Featuring important theories and trends not covered in other foundational texts, this book is designed to equip the next generation of counselors with the tools they need for understanding the core dimensions of the helping relationship. Topical experts provide contemporary information and insight on the following theories: psychoanalytic, Jungian, Adlerian, existential, person-centered, Gestalt, cognitive behavior, dialectical behavior, rational emotive behavior, reality therapy/choice theory, family, feminist, transpersonal, and--new to this edition--solution-focused and narrative therapies, as well as creative approaches to counseling. Each theory is discussed from the perspective of historical background, human nature, major constructs, applications, the change process, traditional and brief intervention strategies, cross-cultural considerations, and limitations. The use of a consistent case study across chapters reinforces the differences between theories. *Requests for digital versions from ACA can be found on www.wiley.com. *To purchase print copies, please visit the ACA website *Reproduction requests for material from books published by ACA should be directed to [email protected]
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Features of the Text
New to this Edition
Meet the Editors
Meet the Contributors
Part 1: Foundations for Individual Counseling and Psychotherapy
Chapter 1: The Helping Relationship: From Core Dimensions to Brief and Integrative Possibilities
Definitions and Descriptions
Helping Relationships: Stages
Helping Relationships: Core Conditions
Helping Relationships: Strategies
Brief Approaches: An Overview
Moving Toward an Integrative Approach to Counseling and Psychotherapy
Chapter 2: Diversity and Social Justice Issues in Counseling and Psychotherapy
Changing Demographics in U.S. Society
Multicultural and Social Justice Counseling Perspectives
Counseling with Diverse Clients
Diversity and the Counseling Process
Becoming a Diversity- and Social-Justice–Competent Counselor
Part 2: Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Chapter 3: Psychoanalytic Theory
Human Nature: A Developmental Perspective
The Case of Maria: a Psychoanalytic Approach
Chapter 4: Jungian Analytical Theory
Human Nature: A Developmental Perspective
The Case of Maria: A Jungian Approach
Chapter 5: Adlerian Theory
Human Nature: A Developmental Perspective
The Case of Maria: An Adlerian Approach
Chapter 6: Existential Theory
Human Nature: A Developmental Perspective
The Case of Maria: An Existential Approach
Chapter 7: Person-Centered Theory
Human Nature: A Developmental Perspective
The Case of Maria: A Person-Centered Approach
Chapter 8: Gestalt Theory
Human Nature: A Developmental Perspective
The Case of Maria: A Gestalt Approach
Chapter 9: Cognitive Behavior Theories
Human Nature: A Developmental Perspective
The Case of Maria: A Cognitive–Behavioral Approach
Chapter 10: Dialectical Behavior Theory
Human Nature: A Developmental Perspective
The Case of Maria: A Dialectical Approach
Chapter 11: Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy
Human Nature: A Developmental Perspective
The Case of Maria: An Rebt Approach
Chapter 12: Reality Therapy/Choice Theory
Human Nature: A Developmental Perspective
The Case of Maria: A Reality Therapy Approach
Chapter 13: Family Theory
Human Nature: A Developmental Perspective
The Case of Maria: A Family Therapy Approach
Chapter 14: Feminist Theory
Human Nature: a Developmental Perspective
The Case of Maria: a Feminist Approach
Chapter 15: Transpersonal Theory
Human Nature: a Developmental Perspective
The Case Of Maria: a Transpersonal Approach
Part 3: Constructivist Theories and Creative Approaches
Chapter 16: Constructivist Theories: Solution-Focused and Narrative Therapies
Human Nature: a Developmental Perspective
The Case of Maria: a Constructivist Approach
Chapter 17: Creative Approaches in Counseling and Psychotherapy
Human Nature: a Developmental Perspective
Techniques for Implementing the Process of Change (Traditional)
The Case of Maria: Creative Approaches
End User License Agreement
Table of Contents
edited byDavid Capuzzi and Mark D. Stauffer
AMERICAN COUNSELINGASSOCIATION6101 Stevenson Avenue, Suite 600Alexandria, VA 22304www.counseling.org
Copyright © 2016 by the American Counseling Association. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the written permission of the publisher.
American Counseling Association
6101 Stevenson Avenue, Suite 600 Alexandria, VA 22304
Associate Publisher Carolyn C. Baker
Digital and Print Development Editor Nancy Driver
Senior Production Manager Bonny E. Gaston
Copy Editor Beth Ciha
Cover and text design by Bonny E. Gaston.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Capuzzi, David, editor. | Stauffer, Mark D., editor.
Title: Counseling and psychotherapy : theories and interventions/edited by David Capuzzi and Mark D. Stauffer.
Description: Sixth edition.|Alexandria, VA : American Counseling Association, |Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2015049585|ISBN 9781556203541 (pbk. : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Counseling.|Psychotherapy.|Counseling—Case studies.| Psychotherapy—Case studies.
Classification: LCC BF636.6 .C6735 2016|DDC 158.3—dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015049585
This sixth edition of Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Interventions presents a variety of theories and conceptual frameworks for understanding the parameters of the helping relationship. These parameters can include models for viewing personality development; explaining past behavior; predicting future behavior; understanding the current behavior of the client; diagnosing and planning treatment; assessing client motivations, needs, and unresolved issues; and identifying strategies and interventions for use during the counseling and psychotherapy process.
Theories help organize data and provide guidelines for the prevention and intervention efforts of counselors and therapists. They direct a professional helper's attention and observations and offer constructs, terminology, and viewpoints that can be understood by colleagues and used during supervision and consultation sessions. Theory directly influences the interventions used by counselors and therapists to promote a client's new insight, new behavior, and new approaches to relationships and problem solving. The greater a counselor or therapist's awareness of the strengths and possibilities inherent in numerous theoretical frames of reference, the greater the potential for understanding the uniqueness of a particular client and for developing the most effective treatment plan.
