Managing the Training Function For Bottom Line Results - Jean Barbazette - ebook

Managing the Training Function For Bottom Line Results ebook

Jean Barbazette

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209,99 zł

Opis

This book presents time saving strategies, tactics, and a host of job aids to get the best result from the corporate learning function. It will serve both as a must-have reference tool and as a practical survival guide for workplace learning professionals who face unique challenges in accomplishing their responsibilities. Several strategies and tactics are offered to organize the roles and responsibilities of the training function. There's authoritative advice, too, for managing the function including staff management, communicating expectations, setting the learning agenda, coaching subject matter experts, hiring consultants and vendors, managing content, working with learning portals, setting up and managing a learning resource center, marketing and building internal support for training, and integrating learning into the business.

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Contents

Cover

Title page

About This Book

About Pfeiffer

Dedication

Copyright

Case Studies, Tools, and Exhibits

Contents of the CD-ROM

Acknowledgments

Introduction

Purpose of This Book

Audience: Who Is This Book For?

Best Practices

Prior Works

Chapter 1: Training Function Systems Audit

Define a Training Function

Clarify Which Roles and Responsibilities Apply to Ten Key Areas of Your Current Function

Interpretation of Training Function Systems Audit

Chapter 2: Prioritize Training Responsibilities

Identify Key Duties and Responsibilities for the Training Function

Develop Priorities Consistent with the Business Plan

Link Assessments to Vision, Mission, and Business Plan

Develop a Training Department “Mission Statement”

Anticipate Future Needs and Use Short-Term and Long-Term Planning

Develop Your Own Job Description

Prepare, Monitor, and Modify a Budget

Ensure Legal, Ethical, and Regulatory Compliance

Participate in Outside Professional Organizations

Keep Up-to-Date with Training Trends

Chapter 3: The Performance Consulting Approach to Managing a Training Function

What a Performance Consulting Approach Is

Benefits of a Performance Consulting Approach

Performance Consulting Roles, Multiple Roles of a Trainer

Performance Consulting Role Choices

Eight-Step Performance Consulting Process

Strategies in Transitioning to a Performance Consulting Approach

Chapter 4: Gain Support for the Training Function

Identify the Benefits of Building a Partnership Between Managers/ Supervisors and the Training Function

Identify Tactics to Build the Partnership Before Performance Interventions

Identify Tactics to Build the Partnership During Performance Interventions

Identify Tactics to Build the Partnership Following Performance Interventions

A Final Strategy

Chapter 5: Project Management Skills for Training Managers

Project Management and the Eight-Step Consulting Process

Initiate a Project by Assessing the Need to Create a Project Team and Gain Authorization

Plan the Project

Use Project Management Tools Appropriately to Execute the Project

Use Project Management Tools to Control the Project

Close Projects Appropriately

Chapter 6: Select Training Programs and Packages

Identify Essential Elements of the Buying Process

Write a Request for Proposal (RFP)

Identify External Resources

Set Criteria to Review Training Program Proposals

Determine Lessons Learned from Purchasing Pitfalls

Chapter 7: How to Hire a Consultant or External Trainer

Select a Consultant or External Trainer

Find the Right Kind of Consulting Help

Interview a Consultant

Monitor the Consultant’s Work

Chapter 8: How to Manage a Training Staff

Make Staffing Choices

Select Internal Trainers

Give Feedback to Internal Trainers

Improve Internal Trainer Skills

Use Different Types of Training Methodologies

Use a Variety of Trainer Roles

Maintain Courses

Develop a Leader’s Guide

Use Competencies to Supervise, Coach, and Develop Trainers and Course Designers

Appreciate the Benefits of Certification Programs

Chapter 9: Select and Coach Subject-Matter Experts as Internal Trainers

Select Subject-Matter Experts as Internal Trainers

Establish an Internal Trainer Selection Process

Chapter 10: Successful Strategies for Marketing Training Internally

Define Marketing

Identify Successful Techniques to Market the Training Function

Create a Partnership with Supervisors to Avoid “No Shows” at Training Events

Chapter 11: Publicize Training Events

Publicize a Variety of Training Services

Prepare Training Announcements, Course Catalogues, and Brochures

Write Training Announcements

Publicize Training Results

Use Recognition Tools

Use Brown Bag Seminars

Decide the Type of Information to Put on Your Web Page

Decide How Often to Maintain the Website

Chapter 12: Smoothly Administer Training Events

Plan Training Events

Scheduling Training Events

Workshop Registration Process

Common Features of Software

Workshop Confirmation Process

Final Workshop Preparation

Workshop Follow-Up

Chapter 13: Set Up Off-Site Training Events

Negotiate and Coordinate with Hotels for Off-Site Meeting Rooms

Make Travel Arrangements for Instructors and Training Participants

Chapter 14: Set Up and Run a Corporate Resource Center

Maintain a Corporate Library and Resource Center

Purchase Audiovisual Equipment

Maintain Equipment and Inventory

Order Training Materials and Supplies

Produce Audiovisual and Written Materials

Monitor Tuition Reimbursement Programs

Appendix A: Bibliography

Appendix B: Training Resources

Appendix C: Five Steps of Adult Learning

1. Instructor Sets up the Learning Activity

2. Learning Activity

3. Learners Share and Interpret Their reactions to the Activity

4. Learners Identify Concepts from Their reactions

5. Learners Apply Concepts to Their Situation

Index

About the Author

How to Use the CD-ROM

Download CD/DVD content

End User License Agreement

Guide

Cover

Contents

Start Reading

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MANAGING THE TRAINING FUNCTION FOR BOTTOM-LINE RESULTS

Tools, Models, and Best Practices

Jean Barbazette

About This Book

Why is this topic important?

