Twitter for Good - Claire Diaz-Ortiz - ebook

Twitter for Good ebook

Claire Diaz-Ortiz

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Silver Medal Winner, Social Networking, 2012 Axiom BusinessBook Awards Silver Medal Winner, Business and Leadership, 2012 Nautilus BookAwards The official word from Twitter on how to harness the power ofthe platform for any cause. As recent events in Japan, the Middle East, and Haiti haveshown, Twitter offers a unique platform to connect individuals andinfluence change in ways that were unthinkable only a short timeago. In Twitter for Good, Claire Diaz Ortiz, Twitter'shead of corporate social innovation and philanthropy, shares thesame strategies she offers to organizations launching cause-basedcampaigns. Filled with dynamic examples from initiatives around theworld, this groundbreaking book offers practical guidelines forharnessing individual activism via Twitter as a force for socialchange. * Reveals why every organization needs a dedicated Twitterstrategy and explains how to set one * Introduces the five-step model taught at trainings around theworld: T.W.E.E.T. (Target, Write, Engage, Explore, Track) * Author @claired is the head of corporate social innovation andphilanthropy at Twitter, collaborating with organizations likeNike, Pepsi, MTV, the American Red Cross, charity:water, Room toRead, the Gates Foundation, the Skoll Foundation, the CaseFoundation, National Wildlife Federation, Kiva, the United Nations,Free the Children, Committee to Protect Journalists, Partners inHealth, FEMA, Ushahidi, The Acumen Fund With more than 200 million users worldwide, Twitter hasestablished itself as a dynamic force, one that every business andnonprofit must understand how to use effectively.

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Table of Contents

Cover

Contents

Praise for Twitter for Good

Title Page

Copyright

Dedication

Foreword

Preface

Introduction

Chapter 1: Be a Force for Good

Corporate Social Innovation at Twitter

The T.W.E.E.T. Framework

Chapter 2: T (Target): Why Tweet?

The Three Most Common Targets

Information Accounts: Room to Read and Blackbaud

The Personalized Account: National Wildlife Federation, Stop Bullying, and Room to Read

The Fundraising Account: Twestival and Surfrider

Which Target Is for You?

Find a Role Model for Your Chosen Target

Account Target or Campaign Target?

Keep a Flexible Target

What Will It Mean to Reach Your Goal?

Top Questions About the “Target” Step

Chapter 3: W (Write): Why You Should Tweet Like Kanye

Joining Twitter, Getting Started, and Jumping on Mobile Tweeting

The Written Word—Or, What You Can Learn from Kanye West

Using Multimedia in Your Tweets

Connect Your Target with Your Writing Strategy: Crushpad, Twitter, and Finding Your Followers

Top Questions on the “Write” Step

Chapter 4: E (Engage): Tools to Win

Built-in Functionality You Should Be Using

Tweets as Data: The Present and Future of Crisis Mapping

Top Questions About the “Engage” Step

Chapter 5: E (Explore): Finding Everybody, and Bringing Everybody to You

Finding Yourself

Finding Key Endorsements and New Leads

Finding New Supporters

The Power of Search and Promoted Tweets for Good

New Examples of Success

Top Questions on the “Explore” Step

Chapter 6: T (Track): Making Sure You've Hit Your Mark

Do You Remember Your Target?

Top Questions on the “Track” Step

Chapter 7: Applying the T.W.E.E.T. Framework

Case Study 1: Inua

Case Study 2: Viva

Conclusion

Top Questions Reference List

Chapter 2

Chapter 3

Chapter 4

Chapter 5

Chapter 6

Resources

Acknowledgments

About the Author

Index

End User License Agreement

Guide

Cover

Table of Contents

Begin Reading

List of Illustrations

Chapter 4: E (Engage): Tools to Win

Figure 4.1 Crisis Map for 2011 Japan Earthquake and Nuclear Crisis.

Figure 4.2 Health Map's Crisis Map for Haiti Cholera Outbreak.

Figure 4.3 #turnred Ushahidi and (RED) worked together on World AIDS Day 2010.

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Praise for Twitter for Good

“#Twitter4Good is the quintessential handbook for Twitter newbies, social marketing pros, and curious executives alike. Claire packed this guide full of overarching principles, scalable models, practical tips, and real-world case studies, gleaned from an insider's perspective. She debunks the skeptics and clearly maps out how people, content, and technology come together to make a very real impact, 140 characters at a time.”

—@darbyDARNIT, Petri Darby, director of brand marketing and digital strategy, Make-A-Wish Foundation® of America (@MakeAWish)

“A marathon achievement! Packed with insights and wisdom. #Twitter4Good illustrates—simply and clearly—how Twitter can propel your business to completely new heights. ReTweet this!”