This book is unique in both format and content. All of the contributing authors are experts who provide state-of-the-art information about theories of counseling and psychotherapy (see the “Meet the Contributors” section for their backgrounds). In addition, each chapter discusses applications of theory as they relate to one particular case study: a hypothetical client named Maria to whom we are introduced in the introduction to Part 2. This book also includes information that is sometimes not addressed in other counseling and psychotherapy textbooks, such as the core dimensions of and brief and integrative approaches to the helping relationship, diversity and social justice issues in counseling, feminist theory, dialectical behavior theory, transpersonal theory, constructivist theories, and creative approaches in counseling and psychotherapy. The book's unique approach enhances its readability and should increase reader interest in the material.
This book is designed for students who are beginning their study of individual counseling and psychotherapy. It presents a comprehensive overview of each of the following: psychoanalytic, Jungian, Adlerian, existential, person-centered, Gestalt, cognitive behavior, dialectical behavior, and rational emotive behavior theories; reality therapy/choice theory; and family, feminist, transpersonal, constructivist, and creative approaches. Each theory is addressed from the perspective of background, human nature, major constructs, applications (which includes a discussion of the goals of counseling and psychotherapy, the process of change, traditional intervention strategies, and brief intervention strategies), clients with serious mental health issues, cross-cultural considerations, and evaluation (which evaluates both the supporting research and the limitations of the theory). Each discussion also includes a summary chart and a case study consistent with the theoretical model.
We know that one text cannot adequately address all of the factors connected with a given theory; entire texts have been written discussing each of the theories in this book. We have, however, attempted to provide readers with a consistent approach to analyzing and studying each theory and have included examples of how to apply the theory to a case study.
The format for this text is based on the contributions of the coeditors, who conceptualized the content and wrote the first chapter, as well as the contributions of 30 authors selected for their expertise in various theories. Each chapter contains theoretical and applied content. The text is divided into the following three parts: “Foundations for Individual Counseling and Psychotherapy,” “Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy,” and “Constructivist Theories and Creative Approaches.”
Part 1, “Foundations for Individual Counseling and Psychotherapy” (Chapters 1 and 2), begins by offering general information about the helping relationship and individual counseling as well as information on brief approaches to counseling and psychotherapy. This introductory information is followed by a chapter titled “Diversity and Social Justice Issues in Counseling and Psychotherapy,” which sets the stage for developing awareness of the limitations of traditional Western theories and subsequent cross-cultural/diversity discussions.
Part 2, “Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy” (Chapters 3–15), presents information on the 13 theories selected for inclusion in this portion of the text. Each of these chapters—“Psychoanalytic Theory,” “Jungian Analytical Theory,” “Adlerian Theory,” “Existential Theory,” “Person-Centered Theory,” “Gestalt Theory,” “Cognitive Behavior Theories,” “Dialectical Behavior Theory,” “Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy,” “Reality Therapy/Choice Theory,” “Family Theory,” “Feminist Theory,” and “Transpersonal Theory”—presents the theory and then applies the theory to the case study of Maria.
Part 3, “Constructivist Theories and Creative Approaches,” is focused on the fourth force of counseling and psychotherapy and the use of creativity in counseling.
This edition of our text includes some additional features that we think will be of great interest to readers. Chapter 1 has been updated and also includes a brief discussion on integrative counseling. An updated chapter on diversity and social justice issues in counseling and psychotherapy presents state-of-the-art information and perspectives to counselors who will be practicing with increasingly diverse client populations. Readers should really enjoy the new rendition of the psychoanalytic theory chapter, which now goes beyond a discussion of classical psychoanalysis and includes brief psychodynamic theory, psychodynamic interpersonal theory, and interpersonal psychotherapy. The cognitive–behavioral chapter provides the reader with general background about both behavioral and cognitive behavior theoretical views and discusses how the cognitive behavior approach developed from the behavioral point of view.
The updated chapter on family theory is included to sensitize the reader to the fact that counselors and therapists engaging clients in individual work must keep in mind the systemic variables influencing clients and the fact that some clients may need family counseling and psychotherapy as part of a comprehensive treatment plan.
Completely new to this sixth edition are chapters on constructivist theories and creative approaches to counseling and psychotherapy. Few counseling textbooks of this nature address these conceptual frameworks. We think readers will be stimulated by these features. Finally, professors adopting this text can request the PowerPoint slides and quiz items that have been developed for use with this text.
We, the coeditors, and the 30 other contributors have made every effort to give the reader current information and content focused on both theory and application. It is our hope that this sixth edition of Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Interventions will provide the foundation that students need to make decisions about follow-up study of specific theories as well as the development of their own personal theory of counseling and psychotherapy.
We would like to thank the authors who contributed their time and expertise to the development of this book for professionals interested in individual counseling and psychotherapy. We also thank our families, who supported and encouraged our writing and editing efforts. Thanks go out to Carolyn Baker and other staff members of the Publications Department of the American Counseling Association for their collaborative and thorough approach to the editing and production of this book.
Special thanks go to Doug Gross, who so expertly and conscientiously served as coauthor and coeditor of the first five editions of this book, which could never have become a reality without his efforts.
David Capuzzi, PhD, NCC, LPC, is a counselor educator and member of the core faculty in clinical mental health counseling at Walden University and professor emeritus at Portland State University. Previously he served as an affiliate professor in the Department of Counselor Education, Counseling Psychology, and Rehabilitation Services at The Pennsylvania State University and scholar in residence in counselor education at Johns Hopkins University. He is past president of the American Counseling Association (ACA), formerly the American Association for Counseling and Development, and past chair of both the ACA Foundation and the ACA Insurance Trust.
