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Mr. Jukes' books throw more light upon the teaching of Scripture, with regard to the mysterious subjects of which they treat, than any with which we are acquainted. His strain of writing is eminently devout and edifying, especially in the views which he advocates of particular rites and usages. The notion of the pre-millennial reign of Christ vitiates, in our judgment, many of the most pious and devout passages which abound in this volume.
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The Law of the Offerings
The Law of the Offerings, A. Jukes
Jazzybee Verlag Jürgen Beck
86450 Altenmünster, Loschberg 9
Cover Design: based on an artwork by Toby Hudson - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0 au, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=27897824
THE TYPES IN GENERAL.. 2
THE BURNT-OFFERING... 18
THE MEAT-OFFERING... 35
THE PEACE-OFFERING... 50
THE SIN-OFFERING... 65
THE TRESPASS-OFFERING... 82
THE OFFERINGS AS A WHOLE.. 90
He, who spake as never man spake, opened His mouth in parables. With His example before us, I have often been surprised that the inspired parables of the Old Testament should have been so neglected; the more as we see from the writings of St. Paul, not only how closely these emblems are connected with Christ, but also how aptly they illustrate, in simplest figures, the wondrous truths and profound mysteries of redemption.
Some years ago, one of these Old Testament parables was made an especial blessing to myself. This led me further; and having learnt by personal experience the preciousness of these emblematic Scriptures, I have since freely used them in ministering to others the truths connected with Christ's Work and Person. Some months since, I gave a course of Lectures on The Offerings, which were taken down in short-hand at the time. At the repeated request of others, I have since corrected them as time has allowed. They are now published in the following pages.
As to the great outlines and principles contained in them, I may say that I have confidence that they are in the main correct: mixed with much infirmity and weakness I doubt not; (how much few perhaps will feel more than I do; indeed it has been the sense of this which has so long delayed their publication;) yet still I trust according to the mind of God, and setting forth not only a measure of truth, but also the truth which the Offerings were intended to typify. Where they contain error, may the Lord and His saints pardon it: where truth, may we all acknowledge it as His, and follow it. I need not say, “I have no commandment of the Lord.” I merely “give my judgment as one that hath obtained mercy of the Lord to be faithful.”
It only remains for me to add here, that I have derived much assistance upon this subject from a Tract entitled, The Types of Leviticus. I cannot follow the writer of it in his view of every Offering. I do not know how far he would assent to the principles I have applied to their varieties. Yet I feel that under God I am much his debtor, I doubt not for far more than I am even conscious of.
I now commend these pages to the Lord. May He be pleased to use them, as shall seem good to Him, to His glory.
“The works of the Lord are great, sought out of all them that have pleasure therein.” Such was the witness of one of old; and the saints of God can yet set their seal to it. Great, indeed, are the works of the Lord; sought out, and sought into, are they by His people: but how great, how exalted, how wondrous, none feel so deeply as those who have most considered them! Man's work, if we are continually poring over it, will soon weary us—a little attention will in time make us masters of it. God's work, the more we examine and look into it, will only attract us the more. The more it is studied, the more it opens out, at every step unfolding fresh and endless objects. Take any portion of it—the earth, the air, the sky; and the further we search, the deeper we examine, the more are we led to acknowledge that as yet we know next to nothing, and that the great ocean of truth of every kind lies before us, as yet all unfathomed and unfathomable.
The reasons for this are many. A very obvious one is that man is finite, God infinite; and the finite cannot measure the infinite. Another reason is, that God uses the same instrument for many and different ends. Thus, when we know one use or end of this or that part of creation, we may yet be ignorant of many other ends which God may be carrying out by the same means. Take, for example, the air. How many ends does God accomplish by this one simple element! Air supplies the lungs, supports fire, conveys sound, reflects light, diffuses scents, gives rain, wafts ships, evaporates fluids, and fulfils besides, I know not how many other purposes. Man, from his infirmity, makes a special tool for every special purpose. God uses one thing for many purposes. Man has often tried to make an instrument which will perfectly serve several different ends, and never entirely succeeded. In God's work, on the other hand, we constantly see many ends met, and met perfectly, by one and the same most simple arrangement.
