Written by an experienced and well-respected physician and professor, this new volume, building on the previous volume, Ultrasonic Topographical and Pathotopographical Anatomy, also available from Wiley-Scrivener, presents the ultrasonic topographical and pathotopographical anatomy of the head and neck, offering further detail into these important areas for use by medical professionals. This atlas of topographic and pathotopographic human anatomy is a fundamental and practically important book designed for doctors of all specializations and students of medical schools. Here you can find almost everything that is connected with the topographic and pathotopographic human anatomy, including original graphs of logical structures of topographic anatomy and development of congenital abnormalities, topography of different areas in layers, pathotopography, computer and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of topographic and pathotopographic anatomy. Also you can find here new theoretical and practical sections of topographic anatomy developed by the author himself which are published for the first time. They are practically important for mastering the technique of operative interventions and denying possibility of iatrogenic complications during operations. This important new volume will be valuable to physicians, junior physicians, medical residents, lecturers in medicine, and medical students alike, either as a textbook or as a reference. It is a must-have for any physician's library.
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Part 1: The Head
Topographic Anatomy of the Head
Basis Cranii Interna
Surgical Anatomy of Congenital Disorders
Pathotopography of the Cerebral Part of the Head
Facial Head Region
The Lymphatic System of the Head
Congenital Face Disorders
Pathotopography of Facial Part of the Head
Part 2: The Neck
Topographic Anatomy of the Neck
Fasciae, Superficial and Deep Cellular Spaces and their Relationship with Spaces Adjacent Regions (Fig. 37)
Triangles of the Neck
Organs of the Neck (Fig. 50–51)
Pathography of the Neck
Topography of the neck
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Figure 1 Vessels and nerves of the head.
Figure 2 Layers of the frontal-parietal-occipital area.
Figure 3 Regio temporalis.
Figure 4 Mastoid process with Shipo’s triangle.
Figure 5 Inner cranium base.
Figure 6 Medial section of head and neck
Figure 7 Branches of trigeminal nerve
Figure 8 Scheme of head skin innervation.
Figure 9 Superficial head formations.
Figure 10 Branches of the facial nerve
Figure 11 Cerebral vessels. MRI.
Figure 12 Cerebral vessels.
Figure 13 Dural venous sinuses
Figure 14 Dural venous sinuses. MRI.
Figure 15 Dural venous sinuses
Figure 16 Venous sinuses of the dura mater
Figure 17 Bleeding in the brain due to rupture of the aneurism
Figure 18 Types of intracranial hemorrhage
Figure 19 Different types of brain hematomas
Figure 20 Orbital muscles, vessels and nerves. Topdown view,
Figure 21 Orbital muscles, vessels and nerves. Side view.
Figure 22 The nasal cavity
Figure 23 Variants of pneumatization of maxillar sinuses depending of maxilla structure: 1 - maxilla; 2 - sinus frontales; 3 - cellulae labyrinthus ethmoidalis; 4 - sinus maxillaris
Figure 24 Buccal region.
Figure 25 Profound face area.
Figure 26 Profound face area.
Figure 27 Dural arteries. Side view
Figure 28 Cellular spaces of profound face areas
Figure 29 Regio infraorbitalis
Figure 30 Regio infraorbitalis
Figure 31 Infraorbital region
Figure 32 Localization of phlegmons
Figure 33 Purulent parotitis
Figure 34 Pannus formation
Figure 35 Pannus of nasopharynx
Figure 36 Neck area
Figure 37 Fascias of neck
Figure 38 The lymphatic system of the head and neck
Figure 39 Areas of triangles and neck
Figure 40 Deep layers suprahyoid area
Figure 41 Side Triangle neck
Figure 42 External carotid artery
Figure 43 Options relations bifurcation of the common carotid arteries and veins
Figure 44 Innervation and blood supply of the neck muscles
Figure 45 Surface vessels and nerves of the neck
Figure 46 The branches of the cervical plexus
Figure 47 Surface education neck
Figure 48 Deep neck Education
Figure 49 The topography of organs, blood vessels and nerves of the neck
Figure 50 Topography staircase-vertebral triangle
Figure 52 The cut at the level of the thyroid isthmus
Figure 53 Typical localization of abscesses and abscesses of the neck
Figure 54 Patotopographic anatomy of the neck
Figure 55 Ectopic and normal arrangement of the various types of goiter
Figure 56 Nodular goiter of the thyroid gland
Figure 57 Thyroid nodular goiter with compression of the larynx and trachea
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Z. M. Seagal
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Co-published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Hoboken, New Jersey, and Scrivener Publishing LLC, Salem, Massachusetts. Published simultaneously in Canada.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:
Z. M. Seagal is an Honoured Scientist of the Russian Federation and the Udmurt Republic, Honorary Academician of the Izhevsk State Medical Academy, Head of the Department of Operative Surgery and Topographic Anatomy, Doctor of Medical Sciences, and Professor.
