The Fable of the Bees - Bernard Mandeville - ebook

The Fable of the Bees ebook

Bernard Mandeville

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This is the extended edition including * an extensive biography and bibliography of Mr. de Mandeville The Fable of the Bees: or, Private Vices, Publick Benefits is a book by Bernard Mandeville, consisting of the poem The Grumbling Hive: or, Knaves turn'd Honest and prose discussion of it. The poem was published in 1705 and the book first appeared in 1714. The poem elucidates many key principles of economic thought, including division of labor and the invisible hand, seventy years before Adam Smith (indeed, John Maynard Keynes argues Smith was probably referencing Mandeville). It also describes the paradox of thrift centuries before Keynes, and may been seen as part of the school of underconsumption. (courtesy of wikipedia.com)

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The Fable of the Bees or, Private Vices, Publick Benefits.

Bernard de Mandeville

Contents:

BERNARD DE MANDEVILLE – BIOGRAPHY AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Fable of the Bees or, Private Vices, Publick Benefits.

Volume I

The Preface.

The Grumbling Hive: or, Knaves Turn'd Honest.

The Moral.

The Introduction.

An Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue.

Remarks.

An Essay on Charity, and Charity-Schools.

A Search into the Nature of Society.

Volume II

The Preface.

The First Dialogue between Horatio, Clemens, and Fulvia.

The Second Dialogue between Horatio and Cleomenes.

The Third Dialogue between Horatio and Cleomenes.

The Fourth Dialogue between Horatio and Cleomenes.

The Fifth Dialogue between Horatio and Cleomenes.

The Sixth Dialogue between Horatio and Cleomenes.

The Fable Of The Bees, Bernard Mandeville

BERNARD DE MANDEVILLE – BIOGRAPHY AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

Born on November, 15th 1670 in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, died on January 21st, 1733 in Hackney near London, UK. English philosopher and satirist, was born at Dordrecht, where his father practised as a physician. On leaving the Erasmus school at Rotterdam he gave proof of his ability by an Oratio scholasticade medicina (1685), and at Leiden University in 1689 he maintained a thesis De brutorum operationibus, in which he advocated the Cartesian theory of automatism among animals. In 1691 he took his medical degree, pronouncing an “inaugural disputation,” De chylosi vitiata. Afterwards he came to England “to learn the language,” and succeeded so remarkably that many refused to believe he was a foreigner. As a physician he seems to have done little, and lived poorly on a pension given him by some Dutch merchants and money which he earned from distillers for advocating the use of spirits. His conversational abilities won him the friendship of Lord Macclesfield (chief justice 1710-1718) who introduced him to Addison, described by Mandeville as “a parson in a tye-wig.” He died in January (19th or 21st) 1733/4 at Hackney.

The work by which he is known is the Fable of the Bees, published first in 1705 under the title of The Grumbling Hive, orKnaves Turn'd Honest (two hundred doggerel couplets) . In 1714 it was republished anonymously with Remarks and An Enquiryinto the Origin of Moral Virtue. In 1723 a later edition appeared, including An Essay on Charity and Charity Schools, and A Searchinto the Nature of Society. The book was primarily written as a political satire on the state of England in 1705, when the Tories were accusing Marlborough and the ministry of advocating the French War for personal reasons. The edition of 1723 was presented as a nuisance by the Grand Jury of Middlesex, was denounced in the London Journal by “Theophilus Philo-Britannus,” and attacked by many writers, notably by Archibald Campbell (1691-1756) in his Aretelogia (published as his own by Alexander Innes in 1728; afterwards by Campbell, under his own name, in 1733, as Enquiry into the Original of Moral Virtue). The Fable was reprinted in 1729, a ninth edition appeared in 1755, and it has often been reprinted in more recent times. Berkeley attacked it in the second dialogue of the Alciphron (1732) and John Brown criticized him in his Essay uponShaftesbury' s Characteristics (1751).

Mandeville's philosophy gave great offence at the time, and has always been stigmatized as false, cynical and degrading. His main thesis is that the actions of men cannot be divided into lower and higher. The higher life of man is merely a fiction introduced by philosophers and rulers to simplify government and the relations of society. In fact, virtue (which he defined as “every performance by which man, contrary to the impulse of nature, should endeavour the benefit of others, or the conquest of his own passions, out of a rational ambition of being good”) is actually detrimental to the state in its commercial and intellectual progress, for it is the vices (i.e. the self-regarding actions of men) which alone, by means of inventions and the circulation of capital in connexion with luxurious living, stimulate society into action and progress. In the Fable he shows a society possessed of all the virtues “blest with content and honesty,” falling into apathy and utterly paralyzed. The absence of self-love (cf. Hobbes) is the death of progress. The so-called higher virtues are mere hypocrisy, and arise from the selfish desire to be superior to the brutes. “The moral virtues are the political offspring which flattery begot upon pride.” Similarly he arrives at the great paradox that “private vices are public benefits.” But his best work and that in which he approximates most nearly to modern views is his account of the origin of society. His a priori theories should be compared with Maine's historical inquiries (Ancient Law, c. V.). He endeavours to show that all social laws are the crystallized results of selfish aggrandizement and protective alliances among the weak. Denying any form of moral sense or conscience, he regards all the social virtues as evolved from the instinct for self-preservation, the give-and-take arrangements between the partners in a defensive and offensive alliance, and the feelings of pride and vanity artificially fed by politicians, as an antidote to dissension and chaos. Mandeville's ironical paradoxes are interesting mainly as a criticism of the “amiable” idealism of Shaftesbury, and in comparison with the serious egoistic systems of Hobbes and Helvetius. It is mere prejudice to deny that Mandeville had considerable philosophic insight; at the same time he was mainly negative or critical, and, as he himself said, he was writing for “the entertainment of people of knowledge and education.” He may be said to have cleared the ground for the coming utilitarianism.

Works.— Typhon: a Burlesque Poem (1704); Aesop Dress'd, or aCollection of Fables writ in Familiar Verse (1704); The Planter'sCharity (1704); The Virgin Unmasked (1709, 1724, 1731, 1742), a work in which the coarser side of his nature is prominent; Treatise of theHypochondriack and Hysterick Passions (1711, 1715, 1730) admired by Johnson (Mandeville here protests against merely speculative therapeutics, and advances fanciful theories of his own about animal spirits in connexion with “stomachic ferment”: he shows a knowledge of Locke's methods, and an admiration for Sydenham); Free Thoughts on Religion (1720); A Conference about Whoring (1725); An Enquiry into the Causes of the Frequent Executions atTyburn (1725); The Origin of Honour and the Usefulness of Christianityin War (1732). Other works attributed, wrongly, to him are A Modest Defence of Public Stews (1724); The World Unmasked (1736) and Zoologia medicinalis hibernica (1744).