From 1980 to 1984, Dr. Capuzzi was editor of The School Counselor. He has authored a number of textbook chapters and monographs on the topic of preventing adolescent suicide and is coeditor and coauthor with Dr. Larry Golden of Helping Families Help Children: Family Interventions With School Related Problems (1986) and Preventing Adolescent Suicide (1988). He coauthored and coedited with Douglas R. Gross Youth at Risk: A Prevention Resource for Counselors, Teachers, and Parents (1989, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2014), Introduction to the Counseling Profession (1991, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2009, 2013), Introduction to Group Work (1992, 1998, 2002, 2006; and with Mark Stauffer in 2010), and Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Interventions (1995, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011; coauthored and coedited with Mark Stauffer in 2016). Other texts are Approaches to Group Work: A Handbook for Practitioners (2003), Suicide Across the Life Span (2006), and Sexuality Issues in Counseling (2002), the last coauthored and coedited with Larry Burlew. He has also coauthored and coedited with Mark Stauffer Career Counseling: Foundations, Perspectives, and Applications (2008, 2012) and Foundations of Addictions Counseling (2008, 2012, 2016). He has authored or coauthored articles in a number of ACA journals.
A frequent speaker and keynoter at professional conferences and institutes, Dr. Capuzzi has also consulted with a variety of school districts and community agencies interested in initiating prevention and intervention strategies for adolescents at risk for suicide. He has facilitated the development of suicide prevention, crisis management, and postvention programs in communities throughout the United States; provides training on the topics of youth at risk and grief and loss; and serves as an invited adjunct faculty member at other universities as time permits.
An ACA Fellow, he is the first recipient of ACA's Kitty Cole Human Rights Award and is also a recipient of the Leona Tyler Award in Oregon. In 2010, he received ACA's Gilbert and Kathleen Wrenn Award for a Humanitarian and Caring Person. In 2011, he was named a distinguished alumni of the College of Education at Florida State University.
Mark D. Stauffer, PhD, NCC, is a core faculty member in the clinical mental health counseling program at Walden University. He specialized in couples, marriage, and family counseling during his graduate work in the Counselor Education Program at Portland State University, where he received his master's degree. He received his doctoral degree from Oregon State University, Department of Teacher and Counselor Education.
As a clinician, Dr. Stauffer has worked in the Portland Metro Area in Oregon at crisis centers and other nonprofit organizations working with low-income individuals, couples, and families. He has studied and trained in the Zen tradition and presents locally and nationally on meditation and mindfulness-based therapies in counseling. His research focus has centered on Eastern methods and East–West collaboration. In private practice, Dr. Stauffer has worked with couples and families from a family systems perspective.
Dr. Stauffer was a Chi Sigma Iota International Fellow and was awarded the American Counseling Association's Emerging Leaders Training Grant. He recently served as the cochair of the American Counseling Association International Committee.
In addition to this counseling textbook with Dr. David Capuzzi, Dr. Stauffer has coedited several textbooks in the counseling field: Introductionto Group Work (2010), Career Counseling: Foundations, Perspectives, and Applications (2006, 2012), Foundations of Addictions Counseling (2008, 2012, 2016), and Foundations of Couples, Marriage and Family Counseling (2015). Dr. Stauffer and Dr. Capuzzi are currently working on a new textbook on human growth and development across the life span to be published by Wiley for use in counselor education programs.
Jonathan W. Carrier, MS, is the assistant director of the Center for Teaching and Learning and a psychology instructor at Laramie County Community College in Cheyenne and Laramie Wyoming. Mr. Carrier has been teaching psychology, statistics, and research methodology courses for the past 9 years and was previously a rehabilitation and mental health counselor for 4 years.
In addition to his roles as an assistant director and college educator, Mr. Carrier also spends time writing scholarly articles, book chapters, and giving presentations in the fields of counseling, psychology, and adult education. His published work focuses on suicide assessment, counseling theory, group work, classroom management skills, and best practices in adult education.
Thelma Duffey, PhD, president of the American Counseling Association (ACA), is a professor and department chair in the Department of Counseling at the University of Texas at San Antonio and owner of a multidisciplinary private practice. Dr. Duffey was the founding president of the Association for Creativity in Counseling, a division within the ACA, and she served two terms on the ACA Governing Council. Dr. Duffey is a past president of the Texas Association for Counselor Education and Supervision and served on the Executive Board of the Southern Association for Counselor Education and Supervision. Dr. Duffey is editor of the Journal of Creativity in Mental Health and served as guest coeditor for a Journal of Counseling & Development (JCD) special issue on counseling men. She is currently coediting a JCD special section on relational-cultural theory.
Dr. Duffey, an ACA Fellow, received the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) Counseling Vision and Innovation Award, the ACES Distinguished Mentor Award, and the ACA Professional Development Award. Dr. Duffey is a licensed professional counselor, a licensed marriage and family therapist, and a clinical member of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. She has more than 50 publications in the areas of creativity, innovations in grief and loss counseling, relational competencies (relational-cultural theory), and addictions. Her collaborative research project on relational competencies won the 2010 Texas Counseling Association Research Award, and her collaborative publication on assessment practices in counselor education programs received the 2014 American Association of Rehabilitation Counseling/Council of Rehabilitation Counseling Outstanding Outcome Research Award. Her edited book Creative Interventions in Grief and Loss Therapy: When the Music Stops, a Dream Dies (2007) was published by the Taylor & Francis Group, and she is coeditor of A Counselor's Guide to Working With Men (2014), published by the ACA.
Roxane L. Dufrene, PhD, LPC-S, LMFT, NCC, is an associate professor of counseling in the Department of Educational Leadership, Counseling, and Foundations at the University of New Orleans. She holds a doctorate in counselor education from Mississippi State University and a master's degree in counseling psychology from Nicholls State University. Dr. Dufrene has clinical experience in outpatient and inpatient state mental health treatment, college counseling, crisis intervention, training clinics, collaboration in schools, and private practice.
Dr. Dufrene is a Louisiana-licensed marriage and family therapist, a licensed professional counselor, a licensed professional counselor approved supervisor and a national certified counselor. Dr. Dufrene is also certified in critical incident stress management and psychological first aid, has Louisiana appraisal privilege, and is an American Red Cross mental health counselor. Her research and teaching interests include disaster mental health, crisis counseling, student remediation, counseling ethics, both qualitative and quantitative research in counseling, and supervision.
