The Ultimate Bible Dictionary - Matthew George Easton - ebook

The Ultimate Bible Dictionary ebook

Matthew George Easton

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The Ultimate Bible Dictionary' is based on 'The Illustrated Bible Dictionary' by Matthew George Easton, M.A., D.D. (1823-1894), which was originally published in 1897. It contains nearly 4,000 entries relating to the Bible, from a 19th century Christian viewpoint. 'The Ultimate Bible Dictionary' does not only provide all of these dictionary entries and consequently an encyclopedia and who-was-who of the Bible. We also offer a very extensive table-of-contents that makes every single entry available at a click. We are not providing a basic TOC with first-letter-browsing only, this is structured down to the very entry.

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The Ultimate Bible Dictionary

Matthew Goerge Easton

Contents:

The History of The Bible

The Ultimate Bible Dictionary

A

Aaron

Aaronites

Abaddon

Abagtha

Abana

Abarim

Abba

Abda

Abdeel

Abdi

Abdiel

Abdon

Abednego

Abel

Abel-beth-maachah

Abel-cheramim

Abel-meholah

Abel-mizraim

Abel-shittim

Abez

Abia

Abi-albon

Abiasaph

Abiathar

Abib

Abida

Abidan

Abieezer

Abiel

Abiezrite

Abigail

Abihail

Abihu

Abihud

Abijah

Abijam

Abilene

Abimael

Abimelech

Abinadab

Abinoam

Abiram

Abishag

Abishai

Abishua

Abishur

Abital

Abitub

Abjects

Ablution

Abner

Abomination

Abraham

Abraham's bosom

Abram

Abronah

Absalom

Acacia

Accad

Accho

Accuser

Aceldama

Achaia

Achaichus

Achan

Achbor

Achish

Achmetha

Achor

Achsah

Achshaph

Achzib

Acre

Acts of the Apostles

Adah

Adam

Adamah

Adamant

Adam, a type

Adam, the city of

Adar

Adbeel

Addar

Adder

Addi

Addon

Adiel

Adin

Adina

Adino

Adjuration

Admah

Adnah

Adonibezek

Adonijah

Adonikam

Adoniram

Adoni-zedec

Adoption

Adoram

Adore

Adrammelech

Adramyttium

Adria

Adriel

Adullam

Adullamite

Adultery

Adummim

Adversary

Advocate

AEnon

Affection

Affinity

Afflictions

Agabus

Agag

Agagite

Agate

Age

Agee

Agony

Agriculture

Agrippa I.

Agrippa II.

Ague

Agur

Ah!

Aha!