Generally, a training function exists in an organization to develop knowledge and skills and shape attitudes that will help meet a business need. Many functions act strategically by using a planned and organized approach to anticipate and meet business and development needs. Some functions are reactive and primarily respond to requests for training events and services. Whether your training function is strategic or reactive (and wants to be more strategic) you can assess, clarify, and develop ten key activities of your training function.

While other books have been written about managing a training function, none have been “best practices” books with specific success stories and ideas to move the training function to the next level.

What can you achieve with this book?

Training managers and training coordinators have a unique function in their organizations. No one else in their organizations performs similar tasks, especially if they are a “department-of-one.” This book presents best practices from a variety of private and public sector organizations, along with time-saving strategies, job aids, and tactics to get the best result from a training function. Short of going to a training conference, this book provides a unique opportunity to learn from your peers to make your job easier.

How is this book organized?

The foundation of the book is a training function systems audit in Chapter 1 that allows the training manager to benchmark ten key areas of the training function. Four stages of development (from none or little to advanced) are described for each activity to help you appraise your training function. Later chapters discuss how to develop skills in each of the ten key areas and are illustrated with case studies from organizations that successfully practice these skills. A scorecard for moving to the next level is provided.

Each chapter begins with a list of objectives, tools, case studies, and exhibits. If you rated yourself or your function at Stage 1 or Stage 2 for most of the diagnostic questions in Chapter 1, you might want to proceed through the chapters as written. If you rated yourself or your function at Stage 3 or Stage 4, you might benefit from previewing the tools provided in a specific chapter before working through the best practices, ideas, and suggestions in the case studies, tools, job aids, checklists, and templates.

Each chapter is filled with best practices from a variety of organizations that provide tools and techniques for success that you can adapt for your own training function.

About Pfeiffer

Pfeiffer serves the professional development and hands-on resource needs of training and human resource practitioners and gives them products to do their jobs better. We deliver proven ideas and solutions from experts in HR development and HR management, and we offer effective and customizable tools to improve workplace performance. From novice to seasoned professional, Pfeiffer is the source you can trust to make yourself and your organization more successful.

Essential Knowledge Pfeiffer produces insightful, practical, and comprehensive materials on topics that matter the most to training and HR professionals. Our Essential Knowledge resources translate the expertise of seasoned professionals into practical, how-to guidance on critical workplace issues and problems. These resources are supported by case studies, worksheets, and job aids and are frequently supplemented with CD-ROMs, websites, and other means of making the content easier to read, understand, and use.

Essential Tools Pfeiffer’s Essential Tools resources save time and expense by offering proven, ready-to-use materials—including exercises, activities, games, instruments, and assessments—for use during a training or-team-learning event. These resources are frequently offered in looseleaf or CD-ROM format to facilitate copying and customization of the material.

Pfeiffer also recognizes the remarkable power of new technologies in expanding the reach and effectiveness of training. While e-hype has often created whizbang solutions in search of a problem, we are dedicated to bringing convenience and enhancements to proven training solutions. All our e-tools comply with rigorous functionality standards. The most appropriate technology wrapped around essential content yields the perfect solution for today’s on-the-go trainers and human resource professionals.

Essential resources for training and HR professionals

For Emma, Annabelle, and Edith Thanks to Beb and Isabelle, my parents, who made a difference.

Copyright © 2008 by Jean Barbazette

Published by Pfeiffer

An Imprint of Wiley

989 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94103-1741

www.pfeiffer.com

Wiley Bicentennial logo: Richard J. Pacifico

Except as specifically noted below, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, phone 978-750-8400, fax 978-646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, 201-748-6011, fax 201-748-6008, or e-mail: [email protected]

The materials on the accompanying CD-ROM are designed for use in a group setting and may be customized and reproduced for educational/training purposes. The reproducible pages are designated by the appearance of the following copyright notice at the foot of each page:

Copyright © 2008 by Jean Barbazette. Reproduced by permission of Pfeiffer, an Imprint of Wiley. www.pfeiffer.com

This notice may not be changed or deleted and it must appear on all reproductions as printed.

This free permission is restricted to limited customization of the CD-ROM materials for your organization and the paper reproduction of the materials for educational/training events. It does not allow for systematic or large-scale reproduction, distribution (more than 100 copies per page, per year), transmission, electronic reproduction or inclusion in any publications offered for sale or used for commercial purposes—none of which may be done without prior written permission of the Publisher.

