The European Way of Life - Bertelsmann Stiftung - ebook

The European Way of Life ebook

Bertelsmann Stiftung

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In "The European Way of Life" the Bertelsmann Stiftung looks back at what the European Union has already achieved, and sets its sights on the future. What are the challenges to which European policymaking will have to rise in the years ahead? How can the European project be given a new lease of life? Europeans tend to be rather critical of the EU, but the fact of the matter is that the EU member states will have to work together more closely if Europe wishes to get its message across on the global stage. "The European Way of Life" assembles some of the most important analyses produced by the Bertelsmann Stiftung's European projects. The topics range from the euro to the President of the EU, and from the EU's relationship with Russia to the Union for the Mediterranean. In three chapters devoted to Europe's democracy, economy and values, the experts at the Bertelsmann Stiftung come up with a host of stimulating ideas and make a number of specific recommendations. Guest authors Joschka Fischer, Wolfgang Schüssel and Guy Verhofstadt reveal their thoughts about the European Union, and make a point of emphasizing that crises have always been turning points and have repeatedly presented new opportunities, especially in the EU. "The European Way of Life" wishes to engage in a dialogue with both normal EU citizens who are interested in these topics, and with wellinformed experts. The articles include a number of informative charts and diagrams.

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Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data is available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.
© 2011 E-Book-Ausgabe (EPUB)
© 2011 eBook edition (PDF)
© 2011 Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, Gütersloh
Responsible: Joachim Fritz-Vannahme, Dr. Dominik HierlemannEditor: Sibylle ReiterCopy editor: Aimee Male, BerlinTranslations: Dr. Alfred Clayton, Hamburg, Dr. Barbara Serfozo, BerlinProduction editor: Sabine ReimannIllustrations: Christian Heydecker, Duisburg; KircherBurkhardt GmbH, BerlinCover design: Nadine HumannCover illustration: Thomas Kunsch, BielefeldTypesetting and printing: Hans Kock Buch- und Offsetdruck GmbH, Bielefeld
ISBN : 978-3-86793-392-6
www.bertelsmann-stiftung.org/publications

