith, E. G.Hendrick

Vitamin B2

Daimler

Automobile

Dalton

Atomic Theory

Dalton

Laws of MultipleProportion

Darwin

Laws of NaturalSelections

Darwin

Theory of Evolution

Dauguerre

Photograph

David Brewster

Kaleidoscope

David Bushnell

Submarine

Dewar

Liquid Oxygen

Dewar

Thermos Flasks

Dmitri Mendeleev

Periodic Table ofElements

Domagk

Sulpha Drugs

Dr. A.H. Taylor andL.C. Young

Radar

Dr. Alan M. Turing

Electronic Computer

Dr. Lee de Forest

Film (with sound)

Dr. Richard Gatling

Machine Gun

Dr. Wallace H.Carothers

Nylon

Dr. William Stokes,Rene Laennec

Stethoscope

Dr.Hargobiad Khorana

Deciphering thegenetic code

Dr.Paul Muller

D.D.T.

Dr.Philip Drinker

Drinker’s Chamber ofIron Lung

Dr.Sigmund Freud

Psycho-analysis

E.G. Otis

Lift

Edison

Incandescent Bulb

Edison

Phonograph

Edmund Cartwright

Power Loom

Edward Jenner

Vaccination

Edward Mellanby

Vitamin D

Edward O. Wilson

Sociobiology

Edward Teller

Bomb

Edwin Hubble

Modern Telescope

Eijkman

Beri – Beri

Einstein

Theory of Relativity

Elisha G. Otis

Elevator

Elmer V. McCollum

Vitamin B

Elmer V. McCollum andM. Davis

Vitamin A

Emil Fischer

Organic Chemistry

Enrico Fermi

Atomic Physics

Ernest Rutherford

Structure of the Atom

Ernst Haeckel

Biogenetic Principle

Ernst Mayr

Evolutionary Theory

Erwin Schrodinger

Wave Mechanics

Euclid

Foundations ofMathematics

Euclid

Geometry

Evangelista Torricelli

Barometer

F.Banting

Insulin

Fahrenheit

Fahrenheit Scale

Fahrenheit

Mercury Thermometer

Faraday

Electricity

Faraday

Induction of ElectricCurrent

Faraday

Law of Electrolysis

Francis Crick

Molecular Biology

Francis Galton

Eugenics

Frank Whittle

Jet Propulsion

Franz Boas

Modern Anthropology

Frederick Sanger

Genetic Code

Friese-Greene

Cine camera

Fulton

Steam boat

G. Bradshaw

Scooter

G. Claude

Neon-lamp

G. Ferdinand VonZeppelin

Airship (rigid)

G. Marconi

Radio

Galileo

Telescope

Galileo Galilei

New Science

Galileo Gallei

Thermometer

Gauss

Electric Measurement

Gay Lussac

Law of gases

George Eastman

Camera

George Gaylord Simpson

Tempo of Evolution

George Westinghouse

Air Brake

Gertrude Belle Elion

Pharmacology

Gottlieb Daimler

Carburetor

Gottlieb Daimler

Carburettor

Gregor Mendel

Laws of Inheritance

Gregory Mandel

Laws of Heredity

Gustav Kirchhoff

Spectroscopy

H. W. Seeley

Electric Flat Iron

H.C.Urey

Deuterium (HeavyWater)

H.W. Seeley

Electric iron

Hadley

Sextant

Hahnemann

Homoeopathy

Hans Bethe

Energy of the Sun

Hans Selye

Stress Concept

Harry Brearley

Stainless Steel

Harvey

Blood Circulation

Heike Kamerlingh

Superconductivity

Heitz

Electrical Waves

Henry Becquerel

Radio-activity of Uranium

Henry Bessemer

Steel production

Henry Great Head

Life Boat

Herbert Evans andKatherine Bishop 

Vitamin E

Hermann Fottinger

Automatic gearbox

Hermann von Helmholtz

Rise of German Science

Herschel William

Uranus (Planet)

Hideki Yakawa

Meson

Hippalus

Scientific astronomy

Hoffman

Aniline Dyes

Hopkins and Funk

Vitamins

Hsing and Ling-Tsan

Clock (machanical)

Isaac Newton

Newtonian Revolution

J. Froelich

Tractor

J. Whinfield and H.Dickson

Terylene

J.B. Dunlop

Bicycle Tyre

J.C. Perier

Ship (steam)

J.C.Bose

Crescograph

J.E. Lurdstrom

Match (safety)

