Principles of Veterinary Parasitology - Dennis Jacobs - ebook

Principles of Veterinary Parasitology ebook

Dennis Jacobs

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Principles of Veterinary Parasitology is a student-friendly introduction to veterinary parasitology. Written primarily to meet the immediate needs of veterinary students, this textbook outlines the essential parasitological knowledge needed to underpin clinical practice. Conceptual relationships between parasitic organisms, their biology and the diseases they cause are clearly illustrated. Help boxes and practical tips are included throughout alongside a wealth of colour photographs, drawings and life-cycle diagrams. Organised taxonomically with additional host-orientated chapters and focussing on parasites that commonly cause animal or zoonotic disease, welfare problems or economic losses, students worldwide will benefit from this straightforward and easy to comprehend introduction to veterinary parasitology. Key features include: * An easy to navigate textbook, providing information essential for clinical studies * Full colour throughout, with photographs, diagrams, life-cycles and help boxes for visual learners * A companion website including a pronunciation guide, self-assessment questions and further reading lists

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Principles of Veterinary Parasitology

Dennis JacobsMark FoxLynda GibbonsCarlos Hermosilla

This edition first published 2016 © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

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Cover images: Background: A complete Echinococcus adult. Reproduced with permission of Merial GmbH. Inset, clockwise from top left: Section through a larval tick feeding on a cow. Reproduced with permission of C.C. Constantinoiu; Mosquito (Aedes) replete after feeding on human. Reproduced with permission of J.G. Logan; Angiostrongylus vasorum: female worm in pulmonary artery. Reproduced with permission of the Institute of Parasitology, Justus Liebig University, Giessen; Besnoitia cysts on the conjunctiva of a cow. Reproduced with permission of A. Gentile.

Contents

About the Authors

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgements

List of abbreviations

About the companion website

Chapter 1 Veterinary Parasitology: basic concepts

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Parasitism and parasites

1.3 Host–parasite interactions

1.4 Parasitic disease

1.5 Diagnostic techniques

1.6 Treatment and control

Chapter 2 Arthropods part 1: introduction and insects

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Insects

Chapter 3 Arthropods part 2: ticks, mites and ectoparasiticides

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Ticks

3.3 Mange mites

3.4 Other arthropods

3.5 Ectoparasiticides

Chapter 4 Protozoa (single-celled parasites)

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Key concepts

4.3 Ciliates

4.4 Amoebae

4.5 Flagellates

4.6 Coccidia

4.7 Tissue cyst-forming coccidia

4.8 Blood-borne apicomplexans

4.9 Cryptosporidia

4.10 Antiprotozoal drugs

Chapter 5 Platyhelminthes (‘flatworms’)

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Cestodes

5.3 Cyclophyllidean tapeworms

5.4 Pseudophyllidean tapeworms

5.5 Cestocidal drugs

5.6 Trematodes

5.7 Flukicidal drugs

Chapter 6 Nematoda (‘roundworms’) part 1: concepts and bursate nematodes

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Key concepts

6.3 Bursate nematodes

Chapter 7 Nematoda (‘roundworms’) part 2: nonbursate nematodes and anthelmintics

7.1 Nonbursate nematodes

7.2 Other parasitic worms

7.3 Anthelmintics

Chapter 8 Clinical parasitology: farm animals

8.1 Introduction

8.3 8.2 Ruminants

8.3 Pigs (swine)

8.4 Poultry

Chapter 9 Clinical parasitology: companion animals and veterinary public health

9.1 Equine parasitology

9.2 Small animal parasitology

9.3 Veterinary public health

References

Index

EULA

List of Tables

Chapter 1

Table 1.1

Chapter 2

Table 2.1

Table 2.2

Table 2.3

Table 2.4

Chapter 3

Table 3.1

Table 3.2

Table 3.3

Chapter 4

Table 4.1

Table 4.2

Table 4.3

Table 4.4

Table 4.5

Chapter 5

Table 5.1

Table 5.2

Table 5.3

Chapter 6

Table 6.1

Table 6.2

Table 6.3

Table 6.4

Table 6.5

Chapter 7

Table 7.1

Table 7.2

Table 7.3

Table 7.4

Table 7.5

Table 7.6

Chapter 8

Table 8.1

Table 8.2

Table 8.3

Table 8.4

Table 8.5

Table 8.6

Table 8.7

Table 8.8

Table 8.9

Table 8.10

Table 8.11

Table 8.12

Table 8.13

Chapter 9

Table 9.1

Table 9.2

Table 9.3

Table 9.4

Table 9.5

Table 9.6

Table 9.7

Table 9.8

Table 9.9

Table 9.10

Table 9.11

Table 9.12

Table 9.13

List of Illustrations

Chapter 1

Figure 1.1

Gastrointestinal parasites such as the worms depicted here in black are technically ‘outside’ of any body tissue.

Figure 1.2

Microparasites (above) multiply their numbers within the host; whereas the number of mature macroparasites (below) never exceeds the number that invaded the host (with a few exceptions).

Figure 1.3

Ecological relationships that expose humans to zoonotic parasites: a – direct zoonoses; b – cyclozoonoses; c – metazoonoses; d – saprozoonoses (further explanation in text which uses same lettering as shown above). Sandfly redrawn after Mönnig from Lapage, 1962 with permission of Wolters Kluwer Health - Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Figure 1.4

McMaster chamber (used for counting helminth eggs and/or coccidian oocysts in faecal samples). Reproduced with permission of T.E. Krecek.