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor author shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited to special, incidental, consequential, or other damages.

Readers should be aware that Internet websites offered as citations and/or sources for further information may have changed or disappeared between the time this was written and when it is read.

For additional copies/bulk purchases of this book in the U.S. please contact 800-274-4434.

Pfeiffer books and products are available through most bookstores. To contact Pfeiffer directly call our Customer Care Department within the U.S. at 800-274-4434, outside the U.S. at 317-572-3985, fax 317-572-4002, or visit www.pfeiffer.com.

Pfeiffer also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Barbazette, Jean

Managing the training function for bottom-line results : tools, models, and best practices / Jean Barbazette.

p. cm.

Includes instructional CD-ROM.

Includes index.

ISBN 978-0-7879-8243-0 (pbk.)

1. Employee training directors. 2. Employees—Training of. 3. Consultants—Selection and appointment. 4. Employees—Training of—Management. I. Title.

HF5549.5.T7B2877 2007

658.3’124—dc22

2007024495

Acquiring Editor: Martin Delahoussaye

Director of Development: Kathleen Dolan Davies

Developmental Editor: Susan Rachmeler

Production Editor: Michael Kay

Editor: Rebecca Taff

Editorial Assistant: Julie Rodriguez

Manufacturing Supervisor: Becky Morgan

Case Studies, Tools, and Exhibits

Case Studies

1.1 Training Department Systems Audit for a State-Owned Airline in Southeast Asia

2.1 Maryland Transit Administration Mission Statement

2.2 Intrado, Inc., Mission Statement

2.3 State of Kentucky Department of Criminal Justice Training Mission Statement

2.4 Orange County Transportation Authority Training and Development Position

2.5 Baystate Health Training Manager Job Description

2.6 State of Kentucky Department of Criminal Justice Training Supervisor Job Description

2.7 Baxter BioScience Regulatory Compliance

3.1 BayState Health Transition to Performance Consulting

4.1 Using Action Plans to Ensure Transfer of Learning at University of Toyota

5.1 Performance Improvement Project Plan for a Major Hotel Chain

6.1 OCTA Proposal Evaluation Form

6.2 Cline Davis Mann Management Boot Camp, Partnering with an External Vendor

7.1 ClinPhone Training Provider Review

8.1 Baystate Health Job Descriptions

8.2 Trainer Certification at a Health Insurance Company

9.1 Texas Tech University SERVICEplus Facilitator Training

9.2 The National Guard, Joint Language Training Center

10.1 National Financial Partners Conference Branding

12.1 Schwan Food Company 2006 Senior Executive Development Program

12.2 Schwan Food Company 2004 Senior Executive Development Program

Tools

1.1 Training Function Systems Audit

1.2 Average Score Card

2.1 Mission Statement Worksheet

2.2 Training Manager Job Description

2.3 Training Manager Job Description Template

2.4 Cost of Training Template

2.5 Training Budget Template and Worksheet

2.6 Cost-Benefit Analysis Template

3.1 Performance Consulting Role Inventory

3.2 Sample Performance Consulting Process Scenario

3.3 Performance Consulting Skills Inventory

4.1 Partnership Checklist for Managers and Supervisors

4.2 Partnership Checklist for Trainers and the Training Function

4.3 Partnership Checklist for Learners

6.1 Essential Elements to Buy Training Programs Checklist

6.2 Request for Proposal Template

6.3 Selecting Packaged Training Programs Checklist

6.4 Selecting the Best Resources Template

7.1 Screening Consultants Criteria Worksheet

7.2 Proposal Evaluation Rating Sheet

7.3 Consultant Interview Questions

7.4 Consultant Interview Evaluation Checklist

7.5 Decision-Making and Negotiation Checklist

7.6 Checklist to Monitor Consultant Performance

7.7 Consulting Closing Checklist

8.1 End-of-Course Evaluation Form

8.2 Feedback and Coaching Template for Internal Trainers

8.3 Best Learning Experiences

8.4 Basic and Advanced Trainer Competencies

8.5 Needs Assessment Competencies for Course Designers

9.1 Qualifications for Subject-Matter Experts as Internal Trainers

9.2 Internal Trainer Selection Process Checklist

9.3 Sample Letter of Invitation to Internal Trainer Candidates

9.4 Internal Trainer Agreement

10.1 Marketing Events Checklist

10.2 Avoid “No Shows” Tips and Checklist

11.1 Training Function Services

11.2 Publicity Checklist for Ongoing Events

11.3 Dynamite Flyers and Brochures Checklist

11.4 Graphic Guidelines for Brochures

11.5 Training Announcement Template

11.6 Training Results Template

11.7 Recognition Tools

11.8 Training Function Web Page Content Checklist

11.9 Suggested Types of Training Web Links

12.1 Planning Checklist

12.2 Scheduling Checklist

12.3 Workshop Registration Form

12.4 Training Participant Cover Letter

12.5 Pre-Workshop Survey

12.6 Sample Confirmation Letter

12.7 How to Get the Most Out of Our Workshops

12.8 How to Set Great Expectations

12.9 Registration Packet Checklist

12.10 Room Set-Up Diagrams

12.11 Room Preparation Checklist

12.12 Audiovisual Hints

12.13 Survival Kit for Training Rooms

12.14 Instructor Feedback Sheet

12.15 Workshop Follow-Up Checklist

13.1 Off-Site Meeting Planning Checklist

13.2 Sample Workshop Room and Service Requirements

13.3 Sample Hotel Evaluation Form

13.4 Travel Agency Expectations Checklist

13.5 Personal Traveler Profile

14.1 Corporate Library and Resource Center Checklist

14.2 Equipment Purchase Checklist

14.3 Maintenance Inventory Template

14.4 Equipment Inventory Template