www.bertelsmann-stiftung.de/verlag

Table of Contents
Title Page
Copyright Page
About this Book
1 Europe’s Democracy
One for All, and All for One
New Basic Concepts
Europe on the World Stage
A New World Order
The Embattled Euro
Everyone’s President
A Herculean Task
Potential Conflicts
A Strong President
Where Are the Heads of State and Government?
A New Role for the Rotating Presidency
Bibliography
The German Parliament in a European Mood
Greater Powers for National Parliaments
The EU as a Community of Responsibility
European Politicians or Specialists?
Knowledge Advantage or Information Overload?
Members of Parliament as Public Relations Specialists
The Culture of Debate Betokens Participation
Bibliography
A Revolution in Disguise: The European Citizens’ Initiative
The Gradual Appearance of a Historic Idea
The Current Debate
Do EU Citizens Benefit or Do the NGOs?
The Online Citizens’ Initiative
An Opportunity for the Parliament and the Parties
Strengthening the European Public Sphere
Bibliography
Statement - The European Way of Life: Artificial Construct or Hidden Champion?
2 Europe’s Economy
The Economic Crisis in Central and Eastern Europe: - The Enlarged EU’s Baptism ...
In Retrospect: The EU and Eastern Enlargement
The EU Financial and Economic Crisis
Is the Euro a Stability Factor? Eurozone Membership Prospects
Consequences for the EU
Bibliography
Lisbon: A Second Shot
Carrots Instead of Sticks, or “Naming” and “Praising”
A European Council of Economic Experts
EU 2020 in the Budget
A Social Market Economy in Europe
One Voice for the Euro
After 10 Years the Euro Is Still a Midget
The Eurozone in the IMF: A Patchwork Quilt and Not “One Voice”
Europe an Obstacle to IMF Reforms
A Proposal: One Currency, One Voice
A Franco-German Initiative?
The Heads of State and Government Should Take the Lead
Bibliography
Wealth instead of Growth
The Beyond GDP Debate: A Survey
Current Political Initiatives and Implementation Proposals
OECD: “Measuring the Progress of Societies”
The “Beyond GDP” Initiative of the European Commission
The Stiglitz Report
Implementation Intentions
Challenges
Bibliography
Statement - The European Financial Crisis: A Tragedy or an Eye-Opener?
No European Approach to the Crisis
The Greek Eye-Opener
The European Turning Point
Fearful of “a Cost-Cutting Race”
The Irish Crisis
A Community and Not an Intergovernmental Europe
The Four Wings of a European Economic and Financial Policy
An Intolerable Contrast
3 Europe’s World
Hello Neighbor! A New EU Policy from Morocco to Azerbaijan
The European Neighborhood Policy
Union for the Mediterranean: A Great Vision or a Tentative Step?
Black Sea Synergy: Inclusive and Ineffectual?
The Eastern Partnership: Being European without EU Membership?
The Guiding Principle of Coherence
Bibliography
Opportunities for Modernization: The EU and Russia as Partners
Numerous Documents and Compromise Solutions
The Military Doctrine
Understanding the Modernization Partnership
The New Unofficial Foreign Policy Doctrine
The EU as a Partner after the Treaty of Lisbon
No Modernization without Security and No Security without Modernization
Bibliography
Europe’s Southern Neighbors: - The Middle East as a Region of Opportunity
Opportunities in a Region of Conflict?
The Four E’s: Economy, Energy, Environment and Education
Good Investments and High Export Levels
Desert Electricity Creates Jobs and Saves CO
Taking Erasmus to KAUST
The Modest Success of Europe’s Southern Policy
Greater GCC Involvement
Bibliography
Europe’s External Action Service: Much Ado About Nothing
A New Office, But No New Dynamism
Lady Ashton and her Opponents
The Commission: Divide and Rule
The Council: We Are Simply Better
The Member States: Why and For What Do We Need the EEAS?
The European Parliament: Asking Too Much?
Europe’s Bitter Battle Against Human Trafficking
The Current Situation
Recent Developments in International Law
Europe Tackles the Problem
Member States Have a Moral Obligation
Swedish EU Presidency Triggers a New Momentum
Europe’s Credibility is at Stake
Bibliography
Europe’s Values, Europe’s World
Global Policy Mission
Power Resides in Norms and Standards
“A Better World”
Outlook - The United States of Europe
The Authors
About this Book
“Unifying Europe is like trying to makean omelette without breaking the eggs.”
Paul Lacroix (1806–1884), French author
Europe spells crisis. A daily reading of the EU news necessarily gives rise to this impression. And Brussels spells bureaucracy, confronting citizens (so it is alleged) as a monstrous labyrinth of institutions. Yet neither political Europe nor this ominous “Brussels” exists without our nation-states, which have become too small and too weak on their own, and without we citizens, who value the freedoms enjoyed within the European Union, even if we rarely give the EU its credit due.
Europe spells success. As a project focused on peace, the European Economic Community (EEC) itself already a success story. As a narrative of freedom, the EEC prevailed over the dictatorships of the south and the former communist lands of the east. Political Europe has always known how to forge tomorrow’s successes from today’s crises—not always elegantly, but effectively.
In a monthly policy brief we call “Spotlight Europe,” the Bertelsmann Stiftung’s Europe Program analyzes current developments—crises, but also successes—in the European Union. Among the readers of the various German-, English- and Spanish-language editions are scholars, journalists, political decision makers, politicians and others whose interests draw them broadly to politics. Anyone can obtain “Spotlight Europe” freely on the Internet, with all the analysis publicly accessible.
From work on “Spotlight Europe” came the idea to create a book on current EU policy-making, reflecting the main emphases of the Bertelsmann Stiftung’s work on Europe. We thus look into the question of how the EU can become more democratic, how its customary policies have recently come up against limits, and how it must engage in the search for greater citizen participation. We consider how European countries can develop a new economic dynamic and how the EU must shape its relations with its neighbors. Finally, we ask why the EU, as an economic giant, continues to act as a dwarf on the stage of world politics.