The Fable of the Bees or, Private Vices, Publick Benefits.

Volume I

To which is added, A Vindication of the Book from the Aspersions contain'd in a Presentment of the Grand-Jury of Middlesex, and an abusive Letter to Lord C.

The Preface.

Laws and Government are to the Political Bodies of Civil Societies, what the Vital Spirits and Life it self are to the Natural Bodies of Animated Creatures; and as those that study the Anatomy of Dead Carcases may see, that the chief Organs and nicest Springs more immediately required to continue the Motion of our Machine, are not hard Bones, strong Muscles and Nerves, nor the smooth white Skin that so beautifully covers them, but small trifling Films and little Pipes that are either over-look'd, or else seem inconsiderable to Vulgar Eyes; so they that examine into the Nature of Man, abstract from Art and Education, may observe, that what renders him a Sociable Animal, consists not in his desire of Company, Good-nature, Pity, Affability, and other Graces of a fair Outside; but that his vilest and most hateful Qualities are the most necessary Accomplishments to fit him for the largest, and, according to the World, the happiest and most flourishing Societies.

The following Fable, in which what I have said is set forth at large, was printed above eight Years ago in a Six Penny Pamphlet, call'd, the Grumbling Hive; or Knaves turn'd Honest, and being soon after Pirated, cry'd about the Streets in a Half-Penny Sheet. Since the first publishing of it I have met with several that either wilfully or ignorantly mistaking the Design, would have it, that the Scope of it was a Satyr upon Virtue and Morality, and the whole wrote for the Encouragement of Vice. This made me resolve, whenever it should be reprinted, some way or other to inform the Reader of the real Intent this little Poem was wrote with. I do not dignify these few loose Lines with the Name of Poem, that I would have the Reader expect any Poetry in them, but barely because they are Rhime, and I am in reality puzzled what Name to give them; for they are neither Heroick nor Pastoral, Satyr, Burlesque nor Heroi-comick; to be a Tale they want Probability, and the whole is rather too long for a Fable. All I can say of them is, that they are a Story told in Dogrel, which without the least design of being Witty, I have endeavour'd to do in as easy and familiar a manner as I was able: The Reader shall be welcome to call them what he pleases. 'Twas said of Montagne, that he was pretty well vers'd in the Defects of Mankind, but unacquainted with the Excellencies of human Nature: If I fare no worse, I shall think my self well used.

What Country soever in the Universe is to be understood by the Bee-Hive represented here, it is evident from what is said of the Laws and Constitution of it, the Glory, Wealth, Power and Industry of its Inhabitants, that it must be a large, rich and warlike Nation, that is happily govern'd by a limited Monarchy. The Satyr therefore to be met with in the following Lines upon the several Professions and Callings, and almost every Degree and Station of People, was not made to injure and point to particular Persons, but only to shew the Vileness of the Ingredients that all together compose the wholesome Mixture of a well-order'd Society; in order to extol the wonderful Power of Political Wisdom, by the help of which so beautiful a Machine is rais'd from the most contemptible Branches. For the main Design of the Fable, (as it is briefly explain'd in the Moral) is to shew the Impossibility of enjoying all the most elegant Comforts of Life that are to be met with in an industrious, wealthy and powerful Nation, and at the same time be bless'd with all the Virtue and Innocence that can be wish'd for in a Golden Age; from thence to expose the Unreasonableness and Folly of those, that desirous of being an opulent and flourishing People, and wonderfully greedy after all the Benefits they can receive as such, are yet always murmuring at and exclaiming against those Vices and Inconveniences, that from the Beginning of the World to this present Day, have been inseparable from all Kingdoms and States that ever were fam'd for Strength, Riches, and Politeness, at the same time.

To do this, I first slightly touch upon some of the Faults and Corruptions the several Professions and Callings are generally charged with. After that I shew that those very Vices of every particular Person by skilful Management, were made subservient to the Grandeur and worldly Happiness of the whole. Lastly, by setting forth what of necessity must be the consequence of general Honesty and Virtue, and National Temperance, Innocence and Content, I demonstrate that if Mankind could be cured of the Failings they are Naturally guilty of, they would cease to be capable of being rais'd into such vast, potent and polite Societies, as they have been under the several great Commonwealths and Monarchies that have flourish'd since the Creation.

If you ask me, why I have done all this, cui bono? and what Good these Notions will produce? truly, besides the Reader's Diversion, I believe none at all; but if I was ask'd, what Naturally ought to be expected from 'em, I wou'd answer, That in the first Place the People, who continually find fault with others, by reading them, would be taught to look at home, and examining their own Consciences, be made asham'd of always railing at what they are more or less guilty of themselves; and that in the next, those who are so fond of the Ease and Comforts, and reap all the Benefits that are the Consequence of a great and flourishing Nation, would learn more patiently to submit to those Inconveniences, which no Government upon Earth can remedy, when they should see the Impossibility of enjoying any great share of the first, without partaking likewise of the latter.

This I say ought naturally to be expected from the publishing of these Notions, if People were to be made better by any thing that could be said to them; but Mankind having for so many Ages remain'd still the same, notwithstanding the many instructive and elaborate Writings, by which their Amendment has been endeavour'd, I am not so vain as to hope for better Success from so inconsiderable a Trifle.

Having allow'd the small Advantage this little Whim is likely to produce, I think my self oblig'd to shew, that it cannot be prejudicial to any; for what is published, if it does no good, ought at least to do no harm: In order to this I have made some Explanatory Notes, to which the Reader will find himself referr'd in those Passages that seem to be most liable to Exceptions.

The Censorious that never saw the Grumbling Hive, will tell me, that whatever I may talk of the Fable, it not taking up a Tenth part of the Book, was only contriv'd to introduce the Remarks; that instead of clearing up the doubtful or obscure Places, I have only pitch'd upon such as I had a mind to expatiate upon; and that far from striving to extenuate the Errors committed before, I have made Bad worse, and shewn my self a more bare-faced Champion for Vice, in the rambling Digressions, than I had done in the Fable it self.