14.5 Training Materials Inventory Template

14.6 Supply Order Template

14.7 Tuition Reimbursement Form

Exhibits

3.1 Differences Between Traditional Training and a Performance Consulting Approach

3.2 Multiple Roles of the Performance Consultant

3.3 Suggested Answers to the Performance Consulting Role Case Scenario

4.1 Roles to Develop a Partnership to Improve Performance

4.2 Sample Summary of Skills Checklist

4.3 Sample Skill Observation Checklist

4.4 Sample Supervisor’s Help Action Plan

4.5 Sample Participant Action Plan

5.1 Overlay of Project Management and the Eight-Step Consulting Process

5.2 Performance Improvement Project Plan Checklist

6.1 Relate Business Needs to Learning Objectives and Package Content

6.2 OCTA Proposal Evaluation Form

6.3 CDM Management Boot Camp Logo

7.1 ClinPhone Training Provider Review Form

8.1 Baystate Health Career Path

8.2 Differences Among Trainer, Internal Consultant, and Change Agent Roles

9.1 Invitation Letter

9.2 Facilitator Qualifications

9.3 SERVICEplus Facilitator Application

9.4 SERVICEplus Facilitator Agreement

9.5 SERVICEplus Mission Statement and Philosophy and Texas Tech Vision

10.1 NFP Training Conference Logo

10.2 Cline Davis Mann Management Boot Camp Logo

12.1 SEDP Preview Checklist

12.2 SEDP Class of 2006 Planning Schedule

Contents of the CD-ROM

I. Chapter Tools—All in Word

1.1 Training Function Systems Audit

1.2 Average Score Card

2.1 Mission Statement Worksheet

2.2 Training Manager Job Description

2.3 Training Manager Job Description Template

2.4 Cost of Training Template

2.5 Training Budget Template and Worksheet

2.6 Cost-Benefit Analysis Template

3.1 Performance Consulting Role Inventory

3.2 Sample Performance Consulting Process Scenario

3.3 Performance Consulting Skills Inventory

4.1 Partnership Checklist for Managers and Supervisors

4.2 Partnership Checklist for Trainers and the Training Function

4.3 Partnership Checklist for Learners

6.1 Essential Elements to Buy Training Programs Checklist

6.2 Request for Proposal Template

6.3 Selecting Packaged Training Programs Checklist

6.4 Selecting the Best Resources Template

7.1 Screening Consultants Criteria Worksheet

7.2 Proposal Evaluation Rating Sheet

7.3 Consultant Interview Questions

7.4 Consultant Interview Evaluation Checklist

7.5 Decision-Making and Negotiation Checklist

7.6 Checklist to Monitor Consultant Performance

7.7 Consulting Closing Checklist

8.1 End-of-Course Evaluation Form

8.2 Feedback and Coaching Template for Internal Trainers

8.3 Best Learning Experiences

8.4 Basic and Advanced Trainer Competencies

8.5 Needs Assessment Competencies for Course Designers

9.1 Qualifications for Subject-Matter Experts as Internal Trainers

9.2 Internal Trainer Selection Process Checklist

9.3 Sample Letter of Invitation to Internal Trainer Candidates

9.4 Internal Trainer Agreement

10.1 Marketing Events Checklist

10.2 Avoid “No Shows” Tips and Checklist

11.1 Training Function Services

11.2 Publicity Checklist for Ongoing Events

11.3 Dynamite Flyers and Brochures Checklist

11.4 Graphic Guidelines for Brochures

11.5 Training Announcement Template

11.6 Training Results Template

11.7 Recognition Tools

11.8 Training Function Web Page Content Checklist

11.9 Suggested Types of Training Web Links

12.1 Planning Checklist

12.2 Scheduling Checklist

12.3 Workshop Registration Form

12.4 Training Participant Cover Letter

12.5 Pre-Workshop Survey

12.6 Sample Confirmation Letter

12.7 How to Get the Most Out of Our Workshops

12.8 How to Set Great Expectations

12.9 Registration Packet Checklist

12.10 Room Set-Up Diagrams

12.11 Room Preparation Checklist

12.12 Audiovisual Hints

12.13 Survival Kit for Training Rooms

12.14 Instructor Feedback Sheet

12.15 Workshop Follow-Up Checklist

13.1 Off-Site Meeting Planning Checklist

13.2 Sample Workshop Room and Service Requirements

13.3 Sample Hotel Evaluation Form

13.4 Travel Agency Expectations Checklist

13.5 Personal Traveler Profile

14.1 Corporate Library and Resource Center Checklist

14.2 Equipment Purchase Checklist

14.3 Maintenance Inventory Template

14.4 Equipment Inventory Template

14.5 Training Materials Inventory Template

14.6 Supply Order Template

14.7 Tuition Reimbursement Form

Acknowledgments

THANKS TO THE MANY TRAINING MANAGERS who shared their success stories, case studies, and tools to enrich this book. Thanks to Melissa Smith, Linda Ernst, and Kathleen Terry Manna for the research and development of some of the case studies. Thanks to Martin Delahoussaye, Rebecca Taff, and the many editors at Pfeiffer who believe in this work and helped make it better. Special thanks to Roberta Olden.

Introduction

Purpose of This Book

Many training managers and workplace learning and performance managers have similar roles in providing cost-effective training and performance improvement solutions for the organization, but each of them has different responsibilities. This book addresses most of the responsibilities and underlying skills needed by training managers, training coordinators, and workplace learning and performance managers.

These professionals face unique challenges in accomplishing their responsibilities. They often report a need to be better organized and to prioritize activities, and are frequently overwhelmed by requests for training activities. Some feel underappreciated and lack the skills to assert themselves when requests are inappropriate or unrealistic or to offer non-training alternatives to performance issues. Many express an interest in problem solving a range of issues faced on a daily basis. Several strategies and tactics are offered in this book to organize the roles and responsibilities of these training managers, along with a variety of checklists for a comprehensive and structured approach to varied duties and responsibilities.