—Raymond Nasr, early Twitter advisor and communications consultant

“Giving is important to us all, and #Twitter4Good shows how to best use this exciting technology to share your social passions.”

—@LAAGiving2, Laura Arrillaga-Andreessen, author, Giving 2.0, and founder, Stanford PACS (Center on Philanthropy and Civil Society) and SV2

“Twitter provides a direct line to your constituents, where through authentic engagement—listening, learning, conversing—you can build genuine relationships that drive real-world impact. Claire Díaz-Ortiz shows organizations how to make the most of Twitter to deliver maximum value for their organization and the world.”

—@lauramansfield, Laura Adams, digital lead of sustainable business and innovation, Nike

“For most organizations, Twitter is a foreign language, feared and misunderstood. Claire Díaz-Ortiz has written the greatest translation that exists, turning Twitter into an effective and manageable tool for businesses around the world.”

—@unmarketing, Scott Stratten, author, UnMarketing

“Every non-profit and social justice organization knows now that they need social media to support the work they do. What's still unclear for many is the ‘how’—what to say, when to say it, and how to know if it's working. Claire Díaz-Ortiz removes the mystery of tweeting for good. Her nuts-and-bolts guide is indispensable for beginners and experts alike.”

—@randomdeanna, Deanna Zandt, media technologist and author, Share This!

Twitter for Good

Change the World ONE TWEET AT A TIME

CLAIRE DÍAZ-ORTIZ

Head of Corporate Social Innovation and Philanthropy, Twitter, Inc.

Foreword by BIZ STONE

Copyright © 2011 by Claire Díaz-Ortiz. All rights reserved.

Published by Jossey-Bass A Wiley Imprint 989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741—www.josseybass.com

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the Web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or online at www.wiley.com/go/permissions.

The foreward is copyright © 2011, Biz Stone, cofounder, Twitter, Inc. All rights reserved.

Readers should be aware that Internet Web sites offered as citations and/or sources for further information may have changed or disappeared between the time this was written and when it is read.

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

Jossey-Bass books and products are available through most bookstores. To contact Jossey-Bass directly call our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-956-7739, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3986, or fax 317-572-4002.

Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats and by print-on-demand. Not all content that is available in standard print versions of this book may appear or be packaged in all book formats. If you have purchased a version of this book that did not include media that is referenced by or accompanies a standard print version, you may request this media by visiting http://booksupport.wiley.com. For more information about Wiley products, visit us www.wiley.com.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Díaz-Ortiz, Claire. Twitter for good : change the world one tweet at a time / Claire Díaz-Ortiz.p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-118-06193-0 (cloth); ISBN 978-1-118-12083-5 (ebk); ISBN 978-1-118-12084-2 (ebk); ISBN 978-1-118-12085-9 (ebk) 1. Twitter. 2. Social networks. 3. Social change. I. Title.

TK5105.888.D53 2011 006.7—dc23

2011017846

To José, amor.

To Sammy, mwenda wazimu.

To Lara, in payment.

Foreword

In 2008, James Buck, a young photojournalism student attending the University of California, Berkeley, set off purposefully for Egypt to photograph citizens coming together in protest. A charismatic individual, it didn't take long for James to find lodgings and make friends. He hoped that over meals and coffee, his new friends would give news of upcoming protests—including locations—so he could be there to capture historic, iconic moments of civil unrest of Egyptian people protesting and share them with the world.

Although he established a strong network of friends, James found once there that he was not hearing about protests until after they had already taken place. He did, however, learn about the speed and efficiency with which these protests were assembled—and their powerful impact in various regions. He was also fascinated by how these assemblies so effectively disbanded, very often before the police showed up to make arrests.

Missing out on the action was of increasing frustration to James, especially given the limited time he had to accomplish his goals in Egypt. It seemed that an invisible and incredibly coordinated operation without a traditional hierarchy was operating all around him, and this compelled James to find answers. How were these protests so efficiently and effectively processed with so few arrests? What was the secret?

To get to the bottom of this mystery, James asked around, and his Egyptian friends answered him directly. “We all have mobile phones,” they told him. “We are using them to access a free service that works over text messaging called Twitter.” At that time, Twitter, Inc., had been incorporated for only one year, and most of Silicon Valley, not to mention anyone in the United States who had heard of the service, dismissed it as a useless waste of time.

On the advice of his friends, James signed up for Twitter so he could both receive and send Tweets—140 character text messages—on his simple mobile phone. He used it to chronicle his adventures in short bursts to his friends back at Berkeley, and more importantly, he started following the Tweets of several dedicated protesters. Within a few days, James received the kind of Tweet he had hoped for.