We are pleased that Joschka Fischer, Wolfgang Schüssel and Guy Verhofstadt have enriched this volume with their ideas, or rather their politically engaged calls for more courage on behalf of the European Union. As aggressive and committed Europeans, they show what is possible under the motto: “Dare a Deeper Europe.”
The first chapter is dedicated to Europe’s democracy and the implications of the Treaty of Lisbon for the EU and the individual member states. In order to overcome crises like those of the recent years, the EU not only needs updated structures, but also new guiding ideas—in particular, greater internal solidarity and self-assertion. For Joachim Fritz-Vannahme, the paramount priority is the rule of the Three Musketeers: One for all, all for one. Whoever breaks this rule weakens both themselves and the whole.
With the election of former Belgian Prime Minister Herman van Rompuy as president of the European Council, the EU member states and heads of government have decided on a certain profile for this new office. This president will primarily be a mediator and “king” in the search for internal compromise, and less a face for Europe to the outside world. Dominik Hierlemann analyzes this office’s tasks and aims, as well as its functioning during the early months of 2010.
The Treaty of Lisbon has equipped national parliaments with more power in European decision-making than ever before. Germany’s Federal Constitutional Court declared the Treaty of Lisbon to be constitutional, but at the same time coined the new term “responsibility for integration” which all those involved in the processes of integration must observe. Isabell Hoffmann asks how the Bundestag will do justice to its new role in European policy-making against this background.
To Dominik Hierlemann and Anna Wohlfarth, the European Citizens’ Initiative represents an innovation with explosive force. The Citizens’ Initiative has thus far been a largely overlooked aspect of the Treaty of Lisbon. Yet what was often criticized as a placebo, or even as a form of mere illusory participation, could rapidly change the European Union and promote the development of European political parties.
Wolfgang Schüssel is convinced that the “European Way of Life” has the potential to develop an allure similar to that of the “American Way of Life”—if only we can overcome our hesitancy and self-pity, instead becoming conscious of our strengths and applying them with confidence. In his contribution, he also shows that Europe must become more dynamic if it is to keep up above all with Asia: “International comparison in this regard yields the sense that Asia has taken the pole position, that the United States is rolling up its sleeves and driving its Jeep pragmatically forwards (despite the various potholes), while Europe is trotting leisurely along in a horse-drawn carriage.” Schüssel calls for Europe to create a new narrative for itself—a narrative of diversity, of opportunity, of ideas.
The second chapter, Europe’s Economy, begins with an analysis of the economic crisis in Central and Eastern Europe. Cornelius Ochmann examines how the financial crisis affected the still-“young” EU member states, and how they handled it. In the European imagination, the “undisciplined, profligate, Roman-influenced South” is contrasted to the “reform-oriented, frugal, German-influenced North.” But where, Ochmann asks, does the “flexible, Slav-dominated, new Eastern Europe” belong?
The Lisbon Strategy was yesterday; its successor is called “Europe 2020.” To achieve sustainable growth, governance in particular must be changed. Joachim Fritz-Vannahme, Armando García Schmidt, Dominik Hierlemann and Robert Vehrkamp propose a benchmarking system of “naming and praising,” develop the concept of a European Advisory Council, and press for more research funding in the EU budget.
Although the euro has now established itself as a world currency competitive with the dollar, 10 years after first taking a role in global financial and currency policy, Europe has yet to reach its potential. The current problem with the eurozone in the IMF: Instead of speaking with one voice following the euro’s introduction, the European states have each retained their separate national identities and individual representatives within the IMF. Robert Vehrkamp shows that the EU is not only undermining its own interests in this way, but also is hindering modern governance reform with consequences for the IMF as a whole. Vehrkamp also develops a strategy for solving this conundrum.
In the most economically powerful EU states, the end of the crisis has already been proclaimed—or GDP, at least, has shown a positive economic trend. Yet some economists criticize the focus on the developments in classical economic indicators. Consequences for the environment, limits to raw materials, climate change, individuals’ real life satisfaction, social cohesion and education are overlooked in this way. Katharina Benderoth and Isabell Hoffmann summarise the current debate, and show that looking solely at GDP today no longer permits valid statements to be made about the prosperity or the overall state of a society.
In his paper, Guy Verhofstadt considers the question of whether the European financial crisis was solely a tragedy, or in fact represents much more a moment of sudden insight. No individual state, not even the largest and richest, could cope with the global economic and financial crisis on its own. The countries of the EU, the most integrated region in the world, had to confront the crisis collectively. This is because Europeans are fundamentally in the same boat: not only politically, but also socially, economically and culturally; in the defense of their economies, their social systems and their prosperity; and in the preservation of their rights and freedoms, their rule of law and their environment. Verhofstadt provides an analysis of the events surrounding the Greek crisis, and points the way to a common European financial and economic policy.