The consequence of this is, that the difference is immense between looking upon God's work and looking into it. Merely to look upon His work in nature, shews, indeed, that the hand that made it is divine. The first glance, cursory as it may be, gives a satisfying impression, an impression of perfectness. But how much lies beyond this superficial glance! We look out on nature in any form—hills, dales, woods, rocks, trees, water; whatever it is we look on round us, the first glance is enough to give us the impression of perfectness. But in each part of that scene, so cursorily glanced at, every minutest portion will bear the strictest inspection, for every minutest part is perfect. Each blade of grass in all that wide-spread landscape, each worthless, perishing blade of grass, will bear the closest scrutiny; for it is finished by a master's hand. Look at the humblest plant; consider its wondrous mechanism; its vessels for imbibing nourishment from the earth, and nourishment from the air and light; its perfect and complete apparatus for preserving and increasing its allotted growth. Look at the vilest and most insignificant insect that creeps up that unthought-of stem, whose life is but a fleeting hour; for that hour finding all its wants supplied, and its powers, one and all, adapted and perfect to their appointed end. Think of these things, and then we shall be better able to enter somewhat into the perfectness of the work of God.
And God's Word, in all these particulars, is like God's work; yea, God's Word is His work as much as creation; and it is its infinite depth and breadth, and the diverse and manifold ends and aims of all we find in it, which make it what it is, inexhaustible. To look, therefore, on the mere surface of the Bible, is one thing; to look into it quite another; for each part may have many purposes. The very words which, in one dispensation and to one people, conveyed a literal command, to be obeyed literally, may, in another age and dispensation, supply a type of some part of God's work or purpose; while in the selfsame passage the humble believer of every age may find matter of comfort or warning, according to his need.
The microscope may be used here as well as in the physical world. And as in nature those wonders which the microscope presents to us, though it may be but in an insect's wing or a drop of water, give us at a glance a sense of the perfectness of God's work, such as we might not receive even from a view of the boundless heavens, testifying with a voice not to be misunderstood, how wondrous is the Hand that formed them, with whom nothing is too insignificant to be perfected: so His Word, in its more neglected portions, in those passages which we have perhaps thought of comparatively little value, shews the same perfectness. The finishing of the emblems in the Types is by the same hand that finished redemption; the one was, if you please, His great work, the other His small one; but both are His work, and both perfect.
And this His work in His Word has another striking resemblance to His work in creation. Just as in creation, one leading idea is presented throughout it, which testifies in everything we look upon, in every leaf, in every insect, in every blade of grass, to the wisdom, power, and goodness of the Creator,—a testimony which the partial and apparent contradictions of tempests and earthquakes does not alter or disannul; so has all Scripture one great thought stamped on it, which it is bringing out on every side continually,—every act, every history shews it,—that thought is the grace of the Redeemer. There is neither speech nor language, but in all we hear the wondrous tale. Christ is throughout the key to Scripture. He is the one great idea of the Bible. Know Christ, understand God's thoughts about Him, and then you will understand the Bible. We are in the dark because we know so little of Him.
I have commenced my inquiry into the Typical Offerings with these remarks, because I am disposed to think that there is with many a feeling,—not perhaps openly expressed, though not on that account the less acted on,—that some portions of the Scriptures, such as the Types, are less valuable and less instructive. But whence have we got this notion? Not from God. Were these typical parts of Scripture unimportant, God would not have given us so many chapters which really contain no meaning for us, except they have a typical import; respecting which He yet testifies that they are profitable to aid and instruct the man of God. “All Scripture is given by inspiration, and is profitable;” and this not to mere babes in Christ, but to the man of God,—“that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished to all good works” (2 Tim. 3:16, 17).