Ahab

Ahasuerus

Ahava

Ahaz

Ahaziah

Ahiam

Ahiezer

Ahihud

Ahijah

Ahikam

Ahimaaz

Ahiman

Ahimelech

Ahinadab

Ahinoam

Ahio

Ahira

Ahishar

Ahithophel

Ahitub

Ahlab

Ahoah

Ahohite

Aholah

Aholiab

Aholibah

Aholibamah

Ai

Aijeleth Shahar

Air

Ajalon

Akkub

Akrabbim

Alabaster

Alamoth

Alarm

Alemeth

Alexander

Alexander the Great

Alexandria

Algum

Alien

Allegory

Alleluia

Alliance

Allon

Allon-bachuth

Almodad

Almon

Almond

Alms

Almug

Aloes

Alphaeus

Altar

Altaschith

Alush

Amalek

Amalekite

Amana

Amariah

Amasa

Amasai

Amashai

Amasiah

Amaziah

Ambassador

Amber

Ambush

Amen

Amethyst

Amittai

Ammah

Ammi

Ammiel

Ammihud

Amminadab

Amminadib

Ammishaddai

Ammizabad

Ammon

Ammonite

Amnon

Amon

Amorites

Amos

Amoz

Amphipolis

Amplias

Amram

Amraphel

Anab

Anah

Anak

Anakim

Anamim

Anammelech

Anan

Ananiah

Ananias

Anath

Anathema

Anathoth

Anchor

Ancient of Days

Andrew

Andronicus

Anem

Aner

Angel

Anger

Anim

Animal

Anise

Anna

Annas

Anoint

Ant

Antichrist

Antioch

Antiochus

Antipas

Antipatris

Antonia

Antothite

Anvil

Ape

Apelles

Apharsachites

Apharsites

Aphik

Apocalypse

Apocrypha

Apollonia

Apollos

Apollyon

Apostle

Apothecary

Apparel

Appeal

Apphia

Appii Forum

Apple

Apron

Aquila

Arab

Arabah

Arabia

Arad

Aram

Aram-naharaim

Aram-zobah

Aran

Ararat

Araunah

Arba

Arbathite

Arch

Archangel

Archelaus

Archer

Archevite

Archi

Archippus

Archite

Arcturus

Ard

Ardon

Areopagite

Areopagus

Aretas

Argob

Arieh

Ariel

Arimathea

Arioch

Aristarchus

Aristobulus

Ark

Arkite

Arm

Armageddon

Armenia

Armoni

Armour

Armour-bearer

Armoury

Army

Arnon

Aroer

Arpad

Arphaxad

Arrows

Artaxerxes

Artificer

Artillery

Arvad

Asa

Asahel

Asaph

Ascension

Asenath

Ash

Ashdod

Ashdoth-pisgah

Asher

Asherah

Ashes

Ashkelon

Ashkenaz

Ashpenaz

Ashtaroth

Ashteroth Karnaim

Ashtoreth

Ashurites

Asia

Asnapper

Asp

Ass

Asshur

Assos

Assurance

Assyria

Astrologer

Astronomy

Asuppim

Atad

Ataroth

Ater

Athaliah

Athens

Atonement

Atonement, Day of

Augustus

Augustus band

Ava

Aven

Avenger of blood

Avim

Awl

Axe

Azal

Azariah

Azazel

Azaziah

Azekah

Azel

Azmaveth

Azotus

Azubah

Azur and Azzur

__________________________________________________________________

Baal

Baalah

Baalath

Baalath-beer

Baalbec

Baal-berith

Baale of Judah

Baal-gad

Baal-hamon

Baal-hanan

Baal-hazor

Baal-hermon

Baali

Baalim

Baalis

Baal-meon

Baal-peor

Baal-perazim

Baal-shalisha

Baal-tamar

Baal-zebub

Baal-zephon

Baana

Baanah

Baasha

Babe

Babel, tower of

Babylon

Babylonish garment

Babylon, kingdom of

Baca, Valley of

Backbite

Backslide

Badger

Bag

Bahurim

Bajith

Bake

Bake-meats

Balaam

Baladan

Balah

Balak

Balance

Baldness

Balm

Bamah

Bamoth

Bamoth-baal

Bands

Bani

Banner

Banquet

Baptism, Christian

Baptism for the dead

Baptism, John's

Baptism of Christ

Bar

Barabbas

Barachel

Barachias, Berechiah

Barak

Barbarian

Barber