Topographical and Pathotopographical Medical Atlas of the Head and Neck.
The atlas presents topographical and pathotopographic human anatomy for both the adult and the child. The section “Head” includes cerebral and facial parts according to the areas. Layer topographic anatomy, variant, computer and MRI-topographic anatomy are presented in the section. The surgical anatomy of congenital malformations of the head includes cerebral hernia and hydrocephalus, and of the face - macrostomy, coloboma, clefts of hard and soft palate. In the section “Neck” there are given individual and age differences, fasciae and cell spaces, triangles and vascular-neural bundles, collateral blood supply of the brain in injuries or occlusion of the main neck arteries, topography of the neck organs. All the pictures are colorful and original. The atlas is written in accordance with the educational program of medical universities of the Russian Federation. The original graphs of logical structures are presented according to the sections of topography and congenital malformations. This allows an effective study of the subject.
This atlas is intended for the students of General Medicine, Pediatrics and Dentistry faculties, as well as for interns, residents, postgraduate students and surgeons. The monograph is intended to be used by physicians, junior physicians, medical residents, lecturers in medicine, and medical students.
This color atlas of topographic and pathotopographic human anatomy is the fundamental and practically important book designed for doctors of all specializations and students of medical schools. Here you can find almost everything that is connected with the topographic and pathotopographic human anatomy, including original graphs of logical structures of topographic anatomy and development of congenital abnormalities, topography of different areas in layers, pathotopography, computer and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of topographic and pathotopographic anatomy. Also you can find here new theoretical and practical sections of topographic anatomy developed by the author himself which are published for the first time. They are practically important for mastering the technique of operative interventions and denying the possibility of iatrogenic complications during operations.
All the pictures are completely original, drawn and colored at a highly professional level. There are also illustrations of individual and age differences of human organs in the chapter of variant topographical anatomy. In the chapter of topographical anatomy you can find holothopy, sceletothopy, synthopy of organs and main anatomical formations, facial vaginae, reticular spaces, branches of nerves and vessels, collateral vessels, zones of sensory and motoric innevation of nerve trunci. Pathotopographic anatomy is displayed by the examples of typical pathology of different areas.
One of the distinguishing features of this book is that topographic and anatomic structures are presented both in corpses and postoperative patients. This data is gathered by the use of MRI and transillumination of organs and tissues.
Unfortunately, nowadays there is no publication of modern atlases of clinical, topographic and pathotopographic anatomy due to several reasons. Firstly, this subject is separated only in Russia and Hungary. In other countries, it is either absent or exists as a part of similar subjects like anatomy or surgery. Some of the themes presented in this book like pathotopographic, variant, normal, topographic anatomy, transillumination, pathotopographic and topographic anatomy of patients and healthy people are original studies of the author of this book.
This color atlas can serve as a textbook for routine necessities of theoretical and practical work of physiologists and pathophysiologists, anatomists and topographic anatomists, pathoanatomists, therapists, surgeons, gynecologists and obstericians, neurologists and dermatovenerologists, radiologists, reanimatologists, anaestesiologists, otorhinolaringologists, traumatologists, orthopedists, pediatricians, dentists and other doctors of narrow specializations like angiosurgeons, urologists, plastic surgeons, neurosurgeons, etc.
Topographic and pathotopographic anatomy presented in this book can be divided into surgical anatomy, therapeutic anatomy, stomatological anatomy, pediatric anatomy, etc. There are also some specific and non-specific indications of pathotopography and variants of physiology, differences between physiology and pathology, and ways of using ultrasound topographic and pathotopographic anatomy. It should be pointed out that studying a living human organism in physiological and pathological conditions is the most effective way for reliable diagnostics. Here you can also find descriptions of less traumatic and non-traumatic operations, as well as effective ways of treatment.