Cass Dykeman, PhD, is an associate professor of counselor education at Oregon State University. He earned his doctorate in counselor education from the University of Virginia and his master's degree in school counseling from the University of Washington. Before becoming a counselor educator, Dr. Dykeman served as a school counselor in Seattle, Washington.
Dr. Dykeman has served as the principal investigator for two federal grants and is the author of numerous books, book chapters, and scholarly articles in the area of counseling.
Emeline C. Eckart, MS, NCC, is the clinical coordinator for the University of New Orleans Counselor Education Department, in which she oversees the counseling lab and collaborates with the practicum and internship coordinator. She holds a master's degree in mental health counseling from Capella University and is currently a doctoral candidate in the University of New Orleans Counselor Education Program. Ms. Eckart also serves as a lieutenant commander in the U.S. Naval Reserves.
Ms. Eckart's clinical experience includes work in community mental health settings, addiction treatment, court-ordered child custody cases, and private practice. Her research interests include best practices for work with military clients, gender issues, supervision, and work–family conflict in women. She has taught at the University of New Orleans and was an international teaching assistant during the summer of 2015 at the University of Malta.
Abbé Finn, PhD, is the program coordinator for the Department of Counseling in the College of Health Professions and Social Work at Florida Gulf Coast University. She has worked extensively in the mental health field with individuals as well as groups in counseling. Before joining the university faculty full time, she was an employee assistance counselor with the U.S. Postal Service employee assistance program and worked at a residential treatment facility. Dr. Finn specialized in working with groups in crisis response, survivors of childhood sexual trauma, and clients in addiction recovery. Her areas of research include group counseling with people with addictions, suicide prevention, violence prevention, and addiction prevention.
Dr. Finn holds a doctorate in counselor education from the University of New Orleans; a master's degree in counseling from Loyola University, New Orleans; a master's degree in early childhood education from Tulane University; and a bachelor's degree in speech pathology and audiology.
Mary Lou Bryant Frank, PhD, currently serves as chief operating officer of the Southern Women's History Center and Fellow at the Institute for Higher Education at the University of Georgia, professor of psychology at Middle Georgia College, and an adjunct faculty member at Brenau University. Her doctorate in counseling psychology is from Colorado State University. She served as vice president for academic affairs at Middle Georgia College, associate vice president at Gainesville State College, dean of undergraduate and university studies at Kennesaw State University, and department head of psychology and sociology at North Georgia College and State University. She has served as a professor of psychology at Middle Georgia College, Gainesville State College, and Kennesaw State College and an associate professor at the University of Virginia at Wise.
Dr. Frank's research has focused on existential psychotherapy, academic success, as well as leadership. She received the Distinguished Provider Award in Counseling and has been the recipient of grants, national leadership awards, teaching and diversity leadership awards, and awards for community service. She has worked internationally on collaborations with universities in China, Morocco, Belize, and Dubai. Dr. Frank served as the president of the Georgia Association for Women in Higher Education and currently is the vice president and cofounder of the Georgia Women's Institute, vice chair of the Georgia Woman of the Year Committee, and secretary and cofounder of Possible Woman Foundation. As a mediator, she also serves on the International Association of Dispute Resolution Board of Directors.
Sarah H. Golden, MA, LPC, NCC, received her master's in counselor education from Western Michigan University and completed her undergraduate work at Hope College. She is currently working on her doctorate in counselor education and supervision with a concentration in consultation from Walden University. Sarah is a licensed professional counselor in Michigan, national certified counselor, and credentialed school counselor in California. Sarah is currently working in Los Angeles with diverse populations at USC Hybrid High School, an urban college preparatory charter high school that emphasizes positive multigenerational change. She is also the consulting counselor for an online/onsite blended learning charter school, where she saw a need for a counseling program and so developed and implemented counseling services. In addition to her school roles, Sarah is also a disaster mental health volunteer for the American Red Cross. Her other professional interests include working with marginalized populations, consultation, crisis intervention, program development, and multicultural counseling.
In addition to her career interests, Sarah is an enthusiast for volunteer work and giving back to the community. She is passionate about international work and has done short-term volunteering with youth in Rwanda, Africa. These projects included working with youth of preschool to high school age in various capacities. She is striving to develop counseling programs for youth through platforms of athletics or creative outlets in order to promote physical and mental health, positive personal growth, empowerment, and team building. Sarah is an avid runner and marathoner and has been a cross-country and track coach. She has also taught marathon classes. Sarah is passionate about utilizing her education, passions, and skills to create and promote change.
Douglas R. Gross, PhD, NCC, is a professor emeritus at Arizona State University, Tempe, where he served as a faculty member in counselor education for 29 years. His professional work history includes public school teaching, counseling, and administration. He is currently retired and living in Michigan. He has been president of the Arizona Counselors Association, president of the Western Association for Counselor Education and Supervision, chairperson of the Western Regional Branch Assembly of the American Counseling Association, president of the Association for Humanistic Education and Development, and treasurer and parliamentarian of the American Counseling Association.
Dr. Gross has contributed chapters to seven texts: Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theories and Interventions (1995, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011, 2016), Youth at Risk: A Resource Guide for Counselors, Teachers, and Parents (1989, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2014), Foundations of Mental Health Counseling (1986, 1996), Counseling: Theory, Process and Practice (1977), The Counselor's Handbook (1974), Introduction to the Counseling Profession (1991, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2009), and Introduction to Group Work (1992, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2010). His research has appeared in the Journal of Counseling Psychology; Journal of Counseling & Development; Counselor Education and Supervision; Journal of Educational Research, Counseling and Human Development; Arizona Counselors Journal; Texas Counseling Journal; and the Journal of Mental Health Counseling.