J.J.Thomson

Electrons

Jacob Schick

Electric razor 

Jacques and JosephMontgolfier

Balloon

James Clerk Maxwell

Electromagnetic Field

James Hargreaves

Spinning jenny

James Harrison andJames Young Simpson

Chloroform

James Harrison,Alexander Catlin

Refrigerator

James Lind

Vitamin C

James Watson

Structure of DNA

James Watt

Steam Engine

James Watt

Steam engine(condenser)

Jean Baptiste Lamarck

Foundations of Biology

Jean Piaget

Child Development

Johann Phillip Reis,Alexander Graham Bell, Elisha Gray, Amos E. Dolbear, and Thomas Edison

Microphone

Johann Vaaler

Paper clip

Johannes Gutenberg

Printing Press

Johannes Kepler

Motion of the Planets

John Boyd Dunlop

Pneumatic Tyres

John Dalton

Theory of the Atom

John Harrison

Chronometer 

John J. Loud

Ball-Point Pen

John Logie Baird

Television(mechanical)

John Napier

Logarithmic Tables

John Napier

Logarithms

John von Neumann

Modern Computer

Joseph Aspdin

Cement 

Joseph J. Thomson

Electron

Joule, James Prescoft

Measurement ofElectrical Energy

Joules

Mechanical Equivalentof Heat

K.G. Gillete

Raazor (safety)

Karl Benz

Automobiles usinggasoline

Karl Benz

Gasoline engine

Karl Butler

Motor Car (petrol)

Karl Landsteiner

Blood Groups

Kepler

Laws of PlanetaryMotion

King C. Gillette

Safety Razor

Kirkpatrick Macmillan

Bicycle

Kodak

Film &Photographic goods

Konrad Lorenz

Ethology

Lablanc

Washing Soda

Lawrence

Cyclotron

Lee-de-Frost

Talkies

Leo H Baekeland

Bakelite

Levi Strauss

Jeans

Lewis E. Waterman

Fountain Pen

Lippman

Coloured Photography

llly Brandt

T.N.T.

Lockyer

Helium Gas

Lord Joseph Lister

Antiseptic Surgery

Lord Kelvin

Dynamical theory ofHeat

Louis Braille

Braille

Louis Pasteur

Germ Theory of Disease

Louis Pasteur

Hydrophobia

Louis Pasteur

Rabies Vaccine

Louis Victor deBroglie

Wave/Particle Duality

Lucretius

Scientific Thinking

Lucy Wills

Vitamin Folic acid

Ludwig Boltzmann

Thermodynamics

Lynn Margulis

Symbiosis Theory

Madame Curie

Radium

Marcello Malpighi

Microscopic Anatomy

Marcony

Wireless Telegraphy

Maria Montessori

Montessori Method

Marie Curie

Radioactivity

Max Born

Quantum Mechanics

Max Delbruck

Bacteriophage

Max Planck

Quanta

Max plank

Quantum Theory

Max von Laue

X-ray Crystallography

Maxwell

Electromagnetic Theory

Meghnad Saha

Effect of Pressure ontrough bodies

Mendeleef

Periodic Law

Mergenthaler

Linotype

Michael Faraday

Classical Field Theory

Michael Faraday

Dynamo

Michael Faraday

Electric Generator

Michael Faraday

Transformer

Mosley

Atomic Number

Murray Gell-Mann

Eightfold Way

N.R.Finsen

Phototherapy

Neils Bohr

Atom

Newton

Laws of Gravitation

Newton

Laws of Motion

Nicolaus Copernicus

Heliocentric Universe

Nikola Tesla

Electric Motor (AC)

Ohm

Laws of ElectricalResistance

Oho Hahn

Uranium fusion

Oliver Lodge

Wireless Communication

Otis

Lift (Elevators)

Otto

Internal CombustionEngine

Otto Hahn, Bohr andFermi

Nuclear Fission

Otto von Guericke

Air Pump

Parsons

Steam Turbine

Pascal

Adding Machine

Pascal

Calculating machine

Paul Ehrlich

Chemotherapy

Paul Gyorgy

Vitamin B6

Pavlov

Theory of conditionedreflex

Perkin

Mauve dye

Peter Goldmark

The long playingmicrogroove record

Pierre Simon deLaplace

Newtonian Mechanics

Plimsoll

Line of demarcation(ship)

Priestley

Laughing Gas

Priestly

Oxygen

R.A.Millikan

Cosmic Rays

Ramanathan

Molecular Scatteringof light in fluid

Ramanujam

In Number Theory

Ramsay, Travers

Neon Gas

Richard Feynman

QuantumElectrodynamics

Richard Trevithick

Locomotive

Robert Koch

Bacteriology

Robert Koch

Cholera Bacillus

Robert Peary (1909)

North Pole

Robert Recorde

Equal sign (=)?