Audience: Who Is This Book For?

A training manager, training coordinator, chief learning officer, workplace learning and performance manager, or a “department-of-one” in any organization needs to provide training to build skills and implement performance improvement solutions for employees to meet business needs in a cost-effective manner. This book is also designed to address those who manage internal performance consultants and focus on learning, rather than training, and improving workplace performance. Although some training managers directly train employees, more often they provide employee skill development and performance solutions indirectly, through a training staff, internal subject-matter experts, external trainers, consultants, or packaged programs.

Since 1983, The Training Clinic of Seal Beach, California, has presented workshops to develop training managers. More than 10,000 training managers have attended this type of training in a twenty-year period. This book is based on our success in meeting the needs of this group. Three different target groups of training managers have attended these workshops:

Training managers in small organizations and training coordinators in large organizations sometimes provide

administrative

support for the training function. Their main purpose is to schedule, document, and coordinate the presentation of training or performance improvement solutions provided by others. Often the administrative coordinator comes from the clerical ranks and is not involved in identifying training needs, selecting training providers, or evaluating the results of training. Some of these coordinators support participants who enroll in internal and external workshops.

Training managers are sometimes “departments-of-one” and

manage

a training function by themselves. This type of training manager or performance improvement specialist identifies training needs, seeks appropriate providers to deliver training, schedules, documents, and coordinates the presentation of training or performance improvement solutions, and assesses the results of training. This training manager often comes from within the operation’s area of the business.

Training managers are sometimes

staff professionals

who are a combination or hybrid of the above two types of training managers and administrators. This person is usually a training or performance improvement professional, who often has a training or consulting background and is responsible for any or all of the roles and responsibilities described above. Throughout the book, the term “training manager” will apply to all of the professionals described here.

All tools and checklists are available on a CD-ROM that accompanies the book.

Best Practices

Most chapters have success stories from large, medium, and small organizations in either the public or private sector. Tools used in these organizations are provided so the training manager can adapt the tools for his or her situation. The organizations represented have a variety of approaches. The training managers who provided these best practices are busy in their own organizations. Rather than ask them to write case studies specifically for any of the chapters in this book, the author selected case studies that support the material in various chapters. The result is a comprehensive approach that is easy for the reader to adapt to his or her own situation. Contributed cases were written by the author or by senior instructors for The Training Clinic Melissa Smith, Linda Ernst, or Kathleen Terry Manna.

Prior Works

The Trainer’s Support Handbook

, (2001) McGraw Hill, by Jean Barbazette

Instant Case Studies

(2004) Pfeiffer, by Jean Barbazette

The Trainer’s Journey to Competence

(2005) Pfeiffer, by Jean Barbazette

Training Needs Assessment

(2006) Pfeiffer, by Jean Barbazette

The Art of Great Training Delivery

(2006) Pfeiffer, by Jean Barbazette

Successful New Employee Orientation, 3rd edition

(2007) Pfeiffer, by Jean Barbazette

1Training Function Systems Audit

Chapter Objectives

This chapter will help the training manager to:

Define a training function

Clarify which roles and responsibilities apply to ten key functional areas

Interpret the Training Function Systems Audit

Tools

1.1. Training Function Systems Audit

1.2. Average Score Card

Case Study

Training Department Systems Audit for a State-Owned Airline in Southeast Asia

Define a Training Function

Generally, a training function exists in an organization to develop knowledge and skills and shape attitudes that will help meet a business need. Many functions act strategically by using a planned and organized approach to meet business needs when development needs are anticipated. Some functions are reactive and primarily respond to requests for training events and services. For example, often someone in the sales organization will anticipate that new or current salespersons lack product knowledge information when new products emerge or older products are enhanced or upgraded. Often the depth of the need is assessed to determine which salespeople lack specific knowledge. Following this assessment, training and providing job aids may be seen as solutions to provide up-to-date information.