Shane Haberstroh, EdD, is currently an associate professor and doctoral program director in the Department of Counseling at the University of Texas at San Antonio. He served on the founding board for the Association for Creativity in Counseling (ACC) and as the ACC president and treasurer. He is currently the Governing Council representative for the ACC and the Governing Council liaison for the Research and Knowledge Committee of the American Counseling Association (ACA). He was awarded the Professional Service Award from the ACC in 2006. He served as a delegate on the 20/20: A Vision for the Future of Counseling initiative for the ACA from its inception.
Dr. Haberstroh serves as the associate editor for the Journal of Creativity in Mental Health. He has published more than 30 articles and book chapters primarily focused on developmental relational counseling, online counseling, creativity in counseling, and addiction treatment and recovery. His collaborative research project on relational competencies won the 2010 Texas Counseling Association Research Award, and his collaborative publication on assessment practices in counselor education programs was recognized with the 2014 American Association of Rehabilitation Counseling/Council of Rehabilitation Counseling Outstanding Outcome Research Award. Dr. Haberstroh began his career in 1992 as a residential technician in a 28-day drug treatment program and worked for many years as a counselor and supervisor in addiction treatment centers, private practice, and criminal justice settings. He has been a counselor educator since 2003, and he joined the faculty of the University of Texas at San Antonio in 2004.
Laura R. Haddock, PhD, received her doctorate in counselor education from the University of Mississippi. She currently serves as the Counselor Education and Supervision PhD Program coordinator at Walden University. Dr. Haddock has been a counselor educator since 2001, supported by more than 2 decades of work as a mental health counselor. Her clinical practice includes work with a variety of populations, with a particular focus on trauma resolution. She is a licensed professional counselor, national certified counselor, and approved clinical supervisor.
Dr. Haddock is an active counseling professional and has served on the Mississippi Licensed Professional Counselors Board of Examiners and the executive boards for the Mississippi Counseling Association and Mississippi Licensed Professional Counselors Association. She routinely presents research at the state, national, and international levels and publishes scholarly writings for professional counseling journals and textbooks. She is a two-time winner of outstanding research awards by state counseling organizations and serves as a member of the editorial boards of the Journal of Counseling Research and Practice; Journal of Social, Behavioral and Health Sciences; and Tennessee Counseling Association Journal. Her research interests include counselor wellness and secondary trauma, spirituality, crisis response, cultural diversity, and supervision.
Melinda Haley, PhD, received her master's degree in counselor education at Portland State University (Oregon) and her doctorate in counseling psychology from New Mexico State University (Las Cruces) and was an assistant professor in the counseling and guidance program at the University of Texas, El Paso, for 5 years. Dr. Haley currently works as a core faculty member in the counselor education and supervision doctoral program at Walden University.
She has written numerous book chapters and journal articles on diverse topics related to counseling. She has extensive applied experience working with adults, adolescents, children, inmates, domestic violence offenders, and culturally diverse populations in the areas of assessment, diagnosis, treatment planning, crisis management, and intervention. Dr. Haley's research interests include multicultural issues in teaching and counseling, personality development over the life span, personality disorders, the psychology of criminal and serial offenders, trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder, bias and racism, and social justice issues.
Richard J. Hazler, PhD, is a professor of counselor education at The Pennsylvania State University. He is known for work in the areas of peer-on-peer abuse, youth violence, and humanistic approaches to counseling and counselor education. His professional work with youth began when he was an elementary school teacher and later a school counselor and counselor in a university, the Army, a prison, and private practice. During his 34 years as a counselor educator, Dr. Hazler's research and experience have resulted in a wealth of journal articles, book chapters, and books. Some recent books on counseling youth include Breaking the Cycle of Violence: Interventions for Bullying and Victimization (1996) and Helping in the Hallways: Expanding Your Influence Potential (2nd ed., 2008). A sample of other books for counseling students and professionals includes The Therapeutic Environment (2001), The Emerging Professional Counselor: Student Dreams to Professional Realities (2nd ed., 2005), and What You Never Learned in Graduate School: A Survival Guide for Therapists (1997).
Dr. Hazler also has a long history of serving the profession. He has been elected president of numerous national and state professional organizations, some of which include Chi Sigma Iota, the Association for Humanistic Education and Development, and the Kentucky and Ohio Counseling Associations. He has been an editor and editorial board member of major national and international counseling journals. Counseling students have always been a focus of his work, including his inception and editing for 20 years of the Student Focus column in Counseling Today.
Kathryn L. Henderson, PhD, LPC, NCC, is an assistant professor of counselor education at Georgia Regents University in Augusta. She received her doctorate and master's degree in counselor education from the University of New Orleans (accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs). Dr. Henderson is a licensed professional counselor (Texas) and a national certified counselor. Dr. Henderson's clinical background includes working in a variety of settings, including public schools and community agencies. Her research interests include ethical and legal issues in counseling, trauma and crisis counseling, and working with children and adolescents. Dr. Henderson has published on student remediation and gatekeeping, child abuse and mandated reporting, and creative counseling practices. She is a member of the American Counseling Association, Association for Counselor Education and Supervision, Southern Association for Counselor Education and Supervision, and Chi Sigma Iota.
Barbara Herlihy, PhD, LPC-S, is a university research professor in the Counselor Education Program at the University of New Orleans. She is the coauthor of three current books and numerous book chapters and articles, primarily on the topics of ethics, feminist therapy, and diversity and social justice. Her recent work has focused on issues in the globalization of counseling.
Dr. Herlihy is a recipient of the Southern Association for Counselor Education and Supervision Courtland Lee Social Justice Award and the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision Outstanding Mentor Award. She is a past chair of the American Counseling Association (ACA) Ethics Committee and served on the ACA Code of Ethics Revision Taskforce in 2005. She chaired the ACA International Committee in 2011–2012. She has presented seminars and workshops across the country and internationally, most recently in Malta.
Adrianne L. Johnson, PhD, is an assistant professor in the clinical mental health counseling program at Wright State University. She earned her doctorate in counselor education from the University of Arkansas in 2007 and holds a professional clinical counseling license in Ohio.