The Types are, in fact, a set of pictures or emblems, directly from the hand of God, by which He would teach His children things otherwise all but incomprehensible. In the Types, if I may be allowed the expression, God takes His Son to pieces. By them does He bring within the range of our capacity definite views of the details of Christ's work, which perhaps but for these pictures we should never fully, or at least so fully, apprehend. The realities which the Types represent are in themselves truths and facts the most elevated, facts which have taken place before God Himself, facts in which He has Himself been the actor. These vast and infinite objects He brings close before us in emblems, and presents them to our eyes in a series of pictures, with the accuracy of One who views these things as they are seen and understood by Himself, and in a way in which they may be seen and understood by us.
The real secret of the neglect of the Types, I cannot but think may in part be traced to this,—that they require more spiritual intelligence than many Christians can bring to them. To apprehend them requires a certain measure of spiritual capacity and habitual exercise in the things of God, which all do not possess, for want of abiding fellowship with Jesus. The mere superficial glance upon the Word in these parts brings no corresponding idea to the mind of the reader. The Types are, indeed, pictures, but to understand the picture it is necessary we should know something of the reality. The most perfect representation of a steam-engine to a South-sea savage would be wholly and hopelessly unintelligible to him, simply because the reality, the outline of which was presented to him, was something hitherto unknown. But let the same drawing be shewn to those who have seen the reality, such will have no difficulty in explaining the representation. And the greater the acquaintance with the reality, the greater will be the ability to explain the picture. The savage who had never seen the steam-engine would of course know nothing whatever about it. Those who had seen an engine but know nothing of its principles, though they might tell the general object of the drawing, could not explain the details. But the engineer, to whom every screw and bolt are familiar, to whom the use and object of each part is thoroughly known, would not only point out where each of these was to be found in the picture, but would shew, what others might overlook, how in different engines these might be made to differ.
It is just so in the Types. He who knows much of the reality will surely also know something of the type. The real secret of our difficulty is that we know so little, and, what is worse, we do not know our ignorance. And the natural pride of our hearts, which does not like to confess our ignorance, or to go through the deep searchings of soul which attend learning and abiding in God's presence, excuses itself under the plea that these things are not important, or, at least, non-essential. Paul had to meet the same spirit in several of the early churches. Thus, in his Epistle to the Hebrews, when about to prove from a type the doctrine of Christ's everlasting priesthood, he speaks of Him as “a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec,” he cannot go on with the proof without telling the Hebrews how much of the difficulty of the subject was to be traced not so much to its own abstruseness as to their spiritual childhood and ignorance. “Of whom,” says he, speaking of Melchisedec, “I have many things to say, and hard to be uttered, seeing ye are dull of hearing. For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you which be the first principles of the oracles of God; and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat.” (Heb. 5:12, 13. See also 1 Cor. 3:1, 2.) It was their infancy in Christ, their lack of growth, which hindered their understanding the Scriptures. As in the natural world life and intelligence are different, just so is it in the spiritual. A man may be born of God, and as such, having the life of Christ, be an heir of heaven, sure of all that the love of God has laid up in store for the redeemed family in glory; and yet, like a child, know nothing of his inheritance, nothing of his Father's will, be a stranger to service and warfare, and ready to be deceived by any.
This is, I fear, the case with many believers now. The low standard of truth in the Church, making the possession of eternal life the end instead of the beginning of the Christian's course, has led many to think that if they have, or can at least obtain, this life, it is enough. But these are not God's thoughts. Birth, spiritual birth, is birth of God for ever,—a life once given never to be destroyed. Schooling, training, adorning, clothing, follow the possession of life, and even the knowledge of it. I own, indeed, that while the Christian is a babe, he needs milk, and ought never to be pressed to service: at such a time he does not need the deeper truths of Scripture; strong meat may choke the babe as much as poison. But milk, the simpler doctrines of the Word, will not support the man in active service. The man of God needs deeper truth: and it is, I believe, the lack of this deeper truth in the Church which so effectually leaves us without power or service, and brings it to pass that much of what is done is performed in the energy of the flesh rather than in the power of the Spirit.