I shall spend no time in answering these Accusations; where Men are prejudiced, the best Apologies are lost; and I know that those who think it Criminal to suppose a necessity of Vice in any case whatever, will never be reconcil'd to any Part of the Performance; but if this be thoroughly examin'd, all the Offence it can give, must result from the wrong Inferences that may perhaps be drawn from it, and which I desire no body to make. When I assert, that Vices are inseparable from great and potent Societies, and that it is impossible their Wealth and Grandeur should subsist without, I do not say that the particular Members of them who are guilty of any should not be continually reprov'd, or not be punish'd for them when they grow into Crimes.

There are, I believe, few People in London, of those that are at any time forc'd to go a-foot, but what could wish the Streets of it much cleaner than generally they are; while they regard nothing but their own Clothes and private Conveniency: but when once they come to consider, that what offends them is the result of the Plenty, great Traffick and Opulency of that mighty City, if they have any Concern in its Welfare, they will hardly ever wish to see the Streets of it less dirty. For if we mind the Materials of all Sorts that must supply such an infinite number of Trades and Handicrafts, as are always going forward; the vast quantity of Victuals, Drink and Fewel that are daily consum'd in it, the Waste and Superfluities that must be produced from them; the multitudes of Horses and other Cattle that are always dawbing the Streets, the Carts, Coaches and more heavy Carriages that are perpetually wearing and breaking the Pavement of them, and above all the numberless swarms of People that are continually harassing and trampling through every part of them: If, I say, we mind all these, we shall find that every Moment must produce new Filth; and considering how far distant the great Streets are from the River side, what Cost and Care soever be bestow'd to remove the Nastiness almost as fast as 'tis made, it is impossible London should be more cleanly before it is less flourishing. Now would I ask if a good Citizen, in consideration of what has been said, might not assert, that dirty Streets are a necessary Evil inseparable from the Felicity of London, without being the least hindrance to the cleaning of Shoes, or sweeping of Streets, and consequently without any Prejudice either to the Blackguard or the Scavingers.

But if, without any regard to the Interest or Happiness of the City, the Question was put, What Place I thought most pleasant to walk in? No body can doubt but, before the stinking Streets of London, I would esteem a fragrant Garden, or a shady Grove in the Country. In the same manner, if laying aside all worldly Greatness and Vain-Glory, I should be ask'd where I thought it was most probable that Men might enjoy true Happiness, I would prefer a small peaceable Society, in which Men, neither envy'd nor esteem'd by Neighbours, should be contented to live upon the Natural Product of the Spot they inhabit, to a vast Multitude abounding in Wealth and Power, that should always be conquering others by their Arms Abroad, and debauching themselves by Foreign Luxury at Home.

Thus much I had said to the Reader in the First Edition; and have added nothing by way of Preface in the Second. But since that, a violent Out-cry has been made against the Book, exactly answering the Expectation I always had of the Justice, the Wisdom, the Charity, and Fair-dealing of those whose Good-will I despair'd of. It has been presented by the Grand-Jury, and condemn'd by thousands who never saw a word of it. It has been preach'd against before my Lord Mayor; and an utter Refutation of it is daily expected from a Reverend Divine, who has call'd me Names in the Advertisements, and threatned to answer me in two Months time for above five Months together. What I have to say for my self, the Reader will see in my Vindication at the End of the Book, where he will likewise find the Grand-Jury's Presentment, and a Letter to the Right Honourable Lord C. which is very Rhetorical beyond Argument or Connexion. The Author shews a fine Talent for Invectives, and great Sagacity in discovering Atheism, where others can find none. He is zealous against wicked Books, points at the Fable of the Bees, and is very angry with the Author: he bestows four strong Epithets on the Enormity of his Guilt, and by several elegant Innuendo's to the Multitude, as the Danger there is in suffering such Authors to live, and the Vengeance of Heaven upon a whole Nation, very charitably recommends him to their Care.

Considering the length of this Epistle, and that it is not wholly levell'd at me only, I thought at first to have made some Extracts from it of what related to my self; but finding, on a nearer Enquiry, that what concern'd me was so blended and interwoven with what did not, I was oblig'd to trouble the Reader with it entire, not without Hopes that, prolix as it is, the Extravagancy of it will be entertaining to those who have perused the Treatise it condemns with so much Horror.

The Grumbling Hive: or, Knaves Turn'd Honest.

A Spacious Hive well stockt with Bees,

That liv'd in Luxury and Ease;

And yet as fam'd for Laws and Arms,

As yielding large and early Swarms;

Was counted the great Nursery

Of Sciences and Industry.

No Bees had better Government,

More Fickleness, or less Content:

They were not Slaves to Tyranny,

Nor rul'd by wild Democracy;

But Kings, that could not wrong, because

Their Power was circumscrib'd by Laws.

These Insects liv'd like Men, and all

Our Actions they perform'd in small:

They did whatever's done in Town,

And what belongs to Sword or Gown:

Tho' th' Artful Works, by nimble Slight

Of minute Limbs, 'scap'd Human Sight;

Yet we've no Engines, Labourers,

Ships, Castles, Arms, Artificers,

Craft, Science, Shop, or Instrument,

But they had an Equivalent:

Which, since their Language is unknown,

Must be call'd, as we do our own.

As grant, that among other Things,

They wanted Dice, yet they had Kings;

And those had Guards; from whence we may

Justly conclude, they had some Play;

Unless a Regiment be shewn

Of Soldiers, that make use of none.

Vast Numbers throng'd the fruitful Hive;

Yet those vast Numbers made 'em thrive;

Millions endeavouring to supply

Each other's Lust and Vanity;

While other Millions were employ'd,

To see their Handy-works destroy'd;

They furnish'd half the Universe;

Yet had more Work than Labourers.

Some with vast Stocks, and little Pains,

Jump'd into Business of great Gains;

And some were damn'd to Sythes and Spades,

And all those hard laborious Trades;

Where willing Wretches daily sweat,

And wear out Strength and Limbs to eat:

(A.)While others follow'd Mysteries,

To which few Folks bind 'Prentices;

That want no Stock, but that of Brass,

And may set up without a Cross;

As Sharpers, Parasites, Pimps, Players,

Pick-pockets, Coiners, Quacks, South-sayers,

And all those, that in Enmity,

With downright Working, cunningly

Convert to their own Use the Labour

Of their good-natur'd heedless Neighbour.

(B.)These were call'd Knaves, but bar the Name,

The grave Industrious were the same:

All Trades and Places knew some Cheat,

No Calling was without Deceit.

The Lawyers, of whose Art the Basis

Was raising Feuds and splitting Cases,

Oppos'd all Registers, that Cheats

Might make more Work with dipt Estates;

As wer't unlawful, that one's own,

Without a Law-Suit, should be known.