Figure 1.5

Baermann apparatus (used for recovering larvae from faecal samples).

Figure 1.6

Diagram illustrating the principle of the IFAT. Redrawn after https://wiki.cites.illinois.edu/wiki/display/BIOE414/Background with permission of University of Illinois at Urbana-Champagne.

Figure 1.7

IFAT: protozoan parasites (

Eimeria

merozoites) fluorescing green under UV light (with host cells stained blue). Reproduced with permission of D.J. Ferguson.

Figure 1.8

Microtitre plate displaying results of an ELISA assay: lanes 11 and 12 – negative and positive control sera, respectively; lanes 1 to 10 – test samples (two-fold dilutions from 1:20 from row A downwards). Reproduced with permission of B. Catchpole.

Figure 1.9

Diagram illustrating the principle of the indirect ELISA. Redrawn after http://www.abnova.com/support/resources/ELISA.asp with permission of Abnova Corporation.

Figure 1.10

Diagram illustrating the principle of the hidden antigen tick-vaccine.

Figure 1.11

The typically skewed distribution of parasites within a host population compared with a ‘normal’ distribution curve (notional diagram).

Figure 1.12

Nematode trapping fungi: two nematode larvae entrapped in an adhesive 3D network of hyphae. Reproduced with permission of N. Soto-Barrientos.

Chapter 2

Figure 2.1

The major groups of parasitic arthropods.

Figure 2.2

Some associations between arthropod parasites and skin: a - blood-sucking (tick); b - surface feeding on secretions and exudates (muscid fly); c - flesh-eating (cutaneous myiasis); d - surface feeding on skin debris (chewing louse); e - burrowing mite; f - warble fly developing under skin; g - mite in hair follicle. Based on Jacobs, 1986 with permission of Elsevier. Warble fly redrawn after Mönnig from Lapage, 1962 with permission of Wolters Kluwer Health - Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. Demodex redrawn after James and Harwood, 1969 from Cheng, 1986 with permission of Elsevier.

Figure 2.3

The sheep ked,

Melophagus ovinus

. Redrawn after Mönnig from Lapage, 1962 with permission of Wolters Kluwer Health - Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Figure 2.4

Head of the blowfly

Lucilia

. Adapted after Mönnig from Soulsby, 1982 with permission of Wolters Kluwer Health - Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Figure 2.5

Heads of a mosquito (left) and

Musca

(right). Adapted from Urquhart

et al

., 1996 with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Figure 2.6

Head-end of a blowfly larva (maggot) showing the chitinous mouthparts (arrowed). Redrawn from Zumpt, 1965.

Figure 2.7

Antennae of a mosquito (top); a horse fly (centre) and an adult blowfly (below). Adapted from Urquhart

et al

., 1996 with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Figure 2.8

An insect leg: a – coxa; b – trochanter; c – femur; d – tibia; e – tarsus; f – claw. Redrawn after Cheng, 1986 with permission of Elsevier.

Figure 2.9

Wing of a horse fly (a) showing the ‘discal cell’ (arrowed) and a tsetse fly (b) showing the ‘butcher’s cleaver’-shaped cell (arrowed). Redrawn after Mönnig from Lapage, 1962 with permission of Wolters Kluwer Health - Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Figure 2.10

Wing of a dipteran fly showing the halteres. Redrawn and modified after Mönnig from Lapage, 1962 with permission of Wolters Kluwer Health - Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Figure 2.11

Spiracles of a blowfly larva. Redrawn after Zumpt, 1965.

Figure 2.12

An insect in longitudinal section. Redrawn after Imms, 1957 and Urquhart

et al

., 1996 with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Figure 2.13

An example of simple metamorphosis (life-cycle of a louse): a – adult louse; b – egg; c – nymphal stages. Adult redrawn after Mönnig from Lapage, 1962 with permission of Wolters Kluwer Health - Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, diagram partly based on Urquhart

et al

., 1996 with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Figure 2.14

An example of complex metamorphosis – the life-cycle of a dipteran fly,

Stomoxys

: a – adult fly; b – egg; c – larval stages; d – pupa. Adult redrawn after Mönnig from Lapage, 1962 with permission of Wolters Kluwer Health - Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. Diagram partly based on Urquhart

et al

., 1996 with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

Figure 2.15

Fleas are well adapted to living in the hair-coat of their host (SEM). Reproduced with permission of Bayer plc.

Figure 2.16

Head-end of flea (SEM). Reproduced with permission of Bayer plc.

Figure 2.17

A chart for identifying the fleas most commonly found on dogs and cats. Fleas redrawn after Smart, 1943 with permission of The Natural History Museum, London, UK and Smit, 1957 with permission of the Royal Entomological Society, St Albans, UK.

Figure 2.18

Life-cycle of the cat-flea

Ctenocephalides felis

: a – newly emerged adult flea jumps onto host; b – egg drops to ground; c – larva hatches, hides and develops; d – larva spins cocoon and pupates; e – following metamorphosis, adult flea emerges (details in text which uses same lettering as shown above). Adult (e) redrawn after Smit, 1957, with permission of the Royal Entomological Society, St Albans, UK; larva (c) drawn from photograph by © P. J. Bryant; larva (d) drawn from photograph in Krämer and Mencke, 2001.

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