Barefoot

Bariah

Bar-jesus

Bar-jona

Barkos

Barley

Barn

Barnabas

Barrel

Barren

Barsabas

Bartholomew

Bartimaeus

Baruch

Barzillai

Bashan

Bashan-havoth-jair

Bashan, Hill of

Bashemath

Basilisk

Basin

Basket

Bastard

Bastinado

Bat

Bath

Bath-rabbim

Baths

Bath-sheba

Battering-ram

Battle-axe

Battle-bow

Battlement

Bay

Bay tree

Bdellium

Beacon

Bealiah

Bealoth

Beam

Beans

Bear

Beard

Beast

Beaten gold

Beaten oil

Beautiful gate

Becher

Bed

Bedan

Bed-chamber

Bedstead

Bee

Beelzebub

Beer

Beer-elim

Beeri

Beer-lahai-roi

Beeroth

Beeroth of the children of Jaakan

Beersheba

Beetle

Beeves

Beg

Behead

Behemoth

Bekah

Bel

Bela

Belial

Bell

Bellows

Belly

Belshazzar

Belteshazzar

Benaiah

Ben-ammi

Bench

Bene-jaakan

Ben-hadad

Benjamin

Beor

Bera

Berachah

Berea

Berechiah

Bered

Beriah

Bernice

Berodach-baladan

Beryl

Besom

Besor

Bestead

Betah

Beth

Bethabara

Beth-anath

Beth-anoth

Bethany

Beth-arabah

Beth-aram

Beth-arbel

Beth-aven

Beth-barah

Beth-car

Beth-dagon

Beth-diblathaim

Bethel

Bethelite

Bether

Bethesda

Beth-gamul

Beth-gilgal

Beth-haccerem

Beth-horon

Beth-jeshimoth

Beth-le-Aphrah

Bethlehem

Beth-peor

Beth-phage

Bethsaida

Beth-shean

Beth-shemesh

Beth-tappuah

Bethuel

Bethzur

Betroth

Beulah

Bewray

Beyond

Bezaleel

Bezek

Bezer

Bible

Bier

Bigtha

Bigthan

Bildad

Bilgah

Bilhah

Bilshan

Bird

Birsha

Birth

Birth-day

Birthright

Bishop

Bit

Bith-ron

Bithynia

Bitter

Bittern

Bitumen

Black

Blade

Blains

Blasphemy

Blastus

Blemish

Bless

Blind

Blood

Bloody sweat

Blot

Blue

Boanerges

Boar

Boaz

Bochim

Boil

Bolled

Bolster

Bond

Bondage

Bonnet

Book

Booth

Booty

Borrow

Bosom

Bosor

Bosses

Botch

Bottle

Bow

Bowels

Bowing

Bowl

Box

Box-tree

Bozrah

Bracelet

Bramble

Branch

Brass

Bravery

Breach

Bread

Breastplate

Breeches

Bribe

Bricks

Bride

Bridle

Brier

Brigandine

Brimstone

Brook

Brother

Bruit

Bucket

Buckler

Building

Bul

Bullock

Bulrush

Bulwarks

Bunch

Burden

Burial

Burnt offering

Bush

Butler

Butter

Buz

Buzi

By

By and by

By-ways

By-word

__________________________________________________________________

Cab

Cabins

Cabul

Caesar

Caesara Philippi

Caesarea

Cage

Caiaphas

Cain

Cainan

Cake

Calah

Calamus

Calcol

Caleb

Calf

Calkers

Call

Calling

Calneh

Calvary

Camel

Camon

Camp

Camphire

Cana

Canaan

Canaanite

Canaanites

Canaan, the language of

Candace

Candle

Candlestick

Cane

Canker

Cankerworm

Canneh

Canon

Capernaum

Caphtor

Cappadocia

Captain

Captive

Captivity

Carbuncle

Carcase

Carchemish

Carmel

Carmi

Carnal

Carpenter

Carriage

Cart

Carve

Casement

Casiphia

Casluhim

Cassia

Castaway

Castle

Castor and Pollux

Caterpillar

Catholic epistles

Cattle

Caul

Cauls

Causeway

Cave

Cedar

Cedron

Ceiling

Cellar

Cenchrea

Censer

Census

Centurion

Cephas

Cesarea

Chaff

Chain

Chalcedony

Chaldea

Chaldee language

Chaldees

Chamber

Chambering

Chamberlain