The third chapter is titled Europe’s Worldview, and deals with the European Union’s relationships with its neighbors and its role in the world. Thus, the first paper is called simply: “Hello, Neighbor.” Cornelius Ochmann, Christian-Peter Hanelt and Armando García Schmidt analyse the European Neighborhood Policy, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Black Sea Synergy and the Eastern Partnership: When it comes to coexistence with the neighbors to the east and south, the EU threatens to lose perspective. The authors say: It is time to go allin and to bring together all existing approaches.
Cortnie Shupe concentrates on Russia and its modernisation strategy—especially with respect to foreign and security policy. The world financial crisis has changed Russia’s willingness to cooperate and the general orientation of its foreign policy towards the West. Russia wants to regain its world power status through economic modernization. In addition, Russian President Medvedev’s proposal for a new European security architecture has revived the debate over relations between the European Union and Russia.
The Middle East is more than a hotbed of conflict, war and terror. For Europe, this region holds not only risks but also opportunities that hold the possibility of significant consequences for EU external relations, as well as repercussions for social development within Europe. In many countries in the Middle East, a dynamic social and economic modernisation is under way, providing support for a new middle class. It is Europe’s task to familiarize itself more deeply with this new middle class and to enlist it as a partner in a common policy of promoting conflict resolution, the rule of law, and a just social and economic development. Christian-Peter Hanelt points out the potential of and possible pathways for the EU’s Middle East policy.
Few Europeans are aware that human and forced-labor trafficking goes on in their midst. In this respect, thousands of people every year are brought into the EU, or detained inside the EU, and coerced by force into prostitution or unpaid labor. Perhaps more than any other form of crime, this modern form of slavery touches on the core of the European understanding of human rights and challenges the rule of law. Armando García Schmidt and Christal Morehouse show how the EU member states and the EU as a whole struggle to deal with this problem appropriately.
The Treaty of Lisbon should render the European Union fit for the 21st century in the area of foreign and security policy. To this end, the Treaty of Lisbon established the Office of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, with Baroness Catherine Ashton as the first holder of this post. The European External Action Service (EEAS) will support her in the fulfillment of her contractual duties. Did the EU genuinely carry out a change in the system here, or is this only a sham? Stefani Weiss examines whether the EEAS can bring any real added value for the EU and its member states.
The EU stands for the peaceful coexistence of almost all the continent’s nations: The political union has expanded round by round, with each enlargement serving also to confirm it as a community of values. Yet, asks Joachim Fritz-Vannahme, what exactly are Europe’s values, what is European, and where do the region’s geographic or cultural borders lie? Politically, the EU is an open-ended project in search of itself and its final form. As a community of values, however, it is outwardly proud and self-assured, appearing as a union cut from the same cloth. But as a community of values, the EU must ultimately be respected by its own members, whether governments, parliaments or citizens. Only then will Europe also earn respect in the broader world.
In considering the debates in this book, Joschka Fischer offers a forecast. On the one hand, achieving a strong and integrated Europe is of seminal importance to our future. On the other hand, despite its great successes in the past and present, this vision of Europe is less popular than ever among most European peoples. What prompts this opposition, and how can we come to a clear vision of the Europe of the future? The former German foreign minister analyzes the present situation and draws his conclusion: A United States of Europe can be reached only through democratic majorities. The struggle to win these majorities will take time and require the expenditure of considerable energy—but if it is successful, it will at the same time mark the birth of a true European democracy. To fight for this goal is a task worthy of honor, especially since the alternative is all too clear to us.
Our thanks go first to all the authors, who provided their contributions under severe deadline pressure. We are indebted to Christian Heydecker for research and translation work on numerous diagrams, Dr. Barbara Serfozo and Dr. Alfred Clayton for translation work and to Sibylle Reiter for her careful and patient editing.
Joachim Fritz-Vannahme
Director, Europe’s Future
Editor of “Spotlight Europe,” Bertelsmann Stiftung
Dr. Dominik Hierlemann
Senior Project Manager, Europe’s Future
Editor of “Spotlight Europe,” Bertelsmann Stiftung
1 Europe’s Democracy
One for All, and All for One
Joachim Fritz-Vannahme
On May 9, 2010, it was Europe Day in Brussels and throughout the EU, an occasion which will be remembered for a long time to come. As always, it was open day at the European institutions, where in the normal run of things the strict security checks at the entrances deter would-be visitors. A lot of people were milling around among the cool concrete structures and the omnipresent glass. In the building of the European Council, Herman van Rompuy, its president, was waiting for the 12 wise men. Under the chairmanship of Felipe Gonzalez, the former Spanish prime minister, they had just finished defining the challenges and opportunities of “Project Europe 2030” in a document about 40 pages in length.

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