They kept off Hearings wilfully,

To finger the refreshing Fee;

And to defend a wicked Cause,

Examin'd and survey'd the Laws,

As Burglars Shops and Houses do,

To find out where they'd best break through.

Physicians valu'd Fame and Wealth

Above the drooping Patient's Health,

Or their own Skill: The greatest Part

Study'd, instead of Rules of Art,

Grave pensive Looks and dull Behaviour,

To gain th' Apothecary's Favour;

The Praise of Midwives, Priests, and all

That serv'd at Birth or Funeral.

To bear with th' ever-talking Tribe,

And hear my Lady's Aunt prescribe;

With formal Smile, and kind How d'ye,

To fawn on all the Family;

And, which of all the greatest Curse is,

T' endure th' Impertinence of Nurses.

Among the many Priests of Jove,

Hir'd to draw Blessings from Above,

Some few were Learn'd and Eloquent,

But thousands Hot and Ignorant:

Yet all pass'd Muster that could hide

Their Sloth, Lust, Avarice and Pride;

For which they were as fam'd as Tailors

For Cabbage, or for Brandy Sailors:

Some, meagre-look'd, and meanly clad,

Would mystically pray for Bread,

Meaning by that an ample Store,

Yet lit'rally received no more;

And, while these holy Drudges starv'd,

The lazy Ones, for which they serv'd,

Indulg'd their Ease, with all the Graces

Of Health and Plenty in their Faces.

(C.)The Soldiers, that were forc'd to fight,

If they surviv'd, got Honour by't;

Tho' some, that shunn'd the bloody Fray,

Had Limbs shot off, that ran away:

Some valiant Gen'rals fought the Foe;

Others took Bribes to let them go:

Some ventur'd always where 'twas warm,

Lost now a Leg, and then an Arm;

Till quite disabled, and put by,

They liv'd on half their Salary;

While others never came in Play,

And staid at Home for double Pay.

Their Kings were serv'd, but Knavishly,

Cheated by their own Ministry;

Many, that for their Welfare slaved,

Robbing the very Crown they saved:

Pensions were small, and they liv'd high,

Yet boasted of their Honesty.

Calling, whene'er they strain'd their Right,

The slipp'ry Trick a Perquisite;

And when Folks understood their Cant,

They chang'd that for Emolument;

Unwilling to be short or plain,

In any thing concerning Gain;

(D.)For there was not a Bee but would

Get more, I won't say, than he should;

But than he dar'd to let them know,

(E.)That pay'd for't; as your Gamesters do,

That, tho' at fair Play, ne'er will own

Before the Losers what they've won.

But who can all their Frauds repeat?

The very Stuff, which in the Street

They sold for Dirt t'enrich the Ground,

Was often by the Buyers found

Sophisticated with a quarter

Of good-for-nothing Stones and Mortar;

Tho' Flail had little Cause to mutter,

Who sold the other Salt for Butter.

Justice her self, fam'd for fair Dealing,

By Blindness had not lost her Feeling;

Her Left Hand, which the Scales should hold,

Had often dropt 'em, brib'd with Gold;

And, tho' she seem'd Impartial,

Where Punishment was corporal,

Pretended to a reg'lar Course,

In Murther, and all Crimes of Force;

Tho' some, first pillory'd for Cheating,

Were hang'd in Hemp of their own beating;

Yet, it was thought, the Sword she bore

Check'd but the Desp'rate and the Poor;

That, urg'd by meer Necessity,

Were ty'd up to the wretched Tree

For Crimes, which not deserv'd that Fate,

But to secure the Rich and Great.

Thus every Part was full of Vice,

Yet the whole Mass a Paradise;

Flatter'd in Peace, and fear'd in Wars,

They were th' Esteem of Foreigners,

And lavish of their Wealth and Lives,

The Balance of all other Hives.

Such were the Blessings of that State;

Their Crimes conspir'd to make them Great:

(F.)And Virtue, who from Politicks

Had learn'd a Thousand Cunning Tricks,

Was, by their happy Influence,

Made Friends with Vice: And ever since,

(G.)The worst of all the Multitude

Did something for the Common Good.

This was the State's Craft, that maintain'd

The Whole of which each Part complain'd:

This, as in Musick Harmony,

Made Jarrings in the main agree;

(H.)Parties directly opposite,

Assist each other, as 'twere for Spight;

And Temp'rance with Sobriety,

Serve Drunkenness and Gluttony.

(I.)The Root of Evil, Avarice,

That damn'd ill-natur'd baneful Vice,

Was Slave to Prodigality,

(K.)That noble Sin;(L.)whilst Luxury

Employ'd a Million of the Poor,

(M.)And odious Pride a Million more:

(N.)Envy it self, and Vanity,

Were Ministers of Industry;

Their darling Folly, Fickleness,

In Diet, Furniture and Dress,

That strange ridic'lous Vice, was made

The very Wheel that turn'd the Trade.

Their Laws and Clothes were equally

Objects of Mutability;

For, what was well done for a time,

In half a Year became a Crime;

Yet while they alter'd thus their Laws,

Still finding and correcting Flaws,

They mended by Inconstancy

Faults, which no Prudence could foresee.

Thus Vice nurs'd Ingenuity,

Which join'd with Time and Industry,

Had carry'd Life's Conveniencies,

(O.)It's real Pleasures, Comforts, Ease,

(P.)To such a Height, the very Poor

Liv'd better than the Rich before,

And nothing could be added more.

How Vain is Mortal Happiness!

Had they but known the Bounds of Bliss;

And that Perfection here below

Is more than Gods can well bestow;

The Grumbling Brutes had been content

With Ministers and Government.

But they, at every ill Success,

Like Creatures lost without Redress,

Curs'd Politicians, Armies, Fleets;

While every one cry'd, Damn the Cheats,

And would, tho' conscious of his own,

In others barb'rously bear none.

One, that had got a Princely Store,

By cheating Master, King and Poor,

Dar'd cry aloud, The Land must sink

For all its Fraud;And whom d'ye think

The Sermonizing Rascal chid?

A Glover that sold Lamb for Kid.

The least thing was not done amiss,

Or cross'd the Publick Business;

But all the Rogues cry'd brazenly,

Good Gods, Had we but Honesty!

Merc'rysmil'd at th' Impudence,

And others call'd it want of Sense,

Always to rail at what they lov'd:

But Jove with Indignation mov'd,

At last in Anger swore, He'd rid

The bawling Hive of Fraud;and did.