Chameleon

Chamois

Champion

Chance

Chancellor

Changes of raiment

Channel

Chapel

Chapiter

Chapter

Charashim

Charger

Chariot

Charity

Charmer

Charran

Chebar

Chedorlaomer

Cheek

Cheese

Chemarim

Chemosh

Chenaanah

Chenaiah

Chephirah

Cherethim

Cherith

Cherub

Chesalon

Chesed

Chesil

Chest

Chestnut tree

Chesulloth

Chezib

Chidon

Chief of the three

Chief priest

Chiefs of Asia

Child

Chileab

Chilion

Chilmad

Chimham

Chinnereth

Chios

Chisleu

Chittim

Chiun

Chloe

Chor-ashan

Chorazin

Chosen

Chozeba

Christ

Christian

Christs, False

Chronicles

Chronicles, Books of

Chronicles of king David

Chronology

Chrysoprasus

Chub

Chun

Church

Churl

Chushan-rishathaim

Cilicia

Cinnamon

Cinnereth

Circuit

Circumcision

Cistern

Citizenship

City

Clauda

Claudia

Claudius

Clay

Clean

Clement

Cleopas

Cleophas

Cloak

Closet

Cloud

Cnidus

Coal

Coat

Coat of mail

Cockatrice

Cock-crowing

Cockle

Coele-Syria

Coffer

Coffin

Cogitations

Coin

Collar

Collection

College

Colony

Colossae

Colossians, Epistle to the

Colour

Comforter

Coming of Christ

Commandments, the Ten

Communion

Conaniah

Concision

Concubine

Concupiscence

Conduit

Coney

Confection

Confectionaries

Confession

Congregation

Congregation, mount of the

Conscience

Consecration

Consolation of Israel

Constellation

Contentment

Conversation

Conversion

Convocation

Cook

Coos

Copper

Cor

Coral

Corban

Cord

Coriander

Corinth

Corinthians, First Epistle to the

Corinthians, Second Epistle to the

Cormorant

Corn

Cornelius

Corner

Cornet

Cotes

Cottage

Couch

Coulter

Council

Counsellor

Courses

Court

Covenant

Covering of the eyes

Covetousness

Cow

Crane

Creation

Creature

Crescens

Crete

Crimson

Crisping-pin

Crispus

Cross

Crown

Crown of thorns

Crucifixion

Cruse

Crystal

Cubit

Cuckoo

Cucumbers

Cummin

Cup

Cup-bearer

Curious arts

Curse

Curtain

Cush

Cushan

Cushite

Custom

Cuthah

Cutting

Cymbals

Cypress

Cyprus

Cyrene

Cyrenius

Cyrus

__________________________________________________________________

Daberath

Daemon

Daemoniac

Dagon

Dagon's house

Daily sacrifice

Dale, the king's

Dalmanutha

Dalmatia

Damaris

Damascus

Damnation

Dan

Dance

Daniel

Daniel, Book of

Dan-jaan

Dannah

Darda

Daric

Darius

Darkness

Darling

Dart

Date

Dathan

Daughter

David

David, City of

Day

Day's journey

Daysman

Dayspring

Daystar

Deacon

Deaconess

Dead Sea

Deal, Tenth

Dearth

Death

Debir

Deborah

Debt

Debtor

Decalogue

Decapolis

Decision, Valley of

Decrees of God

Dedan

Dedanim

Dedication, Feast of the

Deep

Degrees, Song of

Dehavites

Delaiah

Delilah

Deluge

Demas

Demetrius

Demon

Den

Deputy

Derbe

Desert

Desire of all nations

Desolation, Abomination of

Destroyer

Destruction

Destruction, City of

Deuteronomy

Devil

Dew

Diadem

Dial

Diamond

Diana

Diblaim

Diblathaim

Dibon

Didymus

Dimnah

Dinah

Dine

Dinhabah

Dionysius

Diotrephes

Disciple

Dish

Dishan

Dispensation