The Tweet told of a protest against the rise of food prices and dropping wages in Mahalla that had been discovered by Egyptian authorities and shut down. Peaceful protesters had been detained for too long. Tensions among family members and friends began to rise. Eventually these tensions flowed onto the streets, and they were not so peaceful. Molotov cocktails were being thrown and tires were set ablaze.

On April 10, James gathered his gear and headed to Mahalla, where the increasingly robust protests were gathering in strength. James was worried about getting arrested in such foreign surroundings, so he made sure he maintained a safe distance while he took photographs. That way, he figured he could not be associated with the protest. James's companion in Egypt looked him in the eyes and said that he had a bad feeling about that particular protest. They made a decision to leave immediately.

As they attempted to escape the area of activity, James and his companion were taken by Egyptian authorities. James quickly found himself detained in the back of a police car. Mohammed's “bad feeling” had turned into a very serious situation for the young student, and panic would have been a perfectly normal reaction. As luck would have it, the Egyptian police had not followed procedure—they had forgotten to take away James's mobile phone. Before the driver got back into the car to take him to a holding facility, James sent one of the shortest but most historic Tweets since the medium was created. The Tweet was only one word: “Arrested.”

Cairo-based blogger Hossam el-Hamalawy at UC Berkeley was one of the first to see James's Tweet, and he helped spread the word of Buck's arrest. el-Hamalawy knew this situation could be dangerous, and he feared for James's safety. While James was being interrogated at police headquarters, word of his predicament spread quickly through Twitter and beyond. Soon, more friends at Berkeley knew, then the dean, then the Egyptian Consulate. Within a matter of hours, James was released from custody, and he sent out another one word Tweet: “Free.”

When our small team in San Francisco first heard about the ordeal James endured and the role Twitter played in giving him an international voice, and ultimately freedom, our eyes were opened wide to the potential of what we had created. Long before we hired our first sales employee, we hired Claire Díaz-Ortiz to launch our Corporate Social Innovation and Philanthropy department. We were less than forty people at the time, but start-ups have a unique advantage to work the idea of “doing well by doing good” into the fabric of the company culture from the very beginning.

In 2011, I met with representatives from the Marine Corps of the United States of America. They wanted to learn how to use Twitter better during emergencies when they are called in to help victims of natural disasters. In those scenarios, every second counts. When there is an earthquake anywhere in the world, people are tweeting while the ground is still shaking. Those in a position to help want this information as soon as possible, and the right use of Twitter can help rescue workers and volunteers receive and send vital information.

At Twitter, we strive to make a positive impact in the world, but we cannot do it alone. If Twitter is to be a triumph, then it will not just be a triumph of technology, it will be a triumph of humanity. Claire Díaz-Ortiz was my first choice to lead our Corporate Social Innovation and Philanthropy team because she passionately believes that by democratizing activism, Twitter can help us all make the world a better place. She took weeknights and weekends to write this guide for helping non-profit organizations, foundations, and corporate brands running prosocial campaigns to determine how best to use Twitter.

I'm proud of Claire for her tireless effort and enthusiasm. And I'm proud of everyone who wants to take a step toward changing the world. People are basically good. When you give them a simple tool that helps them exhibit that behavior, they will prove it to you every day. Twitter has taught me this powerful lesson—among many other things. I hope Claire's work teaches you to use Twitter for the good you work so hard to achieve. Thank you for considering Twitter and good luck in all your endeavors!

June 2011

Biz StoneCofounder, Twitter, Inc.San Francisco, California

Preface

I tweet from Twitter headquarters in San Francisco, helping non-profit organizations, foundations, and corporate brands running prosocial campaigns to determine how best to use Twitter to reach their goals. No matter the size of the cause, I help individuals reach their goals of social good on this unique real-time information network. Twitter for Good offers you these same tools to help you excel on Twitter.

My early days on Twitter took place from the Central Highlands of Kenya, where I ran Hope Runs (HopeRuns.org), a non-profit organization I cofounded. On a dial-up cell phone connection running painfully slow Internet access to the ground floor of my orphanage apartment, I sent my Tweets. Urging followers to learn about the effects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on orphaned and vulnerable children, I tweeted about long afternoon runs spent holding hands with tiny Kenyan girls in discarded party dresses. I learned firsthand that you can tweet from anywhere.