The very Moment it departs,

And Honesty fills all their Hearts;

There shews 'em, like th' Instructive Tree,

Those Crimes which they're asham'd to see;

Which now in Silence they confess,

By blushing at their Ugliness:

Like Children, that would hide their Faults,

And by their Colour own their Thoughts:

Imag'ning, when they're look'd upon,

That others see what they have done.

But, Oh ye Gods! What Consternation,

How vast and sudden was th' Alteration!

In half an Hour, the Nation round,

Meat fell a Peny in the Pound.

The Mask Hypocrisy's flung down,

From the great Statesman to the Clown:

And some in borrow'd Looks well known,

Appear'd like Strangers in their own.

The Bar was silent from that Day;

For now the willing Debtors pay,

Ev'n what's by Creditors forgot;

Who quitted them that had it not.

Those, that were in the Wrong, stood mute,

And dropt the patch'd vexatious Suit:

On which since nothing less can thrive,

Than Lawyers in an honest Hive,

All, except those that got enough,

With Inkhorns by their sides troop'd off.

Justice hang'd some, set others free;

And after Goal delivery,

Her Presence being no more requir'd,

With all her Train and Pomp retir'd.

First march'd some Smiths with Locks and Grates,

Fetters, and Doors with Iron Plates:

Next Goalers, Turnkeys and Assistants:

Before the Goddess, at some distance,

Her chief and faithful Minister,

'Squire CATCH, the Law's great Finisher,

Bore not th' imaginary Sword,

But his own Tools, an Ax and Cord:

Then on a Cloud the Hood-wink'd Fair,

JUSTICE her self was push'd by Air:

About her Chariot, and behind,

Were Serjeants, Bums of every kind,

Tip-staffs, and all those Officers,

That squeeze a Living out of Tears.

Tho' Physick liv'd, while Folks were ill,

None would prescribe, but Bees of skill,

Which through the Hive dispers'd so wide,

That none of them had need to ride;

Wav'd vain Disputes, and strove to free

The Patients of their Misery;

Left Drugs in cheating Countries grown,

And us'd the Product of their own;

Knowing the Gods sent no Disease

To Nations without Remedies.

Their Clergy rous'd from Laziness,

Laid not their Charge on Journey-Bees;

But serv'd themselves, exempt from Vice,

The Gods with Pray'r and Sacrifice;

All those, that were unfit, or knew

Their Service might be spar'd, withdrew:

Nor was there Business for so many,

(If th' Honest stand in need of any,)

Few only with the High-Priest staid,

To whom the rest Obedience paid:

Himself employ'd in Holy Cares,

Resign'd to others State-Affairs.

He chas'd no Starv'ling from his Door,

Nor pinch'd the Wages of the Poor;

But at his House the Hungry's fed,

The Hireling finds unmeasur'd Bread,

The needy Trav'ler Board and Bed.

Among the King's great Ministers,

And all th' inferior Officers

The Change was great;(Q.)for frugally

They now liv'd on their Salary:

That a poor Bee should ten times come

To ask his Due, a trifling Sum,

And by some well-hir'd Clerk be made

To give a Crown, or ne'er be paid,

Would now be call'd a downright Cheat,

Tho' formerly a Perquisite.

All Places manag'd first by Three,

Who watch'd each other's Knavery,

And often for a Fellow-feeling,

Promoted one another's stealing,

Are happily supply'd by One,

By which some thousands more are gone.

(R.)No Honour now could be content,

To live and owe for what was spent;

Liv'ries in Brokers Shops are hung,

They part with Coaches for a Song;

Sell stately Horses by whole Sets;

And Country-Houses, to pay Debts.

Vain Cost is shunn'd as much as Fraud;

They have no Forces kept Abroad;

Laugh at th' Esteem of Foreigners,

And empty Glory got by Wars;

They fight, but for their Country's sake,

When Right or Liberty's at Stake.

Now mind the glorious Hive, and see

How Honesty and Trade agree.

The Shew is gone, it thins apace;

And looks with quite another Face.

For 'twas not only that They went,

By whom vast Sums were Yearly spent;

But Multitudes that liv'd on them,

Were daily forc'd to do the same.

In vain to other Trades they'd fly;

All were o'er-stock'd accordingly.

The Price of Land and Houses falls;

Mirac'lous Palaces, whose Walls,

Like those of Thebes, were rais'd by Play,

Are to be let; while the once gay,

Well-seated Houshold Gods would be

More pleas'd to expire in Flames, than see

The mean Inscription on the Door

Smile at the lofty ones they bore.

The building Trade is quite destroy'd,

Artificers are not employ'd;

(S.)No Limner for his Art is fam'd,

Stone-cutters, Carvers are not nam'd.

Those, that remain'd, grown temp'rate, strive,

Not how to spend, but how to live,

And, when they paid their Tavern Score,

Resolv'd to enter it no more:

No Vintner's Jilt in all the Hive

Could wear now Cloth of Gold, and thrive;

Nor Torcol such vast Sums advance,

For Burgundy and Ortelans;

The Courtier's gone, that with his Miss

Supp'd at his House on Christmas Peas;

Spending as much in two Hours stay,

As keeps a Troop of Horse a Day.

The haughty Chloe, to live Great,

Had made her(T.)Husband rob the State:

But now she sells her Furniture,

Which th' Indies had been ransack'd for;

Contracts th' expensive Bill of Fare,

And wears her strong Suit a whole Year:

The slight and fickle Age is past;

And Clothes, as well as Fashions, last.

Weavers, that join'd rich Silk with Plate,

And all the Trades subordinate,

Are gone. Still Peace and Plenty reign,

And every Thing is cheap, tho' plain:

Kind Nature, free from Gard'ners Force,

Allows all Fruits in her own Course;

But Rarities cannot be had,

Where Pains to get them are not paid.

As Pride and Luxury decrease,

So by degrees they leave the Seas.

Not Merchants now, but Companies

Remove whole Manufactories.

All Arts and Crafts neglected lie;

(V.)Content, the Bane of Industry,

Makes 'em admire their homely Store,

And neither seek nor covet more.

So few in the vast Hive remain,

The hundredth Part they can't maintain

Against th' Insults of numerous Foes;

Whom yet they valiantly oppose:

'Till some well-fenc'd Retreat is found,

And here they die or stand their Ground.

No Hireling in their Army's known;

But bravely fighting for their own,

Their Courage and Integrity

At last were crown'd with Victory.

They triumph'd not without their Cost,

For many Thousand Bees were lost.

Hard'ned with Toils and Exercise,

They counted Ease it self a Vice;

Which so improv'd their Temperance;

That, to avoid Extravagance,

They flew into a hollow Tree,

Blest with Content and Honesty.