I must add one word in connexion with the passage just alluded to, which, though beside our present object, may not really be beside the mark. It is written, “Strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age, even those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil” (Heb. 5:14). It is “by reason of use,” that is, by using the truth we already possess, that the senses are exercised to advance further. Let us act up faithfully to the light we have, use out fully the grace already given, then surely our spiritual strength will not only rapidly but wonderfully increase.
But it is time I should turn particularly to the object more immediately before us,—The Types in general; their characteristic differences in the different books of the Old Testament.
It is pretty generally known that in the Old Testament there are typical persons, things, times, and actions; but it is not, I believe, so generally known how remarkably these types vary in character, and how beautifully they have been divided and arranged by God himself under different classes, if I may so speak; each one distinct from the others, and each having something characteristic. The books of the Old Testament are God's divisions; each of them may be called one of God's chapters; and in each of these books we find something different as respects the character of the Types they contain. The general notion of the Types is that they are merely sketches. This is very far short of the truth. So far from being rough sketches, they are one and all most perfectly finished with a master's hand: and a tolerable acquaintance with the distinct character of the different books, and of their types, is enough at once to prove this. Christ is indeed the key to them all: He is the key of the Types, and the key to the Bible. Of Him God has given us more than sketches; the Word from end to end is full of Him. In the Word we have a whole Christ presented to us: Christ in His offices; in His character; in His person; Christ in His relations to God and man; Christ in His body the Church; Christ as giving to God all that God required from man; Christ as bringing to man all that man required from God; Christ as seen in this dispensation in suffering; Christ as seen in the next dispensation in glory; Christ as the first and the last; as “all and in all” to His people. The different books are but God's chapters in which He arranges and illustrates some one or more of these or other aspects of His Beloved.
Many are satisfied to see nothing of this: the sprinkled blood in Egypt is enough for them. And this, indeed, secures salvation: but, oh! how much lies beyond! Knowing only the blood in Egypt will never teach us our priestly office, nor the value and use of the offerings of the Lord, nor the will of the Lord respecting us. The blood, indeed, wherever seen, bespeaks our safety, and it is blessed even in Egypt to know God's claim is met; but ought we not also, as His redeemed and loved ones, to desire to know more also of His will and our portion?
We know but little of all this as yet, but we know enough to make us long for more. As an old writer has well said, contrasting the dispensations, God in the Types of the last dispensation was teaching His children their letters. In this dispensation He is teaching them to put these letters together, and they find that the letters, arrange them as we will, spell Christ, and nothing but Christ. In the next dispensation He will teach us what Christ means. This is most true. But the Church “as now risen with Christ,” as already “seated in heavenly places” (Eph. 2:6), and “in the kingdom,” ought even now in spirit to enter a little more into the truth of what Christ has been for us and to us. The Lord teach us all more of His infinite fulness.
I said there was a distinct difference in the Types of the Old Testament, and that this difference is apparently so arranged on purpose, the different classes of types for the most part being found in different books. For my own part I cannot doubt the fact, though I feel it will be quite another thing for me to commend it to others. Take, however, first my statement, and then I will endeavour, in dependence on the Lord, to give the proof which may be brought in support of it.
Those who are so far acquainted with the earlier books of the Bible as to be able to carry their general contents in their memories, will at once recollect how very different in character some of these books are from others; some, as for example Genesis, being throughout simple narratives; others, like Leviticus, being from first to last a series of ceremonial observances. Each of these books,—those which deal in narrative, as much as those which contain emblematic ordinances,—are, as we find from the New Testament, typical. There is, however, a great difference in the character of their types; and to this distinction I now direct attention.