Twitter has become easier than ever to use in the field. Every day, I work with individuals and organizations who are sending Tweets from the unlikeliest of places. Earthquake survivors sending Tweets from mobile phones in Haiti and Japan, volunteers tweeting information following volcanic eruptions in Indonesia, citizens tweeting in the midst of civil unrest in the Middle East, and anyone seeking to raise awareness for their cause around the world.

In my role leading social innovation, philanthropy, and causes at Twitter, Inc., I have developed a simple yet comprehensive five-step framework that teaches entities of all sizes to develop and employ innovative Twitter strategies. In Twitter for Good, I lay out the exact T.W.E.E.T. framework (Target, Write, Engage, Explore, Track) that I teach to individuals and organizations around the world. In-depth case studies, key best practices, and fast tips will show you how to simply and effectively create and execute your own Twitter strategy.

Specifically, this book will teach you:

Why a Twitter strategy is so important

Why you need a goal (I call this a Target) for your Twitter account, and how to craft one

How to best broadcast your organization's good works to the world

Why you can't get anywhere on Twitter if you aren't tracking your results

Along the way, I'll answer important questions typical of both newbie and veteran Twitter users. Questions like these:

How many times a day should I tweet?

What time of day should I send out my Tweets?

Should I schedule Tweets ahead of time?

How many followers is enough?

Should I follow everyone who follows me?

Should I edit my Tweets?

Should my Tweets be questions or make statements?

How do I know if I'm annoying my followers?

How can I fundraise on Twitter?

How often should I ask my donors for money via Twitter?

How can I get another Twitter user to retweet my Tweets?

Am I sending too many @replies?

And many, many more.

This book is for any for-profit or non-profit company that wants to make a difference and create a movement—whether with clean water in Ethiopia or with quality financial counseling in Seattle. Twitter is a tool for enabling individuals to reach their personal and professional goals, and the ideas in Twitter for Good can help anyone.

Finally, even if you enter with doubt, you will leave with confidence. Twitter is a simple, effective tool to help you start a movement, promote a cause, and improve your community. I will show you exactly how to use the service to reach these aims.

Most important, this book is for anyone who has a cause—no matter how big or how small. Twitter can help to drive world change, and it can do so from wherever you are—from a Silicon Valley start-up or a Kenyan orphanage.

By democratizing activism, Twitter can help us all to change the world. Here's how.

June 2011

Claire Díaz-OrtizSan Francisco, California

Introduction

We live in a world where more individuals have access to mobile phones than to clean water. It is this truth that shapes the greatest challenge of our age: How can technology solve today's most complex problems? How can we feed children, lift communities out of poverty, and create lasting, sustainable, positive global change with the high-powered technological tools at hand? The answer lies in the individual.

One criticism of Twitter is that its emphasis on the power of the individual does not effectively lend itself to wide-scale social change. Outright critics like Malcolm Gladwell contend that any one actor on an open-sourced information network has little ability to make a difference in the greater world. Reluctant adopters convey agreement.

Those on Twitter disagree. We say that this is where its strength is most clear. The root of Twitter's success is in its power as an open real-time information network. Twitter allows individuals to share minute-by-minute information about what is happening in their lives, their communities, and their world. Not only does it allow one to share from anywhere, but it also allows one to share with anyone.

In my early days tweeting via a mobile phone connection in Kenya (where there was no clean water in sight), I marveled that I was able to connect in real time with others half a world away.

Five years later, millions of Tweets are sent this way each day. In this way, information leaps from person to person, from border to border, and change follows. The global growth of Twitter has also meant more opportunities for usage and more meaningful metrics proving its power. There's a reason why Twitter has been used increasingly in global crises—from Haiti to the Middle East to Japan and back again.

Technology is changing us, and we now have the unique opportunity to find innovative ways to use technology to help change the world. Twitter is one tool in this process. Just as Twitter lives on technology, however, it breathes with the people who use it. Twitter cofounder Biz Stone has said that the real triumph of Twitter is one of humanity, not technology. In this book, you will hear the stories of those who have made this technology come to life. As a simple platform where open communication reigns, Twitter elevates the individual voice; the strength of its platform is in the strength of the users.

In this way, individual activism can change the world.

Chapter 1Be a Force for Good

One day at Twitter headquarters in San Francisco, I was doing a media training, learning to better convey my message and respond to common questions when speaking publicly. While employees around me had difficult and sensitive questions thrown their way about potential acquisitions and hiring statistics, I had it easy. “Tell me more ways that Twitter has helped people change the world,” people typically ask me eagerly. Or, with interest, “What's your favorite story of using Twitter to help in a crisis?”

The trainer asked me what I wanted to work on. No one ever asks me hard questions, I told the trainer. And so he did.

“You say one of Twitter's operating principles is Be a Force for Good. But what on earth does that mean?”