Dr. Johnson is active in various organizations committed to mental health advocacy and strongly promotes excellence in counselor education through teaching, research and publication, and international presentation. Dr. Johnson's research interests and professional experience include higher education leadership, community mental health counseling, multicultural counseling, and chemical dependency counseling.
Cynthia R. Kalodner, PhD, is a professor of psychology at Towson University. She received her doctoral degree in counseling psychology from The Pennsylvania State University in 1988. She has been employed in academic positions at The University of Akron and West Virginia University and also maintains a limited private practice focusing on adults with mood and anxiety disorders using a cognitive–behavioral focus.
Dr. Kalodner's current research focus is the effects of international service-learning on the personal and professional development of students.
Julian Rafferty (Rafe) McCullough, MS, is currently a doctoral student in the counselor education and practice program at Georgia State University. He holds a master's degree in education in school counseling from Seattle University. He served on the Professional Education Advisory Board for school counseling at Seattle University from 2008 to 2013 and on the American Counseling Association Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs Revisions Committee in 2013. He was an adjunct instructor in the counseling program at Seattle University from 2010 to 2013.
Mr. McCullough was one of the founding members of Seattle University Counselors for Social Justice, one of whose goals was to increase awareness and support of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students in kindergarten–Grade 12 settings and on college campuses. He was a professional school counselor for 5 years in an urban Seattle middle school. He currently serves on the Multicultural Competency Revision Committee for the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development. His writing and research interests are centered on advocacy, social justice, and LGBTQ issues in counseling.
Nathanael G. Mitchell, PhD, is an assistant professor at Spalding University School of Professional Psychology, a doctoral program in clinical psychology located in Louisville, Kentucky. He serves as the director of the Health Psychology Emphasis Area, training doctoral psychology students in health promotion, behavioral medicine, and integrated care. His research expertise includes the areas of health disparities, the promotion of health behaviors in underserved and marginalized populations, psychosocial correlates of obesity, and provider bias toward patients.
In addition, Dr. Mitchell works part time as a psychotherapist focusing on treating anxiety, depression, and grief and coping with chronic illness. He incorporates the transpersonal components of mindfulness and spirituality in psychotherapy when appropriate to meet client needs.
Rebecca D. Nate, MS, is a doctoral student in the counselor education and supervision program at Walden University. She received her master's degree in mental health counseling from Walden University and her bachelor's degree in psychology from the University of Texas at San Antonio. Ms. Nate has worked in behavioral health for the U.S. Air Force; as a children's therapist at Family Violence Prevention Services in San Antonio, Texas; and as an adjunct professor at San Antonio College.
Ms. Nate has also contributed to newsletters, presented at the Air Force Diabetes Champion Course at Lackland Air Force Base, and served the counseling profession as a bylaws committee member for the Association for Humanistic Counseling. Ms. Nate has published in the American Counseling Association's VISTAS on counselor supervisor requirements and has a dissertation focus on professional advocacy in counselor educators. Ms. Nate's research interests include behavioral health, professional advocacy, and supervision.
Kimberly Nelson, PhD, is a core faculty member in the Clinical Mental Health Counseling Program at Walden University. She received her master's degree in psychology from Eastern Washington University and her doctorate in counselor education and supervision from the University of Northern Colorado.
Dr. Nelson is a licensed professional counselor, approved clinical supervisor, and chartered psychologist in Alberta, Canada. Her nearly 20 years of higher education experiences are varied, including several years of teaching at traditional universities and colleges, with the past 10 years spent teaching exclusively online in counseling graduate programs. Her clinical work is diverse and includes community mental health work, private practice, as well as assessment and counseling in kindergarten–Grade 12 schools.
Candace N. Park, PhD, obtained her doctoral degree in counselor education from the University of New Orleans. She is a licensed professional counselor supervisor in the state of Louisiana and a national certified counselor. Her research is primarily in the area of sexual assault and the reporting process for college women, and her publications have included topics such as ethics, theories, and sexual assault.
She has presented nationally on topics related to feminist theory, multicultural counseling, ethics, and supervision and contributed to the ACA Ethical Standards Casebook (7th ed., 2014). She has taught feminist therapy as a special topics course and served as a guest lecturer for theories courses to speak on her experience and knowledge in feminist theory. She is a clinical manager for Magnolia Family Services, LLC, in Thibodaux, Louisiana, where she also teaches as an adjunct faculty member at Nicholls State University.
Yurandol O. Powers, PhD, received a master's degree in professional counseling from Argosy University and a doctorate in counselor education and supervision from Walden University. She is a nationally certified counselor as well as a licensed professional counselor, a certified school counselor, and a certified professional counselor supervisor in the state of Georgia. Dr. Powers is the owner of Powerful Alternatives Counseling & Consulting, LLC, in Atlanta, Georgia, serving children, adolescents, adults, and families. In addition to working in her private practice, she teaches part time and supervises doctoral students and individuals seeking licensure.
Dr. Powers has presented at the local, state, regional, and national levels on multicultural supervision, counselor education, and counseling military families. Dr. Powers's professional research interests include diversity issues, multicultural supervision, and the use of creative and innovative techniques in working with members of the military and their families.
Manivong J. Ratts, PhD, is an associate professor of counseling at Seattle University. He has three major lines of research: (a) lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and questioning status and minority health disparities (e.g., the impact of oppression on psychological health and well-being); (b) the psychological impact privilege has on privileged groups; and (c) multicultural and social justice competent care (e.g., balancing culturally relevant individual counseling with systems-level advocacy). He has published in various peer-reviewed counseling journals and is lead author of the book Counseling for Multiculturalism and Social Justice: Integration, Theory, and Application (2014) with Dr. Paul B. Pedersen. He is also the lead coeditor of the book ACA Advocacy Competencies: A Social Justice Framework for Counselors (2010) with Dr. Judy Lewis and Dr. Rebecca Toporek. He has produced two videos through Alexander Street Press, titled Four Approaches to Counseling One Client: Medical, Intrapsychic, Multicultural, and Social Justice Counseling Paradigms (2011) and Five Forces of Counseling and Psychotherapy: Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-Behavioral, Existential-Humanistic, Multicultural, and Social Justice (2013).
