Immunology - Ian Todd - ebook

Immunology ebook

Ian Todd

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129,99 zł

Opis

Highly Commended at the British Medical Association Book Awards 2016 Immunology Lecture Notes provides a thorough grounding in basic concepts of immunity. Covering the core components of the Immunology curriculum at medical school, it presents a concise overview of the immune system, its interactions with pathogens, the major areas of immunopathology, including immunodeficiency, allergy, autoimmunity, lymphoptopliferative diseases and transplantation, and their therapy. Immunology Lecture Notes includes: * Full-colour descriptive illustrations and diagrams throughout, supplemented by new molecular graphics and anatomical scans * New clinical cases developed as themes throughout the book to illustrate the practical application of immunological principles * Fully updated self-assessment questions with expanded explanation of answers With learning objectives and key points guiding you through the vital concepts, Immunology Lecture Notes will help you to address the key disorders of the immune system, and use immunological developments in clinical practice.

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CONTENTS

Cover

Title page

Preface to the seventh edition

From the preface to the first edition

Key to symbols used in this edition

Overview of the immune system

Part 1: Immunity and the Immune System

1 The nature of immunity

Recognition and defence components

Innate and adaptive immunity

Stages of an immune response

Immunological defence strategies

An overview

Immunopathology

Self-Assessment Questions

2 Immune recognition

Recognition of PAMPs

Recognition of antigens

The HLA system and its proteins

Self-Assessment Questions

3 Lymphocyte development and activation

B-cell development

B-cell activation and maturation

T-cell development and education

T-cell subpopulations

Self-Assessment Questions

4 Lymphocyte interactions, cytokines and the lymphoid system

Cytokines and T-cell subpopulations

The lymphoid system

Lymphocyte recirculation and homing

Lymphocyte selection and maturation

Laboratory methods

Self-Assessment Questions

5 Immunoglobulins

Structure

Classes and subclasses

Triggering of effector systems

Immunoglobulin genes

Exploiting the properties of immunoglobulins: Laboratory methods

Self-Assessment Questions

6 Complement

The classical pathway (Fig. 6.3) and the lectin pathway

The alternative pathway (Fig 6.5)

The membrane attack pathway (Fig. 6.2)

Inadequate regulation of complement activation

Complement polymorphisms and deficiencies

Self-Assessment Questions

7 Phagocytes

Macrophages

Neutrophils

Common features of phagocyte responses

Self-Assessment Questions

8 Mast cells, basophils and eosinophils

Triggering of mast cells and basophils

Mast cell mediators

Eosinophils

Cooperation between mast cells, basophils and eosinophils

Self-Assessment Questions

9 Killer cells

Mechanisms of target cell recognition

Mechanisms of target cell killing

Cooperation between killer cells and interferons

Self-Assessment Questions

Part 2: Immunopathology

10 Immunity and infection

Defence against infection

Mechanisms of evasion

The inflammatory response

Regulation of immune and inflammatory responses

Diagnosis of microbial infection

Opportunistic infection

Chronic inflammatory diseases of unknown cause

The host–pathogen interface

Self-Assessment Questions

11 Primary and secondary immunodeficiency disorders

Important clues

Investigation of suspected immunodeficiency

Primary or secondary immunodeficiency

Severe combined immunodeficiency

Thymic hypoplasia (DiGeorge syndrome; 22q11 deletion syndromes)

T-cell deficiencies

Defects in mediator production and the innate immune system

NK cell defects

B-cell deficiencies: Hypogammaglobulinaemia

Other forms of hypogammaglobulinaemia (Table 11.4)

Transient hypogammaglobulinaemia of infancy

Selective immunoglobulin deficiencies

Phagocyte defects

Complement deficiencies

Secondary forms of immunodeficiency

Non-immunological abnormalities that predispose to infection (Table 11.10)

HIV infection and AIDS

Clinical features

Self-Assessment Questions

12 The generation of tissue-damaging responses

The immune system as a contributor to disease

Responses to extracellular bacteria

Responses to intracellular bacteria

Responses to viral infections

Abnormal responses to vaccines

Types of immune reactions

Responses to non-microbial antigens

Contributory factors to hypersensitivity reactions

Responses to autoantigens

Phases of autoimmunity

Role of MHC antigens in autoimmunity

Measuring the strength of associations

Phenotypes, genotypes and haplotypes

Genotype nomenclature

Mechanisms of association with MHC antigens

Role of other genes in autoimmunity

Infection as a trigger of autoimmunity

Mechanisms of induction of autoimmunity

Responses to unidentified antigens

Self-Assessment Questions

13 Mechanisms of immunological tissue damage

Introduction

Immediate hypersensitivity (type I)

IgG, IgA or IgM cell- or membrane-reactive mechanism (type II)

Immune complex (IC) mechanism (type III)

Cell-mediated mechanisms: DTH (type IV)

Cell-mediated cytotoxicity

Clinical examples

Skin disease

Kidney disease

Self-Assessment Questions

14 Lymphoproliferative disease

Lymphocytosis and lymphadenopathy

Viruses and oncogenes

EB virus and infectious mononucleosis

Leukaemias

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL)

Acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML)

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)

Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML)

Lymphomas

Hodgkin’s disease

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHL)

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma

Monoclonal gammopathies

Macroglobulinaemia

Myeloma

Monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance

Heavy chain diseases

Cryoglobulinaemia

Amyloidosis

Self-Assessment Questions

15 Transplantation

Histocompatibility systems

The rejection process

Afferent limb

Efferent limb

Ways of modifying the rejection process

HLA typing and matching

Source and preparation of the graft

Selection and preparation of the recipient

Monitoring the allograft response

Non-specific immunosuppression

Specific immunosuppression

The blood transfusion effect

Recurrent and transferred disease

Xenografts

Bone marrow and stem cell transplantation

Graft-versus-host disease

Indications for haematopoeitic stem cell transplant

Autologous transplantation

Self-Assessment Questions

16 Immunological therapy

The approach to immunotherapy

Passive immunotherapy

Active immunotherapy

Principles of active immunization

Immunization against infectious disease

Immunotherapy for cancer

Immunotherapy for allergy (‘desensitization’) and for autoimmune diseases

Immunomodulatory therapy

Corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive drugs

Cytokines, interferons and CSFs

Monoclonal antibodies and soluble receptor molecules

Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic therapy

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Anti-allergic drugs

Self-Assessment Questions

Part 3: Self-assessment: answers

Self-assessment: answers

Index

End User License Agreement

List of Tables

Chapter 01

Table 1.1 Examples of types of pathogens and the diseases they cause.

Table 1.2 Cells of the immune system.

Table 1.3 Secreted mediators of immunity.

Chapter 02

Table 2.1 Innate immune recognition by pattern recognition molecules.

Table 2.2 Examples of CD molecules and their cellular expression.

Table 2.3 Relationship between T-cell phenotype, HLA restriction and function.

Chapter 03

Table 3.1 Examples of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that interact with Toll-like receptors (TLRs).

Chapter 04

Table 4.1 Cytokines: Their sources and immunological functions.

Table 4.2 CD4

+

T-cell cytokines and their effects.

Table 4.3 The influence of cytokine production on disease pathogenesis following infection of macrophages by

Mycobacterium leprae

.

Table 4.4 Adhesion molecules involved in the selective homing of T cells to different tissues.

Chapter 05

Table 5.1 Physical and biological characteristics of immunoglobulins.

Table 5.2 Mechanisms that contribute to the diversity of immunoglobulin variable domains.

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