Generally speaking the difference is this. The types of Genesis foreshadow God's great dispensational purposes respecting man's development; shewing in mystery His secret will and way respecting the different successive dispensations. The types of Exodus—I speak, of course, generally—bring out, as their characteristic, redemption and its consequences; a chosen people are here redeemed out of bondage, and brought into a place of nearness to God. Leviticus again differs from each of these, dealing, I think I may say solely, in types connected with access to God. Numbers and Joshua are again perfectly different, the one giving us types connected with our pilgrimage as in the wilderness; the other, types of our place as over Jordan, that is, as dead and risen with Christ. In speaking thus, I would by no means be understood to say that Genesis is the only book which contains dispensational types: I believe that there are many in the other books; but, wherever this is the case, the dispensational type is subservient to, or rather in connexion to with, the special subject of the book. Thus, if Numbers is the book of the wilderness, the dispensational types in it, if there are any, will bear on the wilderness. (Note: The history in the thirty-second chapter, I believe, supplies an instance.)
Nor are these the only books of the Old Testament in which a characteristic and typical thought may be easily traced. I feel satisfied that had we but sufficient intelligence, the remaining books might be viewed in the same manner. (Note: The history recorded in the books of Kings and Chronicles is a good illustration of this. The same persons come before us in both, but with a different object in each. The typical character of the respective books will supply the key to the points of difference.) But I take the opening ones as being generally more familiar to us, and sufficient to shew my meaning.
But it may be asked, what proof is there for these assertions? I answer, the New Testament itself seems to me to supply the proof in every case. Of course, as in every other study, a certain amount of apprehension is needed in those to whom the proof is submitted. All have not intelligence enough to grasp the proofs of astronomy, which, nevertheless, are proofs and unanswerable proofs to those whose senses are sufficiently exercised to discern them. So, I doubt not, will it be here. And I venture to say that those who know most of spiritual communion,—who, in God's presence, have entered the deepest into the value of Christ and God's thoughts about Him,—these will be the persons best qualified rightly to estimate the amount of proof contained in what I now suggest to them.
To return, then, to Genesis. I said that its types, for the most part, were of a dispensational character, shewing God's great dispensational purposes, and the course appointed for man's development. Perhaps it may be necessary for me to explain what I mean by “dispensational purposes.” God has, since the fall of man, at various periods dealt with man, in different degrees of intimacy, and, in a certain sense, also on different principles. Throughout all, He has had one purpose in view, to reveal what He is, and to shew what man is; but this one end has been brought out in different ways, and under various and repeated trials.
The sum is this. Man by disobedience fell, and thenceforth has, with all his progeny, been a sinner. The different dispensations, while, on the one hand, they were revelations of God, were also the trial whether, under any circumstances, man could recover himself. God first tried man without law; the end of that was the flood, “for the earth was filled with violence” (Gen. 6:11). God then committed power to Noah, trying man under the restraints of human authority,—saying, “He that sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed” (Gen 9:6), to see, if I may so speak, whether, with this help, man could in any measure recover himself. The end of that, and this within no long period, was open and wide-spread idolatry. God himself then came more manifestly forth as a giver. The other dispensations are specially His. He chose one family,—the family of Abraham,—and, to give man in the flesh every assistance in recovering himself, He gave him a perfect law, to see whether by this law he could improve or restore himself. This was the dispensation of the law. I need not tell you the end of this. God sent His servants seeking fruit of the husbandmen to whom He had let out His vineyard; and some they beat, and some they stoned, and all they treated shamefully. Last of all He sent His Son, and Him they cast out and crucified (Matt. 21:33-39). Such was the end of this first dispensation, and of the experiment whether man in the flesh could be amended by law. God then brought in a new thing, the dispensation of resurrection,—I mean the Christian dispensation,—differing from the preceding in this point, above all others, that it did not recognize man in the flesh at all, but only owned, as the subjects of a heavenly kingdom, such as were quickened by a new and heavenly life. Man in the flesh was now no more to be tried, for it was a settled thing that he was utterly lost and helpless,—and baptism sealed this. (Note: The contrast between baptism and circumcision is most characteristic of their respective dispensations. Circumcision, as we are told in Peter (1 Pet. 3:21), represented “the putting away the filth of the flesh.” This was all the old dispensation aimed at; for it assumed that the flesh could be improved. Man, therefore, the seed of Abraham according to the flesh, was in the flesh taken into covenant. Baptism, on the contrary, as we are repeatedly told (Rom. 6; Col. 2; 1 Pet. 3), represents the death and burial of the flesh: for this dispensation starts on the ground that the flesh is incurable, and that it is only as quickened by the Spirit that man can come to God; in a word, that except a man be born again he cannot see the kingdom of God. And the believer, having this new birth, is called to profess the worthlessness of the flesh, in an ordinance which, if rightly administered, is as strikingly representative of the design of this, as circumcision was of the design of the old covenant.) God would now Himself make a people, “begotten again by the resurrection of Christ” (1 Pet. 1:3), who through this dispensation of grace should be a witness, not of what they were, but of what He was. A dispensation, therefore, was begun, not owning man in the flesh in any way, in which God has been dealing almost in direct contrast to His dealings with man under the law. This is the present dispensation.