In addition, he is past president of Counselors for Social Justice, a division of the American Counseling Association, and founder of Seattle University Counselors for Social Justice, an advocacy organization that addresses issues of equity impacting individuals, communities, and schools. Dr. Ratts has also served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Counseling & Development and Journal for Social Action in Counseling and Psychology. Dr. Ratts received his doctorate in counseling from Oregon State University (OSU). He also holds an associate's degree from Yakima Valley Community College, a bachelor's degree in psychology from Western Washington University, and a master's degree in counseling from OSU.
Deborah J. Rubel, PhD, was raised in a bicultural household in Salcha, Alaska. She trained as a food scientist at Utah State University and worked in the field of food research and development for 10 years before deciding to become a counselor. Deborah received her master's degree in mental health counseling and doctorate in counselor education and supervision from Idaho State University. After finishing her doctorate, she began working at Oregon State University. Her areas of specialization are diversity issues, qualitative research methods, group work, and pedagogy.
Marilyn Rush-Ossenbeck, MA, graduated from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, in 2012 with a bachelor's degree in psychology and family studies. During her undergraduate career, she fell in love with family counseling, especially research about families. She then attended the University of Cincinnati, where she earned a master's degree in clinical mental health counseling in 2015 and continued her research on military veterans and their families.
Currently, she is employed full time as a mental health and substance abuse counselor at an inpatient drug rehabilitation facility. She hopes to pursue a doctoral degree in counseling in the future and further her research on both substance abuse and military veteran populations and their families.
Heather Trepal, PhD, LPC-S, is an associate professor in the Department of Counseling at the University of Texas at San Antonio. She is a licensed professional counselor and board-approved supervisor in the state of Texas. Dr. Trepal's counseling experience includes working in rape crisis, college counseling centers, and private practice. Her research focuses on self-harm (nonsuicidal self-injury and eating disorders), relational-cultural Theory, gender issues, and counselor education and supervision. She has more than 30 publications in the areas of creativity, innovations in grief and loss counseling, relational competencies (relational-cultural theory), and addictions. Her collaborative research project on relational competencies won the 2010 Texas Counseling Association Research Award, and she was the recipient of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision Research Award.
Dr. Trepal has served in a number of national, regional, and state professional service roles, including president of the Association for Creativity in Counseling, a division of the American Counseling Association (ACA); chair of the ACA graduate student committee; president of the Southern Association for Counselor Education and Supervision; and president of the Texas Association for Counselor Education and Supervision.
Ann Vernon, PhD, is a professor emerita at the University of Northern Iowa, where she served as coordinator of the school and mental health counseling programs for many years. In addition, she had a large private practice. Dr. Vernon has published more than 20 books, as well as numerous chapters and articles, most of which focus on effective counseling strategies with children and adolescents. Dr. Vernon is president of the Albert Ellis Institute and is considered to be a leading expert on applications of rational emotive behavior theory with children and adolescents. She is an international consultant and does rational emotive and cognitive behavior therapy training in various parts of the world, including Greece, Romania, Australia, and South America. She also provides pro bono counseling services to low-income clients at a clinic in Tucson, Arizona.
Cirecie A. West-Olatunji, PhD, is an associate professor of counseling at Xavier University in New Orleans. Prior to moving to New Orleans she served as associate professor and director of the Center for Traumatic Stress Research at the University of Cincinnati. She is also a past president of the American Counseling Association (ACA). At the national level, Dr. West-Olatunji has initiated several clinical research projects that focus on culture-centered community collaborations designed to address issues rooted in systemic oppression, such as transgenerational trauma and traumatic stress. Dr. West-Olatunji has conducted commissioned research under the auspices of the National Science Foundation, ACA, Kellogg Foundation, federal Witness Assistance Program, Spencer Foundation, American Educational Research Association, and African-American Success Foundation.
Dr. West-Olatunji's publications include two coauthored books, numerous book chapters, and more than 40 articles in peer-reviewed journals. In addition to national presentations, Dr. West-Olatunji has delivered research papers in the Americas, in West and southern Africa, in Eastern and Western Europe, and throughout the Pacific Rim. In addition, she provided consultation to a Public Broadcasting Service initiative to create a children's television show focusing on diversity through KCET-TV in Los Angeles, California (Puzzle Place). Dr. West-Olatunji has also provided consultation to the Center for American Education in Singapore and to the Buraku Liberation Organization in Japan to enhance their early childhood and counseling initiatives. Over the past decade, she has coordinated disaster mental health outreach projects in post-Katrina New Orleans, southern Africa (Botswana and South Africa), and Haiti. Dr. West-Olatunji is a graduate of Dartmouth College (New Hampshire) and received her master's degree and doctorate in counselor education from the University of New Orleans (Louisiana).
Robert E. Wubbolding, EdD, clinical counselor, psychologist, board-certified coach, is the director of the Center for Reality Therapy in Cincinnati, Ohio; past director of training for the William Glasser Institute (1988–2011); a professor emeritus of counseling at Xavier University; and the author of 13 books on reality therapy, including Reality Therapy for the 21st Century (2000), Counselling With Reality Therapy (1999), A Set of Directions for Putting and Keeping Yourself Together (2001), and Reality Therapy: Theories of Psychotherapy Series (2010).
Dr. Wubbolding has taught choice theory/reality therapy in North America, Asia, Australia, Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. His work has focused on making reality therapy a cross-cultural approach with extended applications to education, management, addictions, and corrections. He has also developed the central procedure of self-evaluation to include 22 interventions based on choice theory. His current interest is reviewing research studies validating the use of reality therapy, thereby rendering reality therapy respected as a freestanding and validated system of counseling. In the past, he was an elementary and high school counselor, high school teacher, private practitioner, administrator of adult basic education, and correctional counselor. In 2014, he received recognition as a living legend of counseling at the American Counseling Association conference in Honolulu.