Robert Wilhelm VonBunsen

Laboratory Gas Burner

Roberts Mallet

Seismograph

Roentgen

X – Rays

Rogei Bacon

Gun powder

Rohm Korff

Induction Coil

Ronald Ross

Malarial Parasite

Rudolf Diesel

Diesel Engine

Rudolf Diesel

Diesel Oil Engine

Rudolf Virchow

Cell Doctrine

Rutherford

Breaking up theNucleus of an atom

S.N.Bose

Boson

Salk

Salk Vaccine

Samuel Colt

Revolver

Samuel Morse

Telegraph

Samuel Morse

Telegraphic Code

Shalimar

Paints

Sigmund Freud

Psychology of theUnconscious

Sir Alexander GrahamBell

Telephone

Sir Charles Parsons

Ship (turbine)

Sir Ernest Swington

Tank

Sir Frank Whittle

Jet Engine

Sir George Caley

Glider 

Sir Humphrey Davy

Safety lamp

Sir Isaac Pitman

Shorthand

Sir J.A. Fleming

Valve of radio

Sir Richard Arkwight

Spinning frame

Stephen Hawking

Quantum Cosmology

Stephenson

Railway Engine

Theodosius Dobzhansky

Modern Synthesis

Thomas Alva Edison

Cinematograph

Thomas Alva Edison

Cinematography

Thomas Alva Edison

Electric Lamp

Thomas Alva Edison

Gramophone

Thomas Alva Edison

Movie Projector

Thomas Hunt Morgan

Chromosomal Theory ofHeredity

Thomas Newcome

Steam engine (piston)

Thomas Saint 

Sewing Machine

Tim Berners Lee

World Wide Web andHypertext Markup Language

Trofim Lysenko

Soviet Genetics

Tycho Brahe

New Astronomy

U.N.Brahmachari

Kala-azar Fever

Urey

Heavy Hydrogen

Valentine

Bismuth 

W. L. Judson

Zip fastener

W.H. Fox Tablot

Photography (paper)

Werner Heisenberg

Quantum Theory

Wilhelm Reontgen

X-ray

Wilhelm Wundt

Founding of Psychology

Willard Libby

Radioactive Dating

William Bayliss

Modern Physiology

William Burroughs

Cash register

William Harvey

Circulation of theBlood

William Herschel

Heavens

William Hurst

Safety Pin

William Murdoch

Gas lighting

William Oughtred

Symbol (x)?

William Siemens

Electric Furnace

William Sturgeon

Electromagnet 

Wright brothers

Aeroplane

 

 

JAMES WATT AND THE INVENTION OF THE STEAM ENGINE

UNTIL a little more than one hundred years ago, the chief power used in the production of food, clothing, and shelter was hand power. Cattle and horses were used to cultivate the fields. Windmills and water wheels were employed to grind corn and wheat. But most tools and machines were worked by hand.

 

JAMES WATT

 

Men had, for many years, dreamed of a new power which would be more useful than either work animals, sails, windmills, or water wheels. This new power was steam. Yet no one had been able to apply the power of steam so that it would grind corn and wheat, spin and weave cotton and wool, or do any useful thing at all. The man who succeeded in giving to the world this new power was James Watt. Steam now propels ships over the Atlantic in less than a week. It speeds express trains across our continent in ninety hours, and it does a thousand other wonderful and useful things.

 

CHILDHOOD AND EARLY EDUCATION

James Watt was born in 1736, at Greenock, Scotland, not far from Glasgow. His early education was received at home, his mother giving him lessons in reading, and teaching him to draw with pencil and chalk. His father drilled him in arithmetic and encouraged him in the use of tools. When at length James went to school, he did not at first get along well. This was due to illness which often kept him at home for weeks at a time. Still, he always did well in arithmetic and geometry, and after the age of fourteen he made rapid progress in all his studies.