The Moral.

Then leave Complaints: Fools only strive

(X.)To make a Great an Honest Hive

(Y.)T' enjoy the World's Conveniencies,

Be fam'd in War, yet live in Ease,

Without great Vices, is a vain

EUTOPIA seated in the Brain.

Fraud, Luxury and Pride must live,

While we the Benefits receive:

Hunger's a dreadful Plague, no doubt,

Yet who digests or thrives without?

Do we not owe the Growth of Wine

To the dry shabby crooked Vine?

Which, while its Shoots neglected stood,

Chok'd other Plants, and ran to Wood;

But blest us with its noble Fruit,

As soon as it was ty'd and cut:

So Vice is beneficial found,

When it's by Justice lopt and bound;

Nay, where the People would be great,

As necessary to the State,

As Hunger is to make 'em eat.

Bare Virtue can't make Nations live

In Splendor; they, that would revive

A Golden Age, must be as free,

For Acorns, as for Honesty.

Finis.

The Introduction.

One of the greatest Reasons why so few People understand themselves, is, that most Writers are always teaching Men what they should be, and hardly ever trouble their Heads with telling them what they really are. As for my Part, without any Compliment to the Courteous Reader, or my self, I believe Man (besides Skin, Flesh, Bones,etc. that are obvious to the Eye) to be a compound of various Passions, that all of them, as they are provoked and come uppermost, govern him by turns, whether he will or no. Toshew, that these Qualifications, which we all pretend to be asham'd of, are the great Support of a flourishing Society, has been the Subject of the foregoing Poem. But there being some Passages in it seemingly Paradoxical, I have in the Preface promised some explanatory Remarks on it; which to render more useful, I have thought fit to enquire, how Man, no better qualify'd, might yet by his own Imperfections be taught to distinguish between Virtue and Vice: And here I must desire the Reader once for all to take notice, that when I say Men, I mean neither Jews nor Christians; but meer Man, in the State of Nature and Ignorance of the true Deity.

An Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue.

All untaught Animals are only sollicitous of pleasing themselves, and naturally follow the bent of their own Inclinations, without considering the good or harm that from their being pleased will accrue to others. This is the Reason, that in the wild State of Nature those Creatures are fittest to live peaceably together in great Numbers, that discover the least of Understanding, and have the fewest Appetites to gratify; and consequently no Species of Animals is, without the Curb of Government, less capable of agreeing long together in Multitudes than that of Man; yet such are his Qualities, whether good or bad, I shall not determine, that no Creature besides himself can ever be made sociable: But being an extraordinary selfish and headstrong, as well as cunning Animal, however he may be subdued by superior Strength, it is impossible by Force alone to make him tractable, and receive the Improvements he is capable of.

The Chief Thing, therefore, which Lawgivers and other wise Men, that have laboured for the Establishment of Society, have endeavour'd, has been to make the People they were to govern, believe, that it was more beneficial for every Body to conquer than indulge his Appetites, and much better to mind the Publick than what seem'd his private Interest. As this has always been a very difficult Task, so no Wit or Eloquence has been left untried to compass it; and the Moralists and Philosophers of all Ages employed their utmost Skill to prove the Truth of so useful an Assertion. But whether Mankind would have ever believ'd it or not, it is not likely that any Body could have persuaded them to disapprove of their natural Inclinations, or prefer the good of others to their own, if at the same time he had not shew'd them an Equivalent to be enjoy'd as a Reward for the Violence, which by so doing they of necessity must commit upon themselves. Those that have undertaken to civilize Mankind, were not ignorant of this; but being unable to give so many real Rewards as would satisfy all Persons for every individual Action, they were forc'd to contrive an imaginary one, that as a general Equivalent for the trouble of Self-denial should serve on all Occasions, and without costing any thing either to themselves or others, be yet a most acceptable Recompense to the Receivers.

They thoroughly examin'd all the Strength and Frailties of our Nature, and observing that none were either so savage as not to be charm'd with Praise, or so despicable as patiently to bear Contempt, justly concluded, that Flattery must be the most powerful Argument that could be used to Human Creatures. Making use of this bewitching Engine, they extoll'd the Excellency of our Nature above other Animals, and setting forth with unbounded Praises the Wonders of our Sagacity and Vastness of Understanding, bestow'd a thousand Encomiums on the Rationality of our Souls, by the Help of which we were capable of performing the most noble Atchievements. Having by this artful way of Flattery insinuated themselves into the Hearts of Men, they began to instruct them in the Notions of Honour and Shame; representing the one as the worst of all Evils, and the other as the highest Good to which Mortals could aspire: Which being done, they laid before them how unbecoming it was the Dignity of such sublime Creatures to be sollicitous about gratifying those Appetites, which they had in common with Brutes, and at the same time unmindful of those higher Qualities that gave them the preeminence over all visible Beings. They indeed confess'd, that those impulses of Nature were very pressing; that it was troublesome to resist, and very difficult wholly to subdue them. But this they only used as an Argument to demonstrate, how glorious the Conquest of them was on the one hand, and how scandalous on the other not to attempt it.

To introduce, moreover, an Emulation amongst Men, they divided the whole Species into two Classes, vastly differing from one another: The one consisted of abject, low-minded People, that always hunting after immediate Enjoyment, were wholly incapable of Self-denial, and without regard to the good of others, had no higher Aim than their private Advantage; such as being enslaved by Voluptuousness, yielded without Resistance to every gross desire, and made no use of their Rational Faculties but to heighten their Sensual Pleasure. These vile grov'ling Wretches, they said, were the Dross of their Kind, and having only the Shape of Men, differ'd from Brutes in nothing but their outward Figure. But the other Class was made up of lofty high-spirited Creatures, that free from sordid Selfishness, esteem'd the Improvements of the Mind to be their fairest Possessions; and setting a true value upon themselves, took no Delight but in embellishing that Part in which their Excellency consisted; such as despising whatever they had in common with irrational Creatures, opposed by the Help of Reason their most violent Inclinations; and making a continual War with themselves to promote the Peace of others, aim'd at no less than the Publick Welfare and the Conquest of their own Passion.

Fortior est qui se quàm qui fortissima Vincit

Mœnia–– –– –– ––

These they call'd the true Representatives of their sublime Species, exceeding in worth the first Class by more degrees, than that it self was superior to the Beasts of the Field.