Topographic clinical anatomy changes in the course of a disease and recovery, iatrogenic manipulations, as well as therapeutic and surgical interventions. Some of these situations are described in this book. The author of this book will eagerly accept all constructive criticism and take it into consideration in the next editions of the book.
Limits, outer orienteers. The head is separated from the neck with the line which begins on chin elevation – protuberantia mentalis, after that it laterally continues across the lower mandible edge, continues by the lower semicircle of outer aural meatus, goes on to the upper nuchal line, linea nuchae superior, and ends on both sides on outer elevation of occipital bone with protuberantia occipitalis externa. In general, the head is divided into cerebral cranium – cranium cerebrale and facial cranium – cranium faciale.
Limits: The cerebral cranium is separated from facial cranium with the anatomical formations described below. It is limited by glabella by the middle line. Afterwards this line goes along the brow arch, arcus superciliaris, then - by the rear edge of the processus zygomaticus ossis frontalis and processus frontosphenoidalis ossis zygomatici, then the line goes on by the zygomatic arch, then it continues vertically to the rear edge of the ascending branch of the mandible, and afterwards it continues on the bottom margin where it ends after connecting with a similar line coming from the opposite side – forming protuberantia mentalis.
Area division: The cerebral cranium can be divided into the cranium base, basis cranii, and the cranium fornix (or dome) which is also called calvaria. The cranium base is divided into inner one (basis cranii interna) and external one (basis cranii externa). Calvaria is divided into frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal and mastoid regions (regg. Frontalis, parietalis, occipitalis, temporalis et mastoidea).
Regio frontalis (or the frontal area) is located within the frontal region. Its limiting line begins in the lower part of glabella, spreads to the sides across eyebrow arches, crosses the zygomatic process of the frontal bone, continues upwards across temporal line, and then ascends by the projection line of the coronal suture.
Regio parietalis (parietal region). Limits: anterior limit is the coronal suture, lambdoid suture is the rear limit, temporal line limits it from the sides.
Regio occipitalis (occipital region) is located within the squama of the occipital bone. Limits: lambdoid suture limits it from the top and from the sides and the line drawn horizontally from one apex of mastoid bone to another limits it from below. It’s called linea bimastoidea.
Regio temporalis (temporal region). Limits: upper and rear limit is the temporal line, lower limits are zygomatic arch and temporal line above the external aural canal, anterior limit is the zygomatic process of the frontal bone and the outer section of the temporal line. Layer topography of this area has its own complications: skin has less connective tissue septa the lower it is. Aponeurotic helmet becomes thinner and is called here fascia superficialis or superficial fascia. Fascia temporalis propria or proper temporal fascia is formed by the arcus zygomaticus after attaching with its lower margin. You can find its spatium interaponeuroticum, interaponeurotical space, between the plates.
Regio mastoidea or mastoid is an area which is limited with mastoid process. Layer topography of this area has its own complications: skin has no hair and is tightly attached with the mastoid aponeurosis or aponeurosis mastoideus lying below, which is a continuation of galea aponeurotica, but is significantly thinner that its origin. Mastoid process is covered with a thick layer of the periosteum and has attachment points of m. sternocleidomastoideus, mm. splenius capitis et cervicis, venter posterior m. digastrici.
Derma – thick, hair-covered skin, it has a large number of sebaceous and sweat glands. It is firmly attached to the deeper lying subcutaneous fat and supracranial muscle, musculus epicranius, using vertically going connective tissue septa.
Panniculus adiposus – it’s subcutaneous fat. Blood and lymphatic vessels of this layer are firmly fixed using connective tissue septa. That’s why vessels do not collapse when injured.
M. epicranius – it’s epicranius muscle which consists of the frontal part, m. frontalis, and the occipital part of the m. occipitatis. Both parts have shared tendon helmet, galea aponeurotica, which is located in the parietal region and becomes thinner as it goes laterally during transition to the temporal region. These three layers which were described above form a single layer of tightly interconnected tissues.
Stratum fasciaie – it’s fascial layer, a layer of incoherent connective tissue.
Periosteum is firmly attached to the skull bones only in the sutural areas.
Ossa cranii are the bones of the skull of variable thickness. Occipital region bones have the maximum thickness, and the temporal bones have the minimum thickness. The skull bones are composed of three layers. It’s the lamina externa or the external plate, substantia diploica or the spongeous matter which has a lot of vessels – especially vv. diploicae, and lamina vitrea or glass-like plate.
Spatium epidurale – it’s the space above the dura mater.
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