Even as a small boy, James was fond of tinkering with things. This fondness was not always appreciated, as is shown by a remark of an aunt: "James Watt, I never saw such an idle boy; take a book or employ yourself usefully; for the last hour you have not spoken a word, but taken off the lid of that kettle and put it on again, holding now a cup and now a silver spoon over the steam, watching how it rises from the spout, and catching the drops of water it turns into. Are you not ashamed to spend your time in this way?"

Much of his time, as he grew older and stronger, was spent in his father's shop, where supplies for ships were kept, and where ship repairing was done. He had a small forge and also a workbench of his own. Here he fashioned cranes, pulleys, and pumps, and learned to work with different metals and woods. So skillful was he that the men remarked, "James has a fortune at his fingers' ends."

 

WATT AND THE TEAKETTLE.

 

The time at last came for choosing a trade. The father had wished James to follow him in his own business. But Mr. Watt had recently lost considerable money, and it now seemed best for the youth to choose a trade in which he could use his mechanical talents. So James set out for Glasgow to become an instrument maker.

 

LEARNING INSTRUMENT MAKING

He entered the service of a mechanic who dignified himself with the name of "optician." This mechanic, though the best in Glasgow, was a sort of Jack-of-all-trades, and earned a simple living by mending spectacles, repairing fiddles, and making fishing tackle. Watt was useful enough to his master, but there was little that a skillful boy could learn from such a workman. So he decided to seek a teacher in London.

There were plenty of instrument makers in London, but they were bound together in a guild. A boy wishing to learn the trade must serve from five to seven years. Watt had no desire to bind himself for so long a period. He wished to learn what he needed to know in the shortest possible time; he wanted a "short cut." Master workman after master workman for this reason turned him away. Only after many weeks did he find a master who was willing to take him. For a year's instruction, he paid one hundred dollars and gave the proceeds of his labor. The hours in the London shops were long. "We work," wrote Watt, "to nine o'clock every night, except Saturdays." To relieve his father of the burden of supporting him, he got up early and did extra work. Towards the end of the year he wrote, with no little pride: "I shall be able to get my bread anywhere, as I am now able to work as well as most journeymen, though I am not so quick as many."

 

JACK-OF-ALL-TRADES

In order to open a shop of his own, Watt returned to Glasgow. He was opposed in this by the hammermen's guild. The hammermen said that he had not served an apprenticeship and had no right to set up in business. They would have succeeded in keeping him from making a start, had not a friend, a teacher in the University of Glasgow, come to his aid, providing him with a shop in a small room of one of the college buildings.

Watt soon became a Jack-of-all-trades. He cleaned and repaired instruments for the university. Falling into the ways of his first master, he made and sold spectacles and fishing tackle. Though he had no ear for music and scarcely knew one note from another, he turned his hand to making organs. So successful was he, that many "dumb flutes and gouty harps, dislocated violins, and fractured guitars" came to him to be cured of their ills.

All the while, Watt spent his leisure time in reading. The college library was close at hand, so there was no lack of books. Chemistry, mathematics, and mechanics were studied. By learning all he could and by doing everything well, Watt came to be known as a man "who knew much and who could make anything."

 

CAPTURED BY STEAM

Coal and tin mining had for a long time been important industries of Great Britain. Shallow mines were easy to work. Men and women carried out the coal or tin ore in buckets, by winding stairs. Or a windlass was used, turned by hand or with the aid of a horse. Water was taken out in the same way. As the shallow mines became exhausted, deeper ones were opened. The deeper the mine, the harder it was to lift out the coal or tin ore. Into these deeper mines also came quantities of water, flooding many of them. Unless a machine should be invented which could be run at a small cost, to pump out the water and to hoist the coal or tin, these mines would have to be closed. The need of such a machine led to the invention of the first successful steam engine.

Watt first heard of the steam engine in 1759. The idea captivated him, and he began to read how others had tried to make successful engines. Finding that the best books on steam and "fire engines," as they were then called, were in Italian and German, he took up the study of these languages.

In an Italian book he read about Branca's steam engine, invented in 1629. Branca's engine was little more than a toy, no use being made of it, except to pulverize saltpeter and do other simple things of like sort.

 

BRANCA'S STEAM ENGINE OF 1629.

 

In a German book he read about Papin's engine, which was invented in 1690. In Papin's engine steam was admitted into the cylinder. The steam was then allowed to condense, that is, turn back into water. This formed a vacuum, or space without any air in it, under the piston. The weight of the atmosphere, which is about fourteen pounds to the square inch, on the upper side of the piston, forced it down, and the descending piston raised a weight fastened to the rope. Papin never went further than the making of a model. But his idea of using steam to make a vacuum, and of using the pressure of the atmosphere to force down a piston was applied a few years later with some success by Thomas Newcomen.