So a training function in a sales organization would help salespeople improve their product knowledge to help customers select the most appropriate product to meet their needs. The training function would also help salespersons increase their sales volume by developing skills in sales techniques, time and territory management, and interpersonal skills. A less strategic or reactive approach would be for a training function to wait for requests for assistance to improve poor sales performance following a new product rollout.

Whether your training function is strategic or reactive (and wants to be more strategic), it is most helpful to clarify ten key areas of your training function.

Clarify Which Roles and Responsibilities Apply to Ten Key Areas of Your Current Function

The Training Function Systems Audit is a tool that allows training managers or other auditors to clarify and identify how their function is operating in ten key areas. It may be that all ten areas are not strategically important in a specific training function. Consider which of these ten key areas apply in your organization:

Select Strategic Roles and Responsibilities for Training Managers

A Performance Consulting Approach to Managing a Training Function Scorecard

Partner with Management and Gain Support for the Training Function

Use Project Management Skills

Assess and Evaluate Training Needs

Select a Consultant or External Trainer, Training Programs, Packages, and Equipment

Manage Internal Trainers: Selection, Roles, Feedback, and Development

Market the Training Function

Publicize Training Function Events and Services

Schedule and Administer Training Events and Services

Within each of the ten key areas, a description is provided to identify the stage of development of each activity within the training manager’s function. The four stages of development are:

Little/none: aimed at short-term results

Basic: requirements have been defined

Intermediate: aimed at effective use of internal expertise

Advanced: aimed at continuous improvement

The following pages show how to use the score card to rate the stage of the training function’s development for each activity. Use the score card before each set of descriptions to determine the level you have attained for each activity within each of the ten key areas. For some activities in which your score may be in between two levels of development, either select a score that describes the higher level of activity or use a rating of 1.5, 2.5, or 3.5. An average score card follows the audit and can be created to show a complete assessment of the training function. Later chapters in this book and other resources will provide skills and suggestions to develop skill in a specific activity to move the function to a higher stage of development that enhances the training function and better serves internal customers. Some readers might find it easier to complete one key area and then read the chapter that develops those skills; other readers might find it easier to complete the entire audit before reading subsequent chapters.

Tool 1.1. Training Function Systems Audit

1. Select Strategic Roles and Responsibilities for Training Managers

Use the descriptions on the next pages and identify the level of development achieved for each activity. Write that number on the line below using these levels of development:

Little/none: aimed at short-term results

Basic: requirements have been defined

Intermediate: aimed at effective use of internal expertise

Advanced: aimed at continuous improvement

Activities

_____ Link assessments to vision, mission, and business plan

_____ Anticipate future needs and use long-term planning

_____ Develop a short-term training plan

_____ Develop priorities consistent with the business plan and act as a performance consultant to the organization

_____ Prepare, monitor, and modify a budget

_____ Manage training-related projects

_____ Ensure legal, ethical, and regulatory compliance

_____ Develop a positive relationship with those who train and develop courses

_____ Gain access to upper management

_____ Support and develop training function personnel

_____ Use and supervise external resources

_____ Participate in outside professional organizations

_____ Keep up-to-date with training trends

_____ Total Score (divide total score by 13 to identify the average stage of development)

_____ Average stage of development (scale is 1 to 4)

Training Function Systems Audit Descriptions

1. Select Strategic Roles and Responsibilities tor Training Manager

Activity

Stage 1 Little/None

Stage 2 Basic

Stage 3 Intermediate

Stage 4 Advanced

Link assessment to vision, mission, business plan.

There is no clearly defined vision, mission, or business plan. If a vision, mission, and business plan exist, they are not clearly communicated by training function management.

The vision, mission, and objectives are clearly defined for the staff by training function management and limited to the business’ products and or services.

The training function’s vision, mission, and objectives are developed into a training plan in a participative manner with the training manager, and those who train assess training needs or act as performance consultants.

When necessary, the vision, mission, and objectives are adjusted based on internal and external information from management, training function, and the client.

Anticipate future needs and use long-term planning.

None done.

Crisis management and lack of long-term planning is the norm. Little short-term planning is done.

Training manager promotes cross-training among those who train to provide flexibility in training delivery or when providing other performance solutions. Some needs assessment is done and a training plan is developed for at least one year.

Training manager supports those who train with time, funding, training, and facilities to continually improve internal processes. Needs assessment is integrated into the operation as an ongoing activity and training plans, including non-training solutions, are projected for three to five years to meet the business needs.

Develop a short-term training plan.

None done.

Training needs and wants are sorted. The training manager helps operations identify training needs.