1. The Helping Relationship: From Core Dimensions to Brief and Integrative Possibilities
2. Diversity and Social Justice Issues in Counseling and Psychotherapy
Counseling and psychotherapy encompass a number of relationship and personal and professional modalities in which the counselor or therapist needs to be proficient. These modalities include the creation of essential core conditions that are both foundational to the establishment of a helping relationship and prerequisite to change on the part of the client. In addition, because brief approaches to counseling and psychotherapy are a rapidly developing area and their development has been encouraged by managed care, and because counselor awareness of diversity and social justice issues is so important in the context of the counseling and psychotherapy process, these areas, along with the possibility of taking an integrative approach to working with clients, are also addressed in Part 1 of our text.
The helping relationship is the foundation on which the process of counseling and psychotherapy is based. It is not possible to use the concepts and associated interventions of a specific theory unless such applications are made in the context of a relationship that promotes trust, insight, and behavior change. Chapter 1, “The Helping Relationship: From Core Dimensions to Brief and Integrative Possibilities,” is designed to aid students in both the development and delivery of the helping relationship. To achieve this purpose, we present the helping relationship in terms of definitions and descriptions, stages, core conditions and personal characteristics, and helping strategies and their application with diverse populations. Chapter 1 also introduces the reader to the importance of considering brief approaches to counseling and psychotherapy and how traditional theories can be adapted for briefer, more focused work in the counseling and psychotherapy process. Because so many counselors combine elements of different theories as they work with clients, an introduction to integrative counseling is also provided. Authors of Chapters 3 through 17 provide follow-up information by discussing both traditional and brief interventions in the applications sections of their chapters.
To address the limitations of traditional counseling theories and practices, Chapter 2, “Diversity and Social Justice Issues in Counseling and Psychotherapy,” enhances counselor awareness of the variety of diversity and social justice issues that need to be addressed in the context of the counseling and psychotherapy process. The chapter provides this context by clarifying key concepts and reviewing the history of diversity and social justice issues in counseling; increasing reader understanding of how diversity influences individual and group functioning; increasing reader awareness of how diversity may influence the counseling and psychotherapy process; providing several perspectives on diversity-appropriate interventions; and making suggestions for how counselors and therapists can develop their self-awareness, knowledge of diverse populations, and counseling skills relevant to diversity and social justice.
As these chapters indicate, practitioners must achieve high levels of competence, effectiveness, and expertise to create a helping relationship beneficial to clients. They must also become sensitive to diversity and social justice issues as they affect their work with clients. We have made every attempt to introduce readers to these topics in the chapters included in this section of the text. Readers are encouraged to do additional reading and follow-up coursework and to commit to personal counseling or therapy to achieve the purposes we have outlined in these chapters.
David Capuzzi, Mark D. Stauffer, and Douglas R. Gross
The helping relationship is the cornerstone on which all effective helping rests (Bertolino & O'Hanlon, 2002; Seligman, 2001; Skovholt, 2005; Sommers-Flanagan, 2007, 2015). Words such as integral, necessary, and mandatory are used to describe this relationship and its importance in the ultimate effectiveness of the helping process. Even though different theoretical systems and approaches use different words to describe this relationship (see Chapters 3–17), each addresses the significance of the helping relationship in facilitating client change. Kottler and Brown (1992), in their Introduction to Therapeutic Counseling, made the following comments regarding the significance of this relationship:
Regardless of the setting in which you practice counseling, whether in a school, agency, hospital, or private practice, the relationships you develop with your clients are crucial to any progress you might make together. For without a high degree of intimacy and trust between two people, very little can be accomplished. (p. 64)
In further support of the significance of the helping relationship, Brammer and MacDonald (1996) noted,
The helping relationship is dynamic, meaning that it is constantly changing at verbal and nonverbal levels. The relationship is the principal process vehicle for both helper and helpee to express and fulfill their needs, as well as to mesh helpee problems with helper expertise. Relationship emphasizes the affective mode, because relationship is commonly defined as the inferred emotional quality of the interaction. (p. 52)
Barry Farber and Erin Doolin (2011) commented,
While the Rogerian influence on clinical practice has diminished in the last three decades—or, more accurately, has been incorporated into the psychotherapeutic mainstream with minimal awareness or explicit acknowledgment (Farber, 2007)—therapists of varying persuasions, even those from theoretical camps that had traditionally emphasized more technical factors, have begun to acknowledge the importance of the relationship. (p. 58)
Most recently, John Sommers-Flanagan (2015) emphasized the importance of the helping relationship by using a relationally oriented evidence-based practice model to achieve competence as a mental health counselor.
The ideas expressed by these and other authors describe the essential value of the helping relationship in the process of counseling and psychotherapy and the significant role that the counselor or therapist plays in developing this relationship. Through the counseling relationship and the therapeutic alliance that develops, client change occurs. Although the creation of this relationship is not the end goal of the process, it certainly is the means by which goals are met. It serves as the framework within which effective helping takes place.
This chapter has three purposes. First, it aids the reader in understanding the various factors that affect the helping relationship: definitions and descriptions, stages, core dimensions, strategies, and issues of diversity. Second, because we have asked each of our theory authors to discuss brief approaches as applied to the theory under consideration, we provide our readers with an overview of selected brief approaches, because these approaches, plus the impact of managed care, have precipitated an emphasis on using traditional theories in shorter term counseling. Third, because we know that, after reading this book, readers will have questions about whether to be a purist, in the literal sense of the term, and base all of their work with clients on a single theoretical set or somehow integrate the possibilities for working with clients into a more flexible way of helping, we also provide an overview of integrative counseling. We hope that the information presented in this chapter will not only help readers to understand the dynamics of the helping relationship and their application in both theory-specific and brief approaches but also aid them in incorporating these dynamics into an integrative theoretical approach.
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