 

PAPIN'S ENGINE.

 

Newcomen made his first engine in 1705. Although big and awkward, a number were used in England to pump out the water at the mines. But they could not be used in deep mines, as they could lift only six or seven pounds for each square inch of the piston. They worked slowly, making only about fifteen strokes a minute, and they were expensive also, a single engine burning fifteen thousand dollars' worth of coal in a year.

 

FINDING THE TROUBLE

Watt had been thinking about steam for four or five years before he saw one of Newcomen's engines. Then it was only a model of one, brought to him from the university for repair. When he had repaired the model, he started it to going. It made a few strokes and stopped. There was no more steam. The boiler seemed big enough, so he blew up the fire. The engine now ran all right, but it required much fuel and used up quantities of steam, though the load on the side of the pump was light. Most men would have thought nothing of this, and would have sent the model back to the university. But that was not Watt's way. Everything he did not understand was for him a subject for study, and he never stopped until he understood. So he set to work to discover why the engine used so much steam.

 

NEWCOMEN'S ENGINE.

 

Steam was used, you will remember, to make a vacuum in the cylinder. Watt found that to drive out the air and water, enough steam had to be let into the cylinder to fill it four times. Why was this? First, the cylinder was exposed to the air, which chilled it. The cold cylinder itself, before it was warm, changed considerable steam into water. Second, cold water was poured into the cylinder to condense the steam, and this made the cylinder cold again. Watt estimated that three fourths of all the steam used was thus wasted in heating and reheating the cylinder. Here was the trouble with Newcomen's engine. Watt saw that, to remedy this defect, a way must be found to keep the cylinder always as hot as the steam which entered it, and the vacuum must be made in the cylinder, without cooling it.

 

MAKING THE INVENTION

Watt spent much time and money in making experiments, but nothing he tried succeeded. "Nature has a weak side," he was fond of saying, "if we can only find it out." So he went on day after day, following now this and now that false hope.

"One Sunday afternoon early in 1765," writes Watt, "I had gone to take a walk in the Green of Glasgow. I was thinking upon the engine and about how to save the heat in the cylinder, when the idea came into my mind that steam was an elastic body and would run into a vacuum. If connection was made between the cylinder and a tank from which the air had been pumped, the steam would pass into the empty tank and might there be condensed without cooling the cylinder. I then saw that I must get rid of the condensed steam and of the water used in condensing it. It occurred to me this could be done by using pumps."

With a separate condenser in mind, to get rid of the steam after it had done its work, without cooling the cylinder, other important improvements were thought of. In Newcomen's engine, the upper end of the cylinder was open to let the air act upon the piston. Watt now planned to put an air-tight cover over the end of the cylinder, with a hole for the piston rod to slide through, and to let steam in above the piston to act upon it, instead of the air. This change made Newcomen's atmospheric engine into a steam engine. In Newcomen's engine the power was the pressure of the atmosphere upon the piston, and this power acted in one direction only. In Watt's engine steam was the power, and the piston was shoved both up and down by it; hence Watt's engine was called a double-acting engine.

"All these improvements," says Watt, "followed in quick succession, so that in the course of one or two days the invention was . . . complete in my mind."

The next step was to make a model, to put the invention into working form. Making the drawings was easy, but to carry them out was hard. A lack of good workmen was the chief difficulty. There were no skilled mechanics in those days, nor self-acting, tool-making machines; everything had to be made by hand. Blacksmiths and tinners were the only men that could be hired, and they were bungling workers even at their own trades. After eight months of racking labor, the model was ready to start. It worked, but despite all Watt's care, it "sniffed at many joints." The condenser did not work well; the cylinder leaked, and the piston was far from being steam tight. To add to Watt's troubles, his "old White Iron man," a tinner and his best workman, died. The cross-beam broke. Nevertheless, Watt saw enough to know that he was on the right track.

 

BEELZEBUB, THE TRIAL ENGINE

Watt's great need was money, for it was necessary to build a trial engine to show the value of steam power. He finally, in 1767, secured a partner who promised, for a two-thirds share in the invention, to pay a debt of five thousand dollars owed by Watt, and to bear the expense of further experiments. The partnership was formed, and Watt turned to the plans for the trial engine.

 

THE ENGINE BEELZEBUB, 1767.