Because broad questions don't merit vague responses, I dove in. I told one story of an individual using Twitter to change the world around her. One example that proved that the Twitter platform seemed built for social change from the beginning and that the way individuals are using it every day only maximizes its power. But there are many such stories I left out that day.

Think of this book as the complete response to that initial question. In these pages, I will teach you to be a force for good on Twitter.

Corporate Social Innovation at Twitter

In my position leading social innovation, causes, and philanthropy at Twitter, and as the first employee to drive and shape such work at the company, I work on a daily basis to show non-profit and for-profit organizations how to use Twitter to make a difference. In my work, I help guide small non-profits, large non-profits, and big brands running cause campaigns in how to best use Twitter to reach their goals of social impact and world change. I believe it is not the obligation of an organization to engage in social change, but rather the opportunity an organization has to innovate in extraordinary ways, with this unique real-time information network. This book grew directly out of this work. As such, Twitter for Good is the definitive manual proving that individual activism via Twitter is a viable answer to world change.

Specifically, in Corporate Social Innovation and Philanthropy at Twitter, we work in three main areas to:

Support non-profit organizations and causes on Twitter

Promote cause marketing advertising initiatives

Carry out Twitter's internal philanthropic efforts

Our work breaks down as follows:

Support for Causes

Twitter's operating principle, “Be a Force for Good,” is the guiding principle of the service structure we provide to non-profit organizations and causes. The broad category of our non-profit support encompasses a variety of initiatives aimed at onboarding new non-profits and improving their experience on Twitter, including the following:

Within our advertising platform, we offer pro bono programs for non-profits already engaged on Twitter. Promoted Tweets are a tool advertisers use to promote specific campaigns via Tweets on Twitter. The Promoted Tweets for Good program is an application-based pro bono program serving a number of non-profit organizations each year. We offer a second type of Promoted Tweets for Good ad hoc to organizations involved in crisis relief during times of natural disaster or civil unrest.

We conduct regular talks and trainings to non-profits and causes who want to use Twitter better, based on the five-step T.W.E.E.T. framework explored in this book.

On Twitter's Hope140.org, we compile an array of case studies, best practices, and past cause campaigns to help organizations better learn how to get started on Twitter.

We work with organizations in the field of disaster response, taking advantage of Twitter's power on mobile devices to use our strategic partnerships to support humanitarian aid initiatives.

Finally, we regularly bring speakers in to Twitter headquarters to better educate employees about innovative uses of Twitter in the world.

Cause Marketing

Within the area of cause marketing, we support brands promoting prosocial or social good initiatives, generally through paid campaigns on Twitter's platform.

Internal Giving

Within our internal philanthropic strategy we have spearheaded a variety of initiatives. Since 2009, we have worked with Room to Read, a non-profit organization supporting girls' education and library development in nine developing countries. We have mutually supported each other on a variety of initiatives related to literacy, including the creation of a wine label for charity called Fledgling. We have also worked with a number of other organizations on ad hoc fundraising and Twitter-based awareness campaigns, including (RED), Malaria No More, and the American Red Cross.

What Is Promoted Tweets for Good?

Twitter launched our first advertising product, Promoted Tweets, in April of 2010. Much of the public didn't realize it, but Twitter launched Promoted Tweets not only with six big brands—including Starbucks and Virgin America—but also with two non-profit organizations: Partners in Health and Room to Read. Since that time, the Pro-Bono Promoted Tweets for Good program has served a number of key non-profit organizations with pro bono advertising on Twitter and has expanded to a secondary program featuring organizations serving Tweets in times of crisis. To find out more about Promoted Tweets for Good, visit www.Hope140.org.

What Is Hope140?

Twitter launched Hope140 to help meet the needs of the growing number of non-profit organizations and causes on Twitter searching for best practices and training tools. At www.Hope140.org, you'll find case studies, examples of campaigns Twitter has engaged in to support causes, information on our pro bono advertising products, and a blog with the latest information and examples of causes on Twitter.

Twitter for Good provides a comprehensive manual that teaches organizations to help change the world using Twitter. Through working with hundreds of organizations, I have developed a simple five-step model called T.W.E.E.T. (Target, Write, Engage, Explore, Track), which uses case studies and examples to teach cause-based initiatives how to excel on Twitter's platform. Twitter for Good lays out this exact framework and will dive deep into the specific strategic steps needed to build and effectively promote cause-based campaigns. Case studies from organizations like the American Red Cross, Water.org, and Free the Children; eye-opening information about Twitter's own internal work on philanthropic campaigns; and how-to frameworks and models all are key elements of the text.