Dispersion

Distaff

Divination

Divorce

Dizahab

Doctor

Dodai

Dodanim

Dodo

Doeg

Dog

Doleful creatures

Door-keeper

Door-posts

Doors

Dophkah

Dor

Dorcas

Dothan

Dough

Dove

Dove's dung

Dowry

Dragon

Dragon well

Dram

Draught-house

Drawer of water

Dream

Dredge

Dregs

Dress

Drink

Drink-offering

Drink, strong

Dromedary

Dropsy

Dross

Drought

Drown

Drunk

Drusilla

Duke

Dulcimer

Dumah

Dumb

Dung

Dungeon

Dung-gate

Dung-hill

Dura

Dust

Dwarf

Dwell

Dwellings

Dye

__________________________________________________________________

Eagle

Ear

Earing

Earnest

Earrings

Earth

Earthquake

East

East, Children of the

Easter

East gate

East sea

East wind

Eating

Ebal

Ebed

Ebed-melech

Eben-ezer

Eber

Ebony

Ebronah

Ecbatana

Ecclesiastes

Eclipse

Ed

Edar

Eden

Eder

Edom

Edrei

Effectual call

Effectual prayer

Egg

Eglah

Eglaim

Eglon

Egypt

Ehud

Ekron

Elah

Elam

Elasah

Elath

El-Bethel

Eldad

Elder

Elealeh

Eleazar

Election of Grace

Elect lady

El-elohe-Isreal

Elements

Elephant

Elhanan

Eli

Eliab

Eliada

Eliakim

Eliam

Elias

Eliashib

Eliathah

Elidad

Eliel

Eliezer

Elihu

Elijah

Elika

Elim

Elimelech

Elioenai

Eliphalet

Eliphaz

Elipheleh

Eliphelet

Elisabeth

Elisha

Elishah

Elishama

Elishaphat

Elisheba

Elishua

Elkanah

Elkosh

Ellasar

Elm

Elnathan

Elon

Elparan

Eltekeh

Elul

Elymas

Embalming

Embroider

Emerald

Emerod

Emims

Emmanuel

Emmaus

Emmor

Encamp

Enchantments

End

Endor

En-eglaim

En-gannim

Engedi

Engines

Engraver

En-hakkore

Enmity

Enoch

Enos

En-rogel

En-shemesh

Ensign

Entertain

Epaenetus

Epaphras

Epaphroditus

Ephah

Epher

Ephes-dammim

Ephesians, Epistle to

Ephesus

Ephod

Ephphatha

Ephraim

Ephraim, Gate of

Ephraim in the wilderness

Ephraim, Mount

Ephraim, The tribe of

Ephraim, Wood of

Ephratah

Ephrathite

Ephron

Epicureans

Epistles

Erastus

Erech

Esaias

Esarhaddon

Esau

Eschew

Esdraelon

Esek

Eshbaal

Eshcol

Eshean

Eshtaol

Eshtemoa

Espouse

Essenes

Esther

Esther, Book of

Etam

Eternal death

Eternal life

Etham

Ethan

Ethanim

Eth-baal

Ethiopia

Ethiopian eunuch

Ethiopian woman

Eunice

Eunuch

Euodias

Euphrates

Euroclydon

Eutychus

Evangelist

Eve

Evening

Everlasting

Evil eye

Evil-merodach

Evil-speaking

Example

Executioner

Exercise, bodily

Exile

Exodus

Exodus, Book of

Exorcist

Expiation

Eye

Ezekias

Ezekiel

Ezekiel, Book of

Ezel

Ezer

Ezion-geber

Ezra

Ezra, Book of

Ezrahite

Ezri

__________________________________________________________________

Fable

Face

Fair Havens

Fairs

Faith

Faithful

Fall of man

Fallow-deer

Fallow-ground

Familiar spirit

Famine

Fan

Farm

Farthing

Fast

Fat

Father

Fathom

Fatling

Fear of the Lord the

Feast

Felix

Fellowship

Fence

Fenced cities

Ferret

Ferry boat

Festivals, Religious

Festus, Porcius

Fever

Field

Fig

Fillets

Finer

Fining pot

Fir

Fire

Firebrand

Firepan

Firkin

Firmament

First-born

First-born, Redemption of