A training plan is completed in response to specific requests and includes conducting one or a few training events and non-training solutions. Training costs are identified and more than one resource is identified for selection of the best alternative.

Training manager partners with operations to identify training needs that are tied to business needs. Training and non-training solutions are used to improve performance. The annual planning process has input from operations, internal trainers, and customers.

Develop priorities consistent with the business plan and act as a performance consultant to the organization.

Criteria to sort the training function’s priorities are unclear. The training manager is reactive and focuses on administrative functions. Roles and responsibilities sometimes are unclear and overlap with other areas.

The training manager has a generally written job description and a specific line of reporting authority. Much of the actual work for the training manager can be summarized in the “other duties as assigned” category.

Training manager’s priorities are to act primarily as a performance consultant to the client, act as a resource to find courses, develop and find back-up instructors, as well as non-training solutions. Roles and responsibilities of training manager are clear to him/her and others.

The training manager’s priorities are to act primarily as performance consultant to the client, act as a resource to course developers, and see that the function is appropriately staffed to avoid canceling classes during a highly active training period. Non-training solutions are widely accepted by the organization.

Prepare, monitor, and modify a budget.

No budget exists.

Individual projects are funded on an as-needed basis.

An annual budget is based on a training plan created from a needs assessment. Unanticipated projects are funded when cost-justified.

An annual budget is based on a training plan created from a needs assessment. Unanticipated projects are reviewed for cyclical implications and future planning.

Manage training-related projects.

No formal project management process exists.

A template for managing projects is used on a sporadic basis.

A project management process is defined, used, and updated as needed.

A project management process is defined and systematically used, continuously reviewed, and updated.

Ensure legal, ethical, and regulatory compliance.

No formal policy statement exists.

Legal, ethical, and regulatory requirements are known and compliance is minimally documented upon request to avoid penalties.

Legal, ethical, and regulatory requirements are known and compliance is documented.

Legal, ethical, and regulatory requirements are known and compliance is documented according to a master schedule. Regulations and the documentation are regularly reviewed to ensure compliance.

Develop a positive relationship with those who train and develop courses.

The training manager leaves subject-matter experts alone to do their tasks with little information shared among those who train.

The training manager is selectively available to those who train and contact usually involves problem solving and complaint resolution.

The training manager shares his/her expertise with those who develop courses, train and provide non-training solutions.

Recognition and appreciation of individual and team contributions are normal and publicly expressed and are consistently used for professional growth.

Gain access to upper management.

The training function operates on a reactive basis to assist upper management with skill development for immediate operational requirements.

The training function has taken initial steps to gain access to management to support ad hoc minimal planning and skill development for operational requirements.

The training manager can access upper management on a regular and ad hoc basis, and management shows a real interest in training issues. Upper management partners for needs assessment, and follow-up from training events.

Upper management is directly accessible and supportive and participates as a sponsor for training function projects. Continuous improvement of the partnership is formally documented.

Support and develop training function personnel.

Little or no support is provided to those who train for the function.

There is a limited systematic approach to personnel support and development (performance appraisal and career planning, training plan involvement).

The training manager regularly discusses the operational processes and work allocation of those who train and supports collection of skill development needs.

Those who train are routinely given time, attention, and resources for their professional development. A sabbatical model is often used.

Use and supervise external resources.

No method exists to contract and monitor the use of external resources.

A policy and procedures describe the appropriate use of external resources.

A practical policy and realistic procedures govern the appropriate use of external resources. They are periodically reviewed for compliance.

A practical policy and realistic procedures govern the appropriate use of external resources. External resources are trained in contract and monitoring compliance measures. External resources give input for policy and procedure revisions.

Participate in outside professional organizations.

Little or no support for membership in outside professional associations exists.

Attendance at outside training and professional meetings is limited due to the pressure of work.

Trainers/performance consultants attend outside professional development sessions and share that information with colleagues.

Active membership in professional organizations is normal. Trainers are trend-setters among their peers, giving presentations at professional conferences, and holding office in professional organizations.

Keep up-to-date with training trends.

No method exists to capture training trends.

Training manager has minimal awareness of training trends.

Trend updates are pursued on ad hoc basis.

Trend updates are integrated into doing business. The training function is a trendsetter and may participate in trend research.

2. A Performance Consulting Approach to Managing the Training Function

Use the descriptions on the next page and identify the level of development you have reached for each activity. Write that number on the line below using the following key for levels of development:

Little/none: aimed at short-term results

Basic: requirements have been defined

Intermediate: aimed at effective use of internal expertise

Advanced: aimed at continuous improvement

Activities

_____ Act as a performance consultant to the client.

_____ Select the appropriate role for each situation.

_____ Use a systematic performance consulting process.

_____ Total Score (divide total score by 3 to identify the average stage of development)

_____ Average stage of development

Training Function Systems Audit Descriptions

2. A Performance Consulting Approach to Managing a Training Function

Activity

Stage 1 Little/None

Stage 2 Basic

Stage 3 Intermediate

Stage 4 Advanced

Act as a performance consultant to the client.

The training manager’s priorities are to act primarily as a department head and an advisor to course developers and trainers and respond to requests from user departments.