 

As the trial engine neared completion, Watt's "anxiety for his approaching doom kept him sleepless at night, for his fears were even greater than his hopes." Alas! the trial engine did not work well. The new condenser acted badly. The cylinder was almost useless. The piston, despite all that could be done, leaked quantities of steam. The whole machine was a "clumsy job." From the way it wheezed, and snorted, and puffed fire and smoke, the engine was named Beelzebub. Months were spent in Wales, overhauling him, but he behaved only slightly better on second trial. Beelzebub was far from being a practical engine, and he was left for the time to rest and rust.

There is little wonder that Watt was downhearted and wrote to his friends: "Of all things in life, there is nothing more foolish than inventing." "I am resolved . . . if I can resist it, to invent no more." "To-day I enter the thirty-fifth year of my life, and I think I have hardly yet done thirty-four pence worth of good in the world."

 

COMPLETING THE ENGINE

Watt had by this time spent ten years and several thousand dollars upon his invention, but it was still only a dream. Brighter days were, however, at hand. Matthew Boulton, owner of the largest hardware factory in the world, at Soho near Birmingham, and who had working for him the best mechanics in Europe, became interested in the fire engine. In 1774, he became Watt's partner.

Meanwhile, old Beelzebub was shipped to Birmingham. The best mechanics of Soho set to work upon him. One by one the separate parts were repaired and improved. In a few months, he was ready for trial. Beelzebub puffed as much smoke and fire as ever, but with all his bluster and noise,—thanks to good workmanship, he went surprisingly well. Everyone who saw Beelzebub run felt sure that the invention would prove a success. Even modest Watt wrote to his father: "The fire engine I have invented is now going, and answers much better than any other that has yet been made, and I expect that the invention will be very beneficial to me."

 

WATT'S ENGINE GOVERNOR.

 

Though success was promised, much remained to be done to make the engine practical. It was found, for example, that if the load Beelzebub was pulling, for some cause became lighter, he would run too fast; if the load suddenly became heavier, he would run too slow.

Some way had to be found to make him run faster when there was need of more power, and to run more slowly when less power was needed. Two heavy balls were fixed to swing around an upright rod. When the engine ran fast, the upright rod turned fast, and the balls swung out and so acted as to admit less steam. When the engine ran slowly, the rod turned slowly, and the balls swung down and let in more steam. By the use of this contrivance, or the governor, Beelzebub was made to run at about the same speed, and when started and set to work, became his own engineer.

Other inventions were made, and the separate condenser, piston, and cylinder were improved. Thus, after years of thought and labor, the steam engine at length stood full grown and ready for all kinds of work.

 

MAKING THE BUSINESS PAY

To make an invention is one thing. To get people to use it and so make it profitable is another. It is difficult to say which is the harder. In any case, Watt's troubles were not over.

All the time that Watt was working on his invention, mines were being flooded with water and had to be given up. Among the first orders for engines was one for a mine in Cornwall. Watt made the drawing with care, and the workmen did their best, for much depended on the first engine.

The engine was ready by the middle of 1777, and Watt went to set it up. The people were eager to get a look at the monster. Mine owners came from far and near to see it work. Many were doubtful, and some even wished that the engine might fail. But to the surprise of all it succeeded. It pumped water as they had never seen water pumped before. The size, the speed, and "the horrible noise of the engine," wrote Watt, "give satisfaction . . . and the noise seems to give great ideas of its powers." In a few days the mine was dry. It was the deepest mine in the district, and orders for engines began to come in. They came so fast that in the course of the next four or five years almost all the mines in England and Scotland were supplied.

Boulton, Watt's partner, felt from the first that the greatest field for the steam engine was in mills and factories. When orders for pumping engines fell off, Watt went to work on a factory engine. The first factory engine was built in 1782, and was for a corn mill.

 

A MINE ENGINE.

 

The use of the steam engine in mills was opposed by the millers. They saw that to put steam engines to grinding corn and wheat would do away in many places with windmills and water mills. The working people also were stirred up. They were led to believe that if the steam engine was put in mills, it would take work away from them.

"It seems," wrote Watt, "the meddlers are determined to be masters of us. To put a stop to fire-engine mills, because they come in competition with water mills, would be as absurd as to put a stop to canals, because they interfere with wagoners. . . . The argument that men are deprived of a livelihood would put a stop to the use of all machines whereby labor is saved. Carry out this argument, and we must do away with water mills themselves, and go back again to grinding corn by hand labor."