I have perhaps enlarged on this question more than my subject demands, but the importance of it may be my apology,—an importance, I grieve to say, but little recognized by the mass of Christians. What I have said, however, will shew how God has dealt with man dispensationally,—that is, how, in different ages and dispensations, His requirements and laws have varied. God's first dispensation was the law: His second is the gospel.
Now the types of Genesis, unlike those of some of the other books, are taken up, I may say almost exclusively, with foreshadowings of great truths or events connected with these dispensations. Two or three passages from the New Testament will supply a divinely-authorized proof of this statement. With these, as a starting-point, I trust I shall easily shew how full Genesis is of similar types.
Let us look, then, for a moment at Gen. 21, with St Paul's comment on it in Gal. 4:—“Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law? For it is written, that Abraham had two sons; the one by a bond-maid, the other by a free-woman. Be he who was of the bond-woman was born after the flesh; but he of the free-woman was by promise. Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar. For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children. But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all. ... But as then he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now. Nevertheless what saith the Scripture? Cast out the bond-woman and her son: for the son of the bond-woman shall not be heir with the son of the free-woman” (Gal. 4:21-31).
Now all this is dispensational. Hagar, the handmaid, and a bond-woman, stands the perfect type of the covenant of law: Sarah, the true wife, and a free-woman, the representative of the covenant of grace. The first son, Ishmael, born according to nature, a type of the Jew, who by natural birth came into covenant. The second son, Isaac, born contrary to nature, of parents who were “as good as dead” (Heb. 11:12; Rom. 4:19), a type of the resurrection life of this dispensation, the life from above springing out of death. I can but just touch the subject here; but enough perhaps has been said to shew my meaning. Christ, of course, is the key here as elsewhere; yet how different here from the types of Leviticus, which, instead of speaking of Him as connected with dispensations, shew His work as bearing on communion. And if the types of Genesis are unlike Leviticus, what shall we say of Numbers and Joshua, which in their types are full, as we shall see, of representations of the varied experience of the redeemed? The least measure of spiritual intelligence must, I think, at once apprehend a difference so striking as this.
I cannot leave the type of Hagar and Sarah without just noticing one other part in it, which may not be altogether thrown away. Observe, when Sarah died, Abraham took again another wife, Keturah (Gen. 25:1-4); and by her he had, not one son, as in the preceding types, (one son in each being the emblem of one family,) but many sons, the type of that which shall take place when the Sarah dispensation is ended: when not one nation only shall be the Lord's, but when “the kingdoms of the world” shall be His. Hitherto God has had but one nation: in the last dispensation a peculiar nation in the flesh; now a peculiar nation in the spirit, whose birth is not from Adam, but from Christ. But in the next dispensation it will be otherwise. The Sarah covenant will never embrace the nations, though it will “take out of them a people for His name” (Acts 15:14), for in it “there is neither Jew nor Greek;” the flesh, as I have said, in it being in no way recognized. It will be otherwise when the next dispensation comes, and “the earth is filled with the knowledge of the Lord.” But I am to speak of the characteristic difference of the Types, and not of all that is taught us in them.
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