As in all Animals that are not too imperfect to discover Pride, we find, that the finest and such as are the most beautiful and valuable of their kind, have generally the greatest Share of it; so in Man, the most perfect of Animals, it is so inseparable from his very Essence (how cunningly soever some may learn to hide or disguise it) that without it the Compound he is made of would want one of the chiefest Ingredients: Which, if we consider, it is hardly to be doubted but Lessons and Remonstrances, so skilfully adapted to the good Opinion Man has of himself, as those I have mentioned, must, if scatter'd amongst a Multitude not only gain the assent of most of them, as to the Speculative part, but likewise induce several, especially the fiercest, most resolute, and best among them, to endure a thousand Inconveniences, and undergo as many Hardships, that they may have the pleasure of counting themselves Men of the second Class, and consequently appropriating to themselves all the Excellences they have heard of it.

From what has been said, we ought to expect in the first Place that the Heroes who took such extraordinary Pains to master some of their natural Appetites, and preferr'd the good of others to any visible Interest of their own, would not recede an Inch from the fine Notions they had receiv'd concerning the Dignity of Rational Creatures; and having ever the Authority of the Government on their side, with all imaginable Vigour assert the esteem that was due to those of the second Class, as well as their Superiority over the rest of their kind. In the second, that those who wanted a sufficient Stock of either Pride or Resolution to buoy them up in mortifying of what was dearest to them, follow'd the sensual dictates of Nature, would yet be asham'd of confessing themselves to be those despicable Wretches that belong'd to the inferior Class, and were generally reckon'd to be so little remov'd from Brutes; and that therefore in their own Defence they would say, as others did, and hiding their own Imperfections as well as they could, cry up Self-denial and Publick-spiritedness as much as any: For it is highly probable, that some of them, convinced by the real Proofs of Fortitude and Self-Conquest they had seen, would admire in others what they found wanting in themselves; others be afraid of the Resolution and Prowess of those of the second Class, and that all of them were kept in aw by the Power of their Rulers; wherefore it is reasonable to think, that none of them (whatever they thought in themselves) would dare openly contradict, what by every body else was thought Criminal to doubt of.

This was (or at least might have been) the manner after which Savage Man was broke; from whence it is evident, that the first Rudiments of Morality, broach'd by skilful Politicians, to render Men useful to each other as well as tractable, were chiefly contrived that the Ambitious might reap the more Benefit from, and govern vast Numbers of them with the greater Ease and Security. This Foundation of Politicks being once laid, it is impossible that Man should long remain uncivilized: For even those who only strove to gratify their Appetites, being continually cross'd by others of the same Stamp, could not but observe, that whenever they check'd their Inclinations or but followed them with more Circumspection, they avoided a world of Troubles, and often escap'd many of the Calamities that generally attended the too eager Pursuit after Pleasure.

First, they receiv'd, as well as others, the benefit of those Actions that were done for the good of the whole Society, and consequently could not forbear wishing well to those of the superior Class that perform'd them. Secondly, the more intent they were in seeking their own Advantage, without Regard to others, the more they were hourly convinced, that none stood so much in their way as those that were most like themselves.

It being the Interest then of the very worst of them, more than any, to preach up Publick-spiritedness, that they might reap the Fruits of the Labour and Self-denial of others, and at the same time indulge their own Appetites with less disturbance, they agreed with the rest, to call every thing, which, without Regard to the Publick, Man should commit to gratify any of his Appetites, VICE; if in that Action there cou'd be observed the least prospect, that it might either be injurious to any of the Society, or ever render himself less serviceable to others: And to give the Name of VIRTUE to every Performance, by which Man, contrary to the impulse of Nature, should endeavour the Benefit of others, or the Conquest of his own Passions out of a Rational Ambition of being good.

It shall be objected, that no Society was ever any ways civiliz'd before the major part had agreed upon some Worship or other of an over-ruling Power, and consequently that the Notions of Good and Evil, and the Distinction between Virtue and Vice, were never the Contrivance of Politicians, but the pure Effect of Religion. Before I answer this Objection, I must repeat what I have said already, that in this Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue, I speak neither of Jews or Christians, but Man in his State of Nature and Ignorance of the true Deity; and then I affirm, that the Idolatrous Superstitions of all other Nations, and the pitiful Notions they had of the Supreme Being, were incapable of exciting Man to Virtue, and good for nothing but to aw and amuse a rude and unthinking Multitude. It is evident from History, that in all considerable Societies, how stupid or ridiculous soever People's received Notions have been, as to the Deities they worshipp'd, Human Nature has ever exerted it self in all its Branches, and that there is no earthly Wisdom or Moral Virtue, but at one time or other Men have excell'd in it in all Monarchies and Commonwealths, that for Riches and Power have been any ways remarkable.

The Ægyptians, not satisfy'd with having Deify'd all the ugly Monsters they could think on, were so silly as to adore the Onions of their own sowing; yet at the same time their Country was the most famous Nursery of Arts and Sciences in the World, and themselves more eminently skill'd in the deepest Mysteries of Nature than any Nation has been since.

No States or Kingdoms under Heaven have yielded more or greater Patterns in all sorts of Moral Virtues than the Greek and Roman Empires, more especially the latter; and yet how loose, absurd and ridiculous were their Sentiments as to Sacred Matters? For without reflecting on the extravagant Number of their Deities, if we only consider the infamous Stories they father'd upon them, it is not to be denied but that their Religion, far from teaching Men the Conquest of their Passions, and the Way to Virtue, seem'd rather contriv'd to justify their Appetites, and encourage their Vices. But if we would know what made 'em excel in Fortitude, Courage and Magnanimity, we must cast our Eyes on the Pomp of their Triumphs, the Magnificence of their Monuments and Arches; their Trophies, Statues, and Inscriptions; the variety of their Military Crowns, their Honours decreed to the Dead, Publick Encomiums on the Living, and other imaginary Rewards they bestow'd on Men of Merit; and we shall find, that what carried so many of them to the utmost Pitch of Self-denial, was nothing but their Policy in making use of the most effectual Means that human Pride could be flatter'd with.

It is visible then that it was not any Heathen Religion or other Idolatrous Superstition, that first put Man upon crossing his Appetites and subduing his dearest Inclinations, but the skilful Management of wary Politicians; and the nearer we search into human Nature, the more we shall be convinced, that the Moral Virtues are the Political Offspring which Flattery begot upon Pride.

There is no Man of what Capacity or Penetration soever, that is wholly Proof against the Witchcraft of Flattery, if artfully perform'd, and suited to his Abilities. Children and Fools will swallow Personal Praise, but those that are more cunning, must be manag'd with greater Circumspection; and the more general the Flattery is, the less it is suspected by those it is levell'd at. What you say in Commendation of a whole Town is receiv'd with Pleasure by all the Inhabitants: Speak in Commendation of Letters in general, and every Man of Learning will think himself in particular obliged to you. You may safely praise the Employment a Man is of, or the Country he was born in; because you give him an Opportunity of screening the Joy he feels upon his own account, under the Esteem which he pretends to have for others.