The training manager’s role is to act as a performance improvement consultant to management and align training with business needs.

Training events are not conducted without a needs assessment to sort training and non-training issues and focus on performance improvement.

The training manager contracts with the client at the appropriate level for results, not just events.

Select the appropriate role for each situation.

Roles are primarily as a trainer, problem solver, and facilitator.

The training manager is aware of a variety of roles, including observer, questioner, advisor, and director.

The training manager selects appropriate role(s) based on the situation, the organization’s culture, and current skills.

The training manager negotiates appropriate role(s), sets boundaries with the client, and often changes roles to gain a better result.

Use a systematic performance consulting process.

The training manager uses needs assessment to justify training events.

The training manager understands the elements of a systematic consulting process and begins to use steps based on current skills.

The training manager effectively uses an eight-step performance consulting process to contract for results, not events. Following an assessment, a performance improvement plan is developed and executed with the client’s assistance.

The training manager report successes and looks for ways to improve the performance consulting process.

3. Partner with Management and Gain Support for the Training Function

Use the descriptions on the next pages and identify the level of development for each activity. Write that number on the line below using these levels of development:

Little/none: aimed at short-term results

Basic: requirements have been defined

Intermediate: aimed at effective use of internal expertise

Advanced: aimed at continuous improvement

Activities

_____ Define/assess training needs with management

_____ Create a training plan for management’s approval

_____ Set expectations and objectives with management

_____ Develop program content to meet agreed-on objectives

_____ Provide overview/pilot of program for management

_____ Schedule training with consideration for workload and organization’s needs

_____ Provide management with information to assist in follow-up coaching and support

_____ Validate content with observation of use of skills on the job

_____ Evaluate results of changed behavior with supervisors

_____ Review and revise training as needed

_____ Publish successes

_____ Total Score (divide total score by 11 to identify the average stage of development)

_____ Average stage of development

Training Function Systems Audit Descriptions

3. Partner with Management and Gain Support tor the Training Function

Activity

Stage 1 Little/None

Stage 2 Basic

Stage 3 Intermediate

Stage 4 Advanced

Define/assess training needs with management.

The training function receives training requests.

Informal discussions verify the training needs.

Informal and formal needs assessments are jointly conducted by the training function and management’s representatives.

Management supports or is involved in every step of the assessment process.

Create a training plan for management’s approval.

An informal understanding substitutes for a training plan.

A ten-part training plan links training events to a business need.

A performance improvement plan broadens the scope of a training event.

The performance improvement plan is regularly assessed and modified as needed.

Set expectations and objectives with management.

Management expectations are vague or unexpressed.

Management clarifies their expectations of the training function.

Management and the training function share expectations of each other and agree on objectives.

Expectations and objectives are regularly reviewed and modified as needed.

Develop program content to meet agreed-on objectives.

Existing program content is purchased and meets 50 to 80 percent of the objectives.

Program content is customized to meet most learning objectives.

Program content meets all learning objectives.

Program content is regularly reviewed and modified to meet learning objectives.

Provide overview/pilot of program for management.

No overview or pilot is provided beyond a course outline.

Program materials are shared with the program sponsor.

An overview of the program content is conducted at a management meeting.

A pilot of the program content is conducted for the target population, management, and training peers.

Schedule training with consideration for workload and organization’s needs.

Training is scheduled based on room availability.

Management and the training function agree on an optimum schedule.

Management and the training function schedule multiple sessions on a variety of days and shifts to accommodate the largest number of participants.

Schedules are continually reviewed for improvement.

Provide management with information to assist in follow-up coaching and support.

No follow-up action is taken.

Copies of participant action plans are provided to management. Coaching and follow-up activities are recommended to management.

Managers are trained as coaches using follow-up support activities for each training event.

Coaching and follow-up support are reviewed for continuous improvement.

Validate content with observation of use of skills on the job.

No validation is performed.

Trainers suggest how supervisors can observe learning transfer of new skills to the job.

Trainers visit the job site to observe how course content is applied on the job.

Content of course is validated on a regular basis through observation and discussions with subject-matter experts, course participants, and their supervisors.

Evaluate results of changed behavior with supervisors.

No evaluation is done.

Supervisors are given checklists to observe and evaluate behavior change.

Trainers and supervisors partner to observe changed behavior.

Behavior change is monitored jointly on a regular basis for continuous improvement.

Review and revise training as needed.

Revisions are done upon request.

The results of knowledge and skill tests are reviewed for revisions of training content and processes.

Management and the training function partner to review and revise training content and processes as needed.

Management and the training function partner to review and revise training content and processes on a regular basis.

Publish successes.

No successes are formally published.

The training function shares verbal reports to management.

Written reports to management are published.

A variety of channels publicize the success of the training function.

4. Use Project Management Skills

Use the descriptions on following pages and identify the level of development for each activity. Write that number on the line below using these levels of development:

Little/none: aimed at short-term results

Basic: requirements have been defined

Intermediate: aimed at effective use of internal expertise

Advanced: aimed at continuous improvement

Activities