It is common among cunning Men, that understand the Power which Flattery has upon Pride, when they are afraid they shall be impos'd upon, to enlarge, tho' much against their Conscience, upon the Honour, fair Dealing and Integrity of the Family, Country, or sometimes the Profession of him they suspect; because they know that Men often will change their Resolution, and act against their Inclination, that they may have the Pleasure of continuing to appear in the Opinion of Some, what they are conscious not to be in reality. Thus Sagacious Moralists draw Men like Angels, in hopes that the Pride at least of Some will put 'em upon copying after the beautiful Originals which they are represented to be.

When the Incomparable Sir Richard Steele, in the usual Elegance of his easy Style, dwells on the Praises of his sublime Species, and with all the Embellishments of Rhetoric sets forth the Excellency of Human Nature, it is impossible not to be charm'd with his happy Turns of Thought, and the Politeness of his Expressions. But tho' I have been often moved by the Force of his Eloquence, and ready to swallow the ingenious Sophistry with Pleasure, yet I could never be so serious, but reflecting on his artful Encomiums I thought on the Tricks made use of by the Women that would teach Children to be mannerly. When an aukward Girl, before she can either Speak or Go, begins after many Intreaties to make the first rude Essays of Curt'sying, the Nurse falls in an ecstacy of Praise; There's a delicate Curt'sy! O fine Miss! There's a pretty Lady! Mama! Miss can make a better Curt'sy than her Sister Molly! The same is echo'd over by the Maids, whilst Mama almost hugs the Child to pieces; only Miss Molly, who being four Years older knows how to make a very handsome Curt'sy, wonders at the Perverseness of their Judgment, and swelling with Indignation, is ready to cry at the Injustice that is done her, till, being whisper'd in the Ear that it is only to please the Baby, and that she is a Woman, she grows proud at being let into the Secret, and rejoicing at the Superiority of her Understanding, repeats what has been said with large Additions, and insults over the Weakness of her Sister, whom all this while she fancies to be the only Bubble among them. These extravagant Praises would by any one, above the Capacity of an Infant, be call'd fulsome Flatteries, and, if you will, abominable Lies, yet Experience teaches us, that by the help of such gross Encomiums, young Misses will be brought to make pretty Curt'sies, and behave themselves womanly much sooner, and with less trouble, than they would without them. 'Tis the same with Boys, whom they'll strive to persuade, that all fine Gentlemen do as they are bid, and that none but Beggar Boys are rude, or dirty their Clothes; nay, as soon as the wild Brat with his untaught Fist begins to fumble for his Hat, the Mother, to make him pull it off, tells him before he is two Years old, that he is a Man; and if he repeats that Action when she desires him, he's presently a Captain, a Lord Mayor, a King, or something higher if she can think of it, till egg'd on by the force of Praise, the little Urchin endeavours to imitate Man as well as he can, and strains all his Faculties to appear what his shallow Noddle imagines he is believ'd to be.

The meanest Wretch puts an inestimable value upon himself, and the highest wish of the Ambitious Man is to have all the World, as to that particular, of his Opinion: So that the most insatiable Thirst after Fame that ever Heroe was inspired with, was never more than an ungovernable Greediness to engross the Esteem and Admiration of others in future Ages as well as his own; and (what Mortification soever this Truth might be to the second Thoughts of an Alexander or a Cæsar) the great Recompence in view, for which the most exalted Minds have with so much Alacrity sacrificed their Quiet, Health, sensual Pleasures, and every Inch of themselves, has never been any thing else but the Breath of Man, the Aerial Coin of Praise. Who can forbear laughing when he thinks on all the great Men that have been so serious on the Subject of that Macedonian Madman, his capacious Soul, that mighty Heart, in one Corner of which, according to Lorenzo Gratian, the World was so commodiously Lodged, that in the whole there was room for Six more? Who can forbear Laughing, I say, when he compares the fine things that have been said of Alexander, with the End he proposed to himself from his vast Exploits, to be proved from his own Mouth; when the vast Pains he took to pass the Hydaspes forced him to cry out? Oh ye Athenians, could you believe what Dangers I expose my self to, to be praised by you! To define then the Reward of Glory in the amplest manner, the most that can be said of it, is, that it consists in a superlative Felicity which a Man, who is conscious of having perform'd a noble Action, enjoys in Self-love, whilst he is thinking on the Applause he expects of others.

But here I shall be told, that besides the noisy Toils of War and publick Bustle of the Ambitious, there are noble and generous Actions that are perform'd in Silence; that Virtue being its own Reward, those who are really Good have a Satisfaction in their Consciousness of being so, which is all the Recompence they expect from the most worthy Performances; that among the Heathens there have been Men, who, when they did good to others, were so far from coveting Thanks and Applause, that they took all imaginable Care to be for ever conceal'd from those on whom they bestow'd their Benefits, and consequently that Pride has no hand in spurring Man on to the highest pitch of Self-denial.

In answer to this I say, that it is impossible to judge of a Man's Performance, unless we are throughly acquainted with the Principle and Motive from which he acts. Pity, tho' it is the most gentle and the least mischievous of all our Passions, is yet as much a Frailty of our Nature, as Anger, Pride, or Fear. The weakest Minds have generally the greatest Share of it, for which Reason none are more Compassionate than Women and Children. It must be own'd, that of all our Weaknesses it is the most amiable, and bears the greatest Resemblance to Virtue; nay, without a considerable mixture of it the Society could hardly subsist: But as it is an Impulse of Nature, that consults neither the publick Interest nor our own Reason, it may produce Evil as well as Good. It has help'd to destroy the Honour of Virgins, and corrupted the Integrity of Judges; and whoever acts from it as a Principle, what good soever he may bring to the Society, has nothing to boast of but that he has indulged a Passion that has happened to be beneficial to the Publick. There is no Merit in saving an innocent Babe ready to drop into the Fire: The Action is neither good nor bad, and what Benefit soever the Infant received, we only obliged our selves; for to have seen it fall, and not strove to hinder it, would have caused a Pain, which Self-preservation compell'd us to prevent: Nor has a rich Prodigal, that happens to be of a commiserating Temper, and loves to gratify his Passions, greater Virtue to boast of when he relieves an Object of Compassion with what to himself is a Trifle.