First-born, Sanctification of the

First-fruits

Fish

Fisher

Fish-hooks

Fishing, the art of

Fish-pools

Fitches

Flag

Flagon

Flame of fire

Flax

Flea

Fleece

Flesh

Flesh-hook

Flint

Flood

Flour

Flowers

Flute

Fly

Foam

Fodder

Fold

Food

Footstool

Forces

Ford

Forehead

Foreigner

Foreknowledge of God

Forerunner

Forest

Forgiveness of sin

Fornication

Fortunatus

Fountain

Fountain of the Virgin

Fowler

Fox

Frankincense

Freedom

Free-will offering

Frog

Frontlets

Frost

Fruit

Frying-pan

Fuel

Fugitive

Fuller

Fuller's field

Fuller's soap

Fulness

Funeral

Furlong

Furnace

Furrow

Fury

__________________________________________________________________

Gaal

Gaash

Gabbatha

Gabriel

Gad

Gadara

Gadarenes

Gaddi

Gaddiel

Gahar

Gaius

Galatia

Galatians, Epistle to

Galbanum

Galeed

Galilean

Galilee

Galilee, Sea of

Gall

Gallery

Gallim

Gallio

Gallows

Gamaliel

Games

Gammadim

Gamul

Gap

Gardens

Gareb

Garlands

Garlic

Garner

Garnish

Garrison

Gate

Gath

Gath-hepher

Gath-rimmon

Gaulanitis

Gaza

Geba

Gebal

Gebalites

Geber

Gebim

Gedaliah

Geder

Gederah

Gederathite

Gedor

Gehazi

Gehenna

Geliloth

Gemariah

Generation

Genesis

Gennesaret

Gentiles

Genubath

Gera

Gerah

Gerar

Gergesa

Gerizim

Gershom

Gershon

Geshem

Geshur

Geshurites

Gethsemane

Gezer

Ghost

Giants

Gibbethon

Gibeah

Gibeah-haaraloth

Gibeah of Judah

Gibeah of Phinehas

Gibeon

Gideon

Gier eagle

Gift

Gifts, spiritual

Gihon

Gilboa

Gilead

Gilead, Balm of

Gilgal

Giloh

Gimzo

Gin

Girdle

Girgashite

Gittah-hepher

Gittaim

Gittite

Gittith

Gizonite

Glass

Glean

Glede

Glorify

Glory

Glutton

Gnash

Gnat

Goad

Goat

Goath

Gob

Goblet

God

Godhead

Godliness

Goel

Gog

Golan

Gold

Golden calf

Goldsmith

Golgotha

Goliath

Gomer

Gomorrah

Goodly trees

Goodness

Goodness of God

Gopher

Goshen

Gospel

Gospels

Gourd

Government of God

Governments

Governor

Gozan

Grace

Grace, means of

Graft

Grain

Grape

Grass

Grasshopper

Grate

Grave

Graven image

Graving

Greaves

Grecians

Greece

Greek

Greyhound

Grind

Grizzled

Grove

Guard

Guest-chamber

Gur

Gur-baal

Gutter

__________________________________________________________________

Habakkuk

Habakkuk, Prophecies of

Habergeon

Habitation

Habor

Hachilah

Hadad

Hadadezer

Hadad-rimmon

Hadar

Hadarezer

Hadashah

Hadassah

Hadattah

Hades

Hadid

Hadlai

Hadoram

Hadrach

Haemorrhoids

Haft

Hagar

Hagarene

Haggai

Haggai, Book of

Haggith

Hagiographa

Hail!

Hail

Hair

Hakkoz

Halah

Halak

Halhul

Hall

Hallel

Hallelujah

Hallow

Halt

Ham

Haman

Hamath

Hamath-zobah

Hammath

Hammedatha

Hammelech

Hammer

Hammoleketh

Hammon

Hammoth-dor

Hamon

Hamonah

Hamon-gog

Hamor

Hamul

Hamutal

Hanameel

Hanan

Hananeel

Hanani

Hananiah

Hand

Handbreadth

Handkerchief

Handmaid

Handwriting

Hanes

Hanging

Hannah

Hanniel

Hanun

Hara

Haradah

Haran

Harbona

Hare

Hareth

Harhaiah

Harhur

Harim

Hariph

Harlot

Harnepher

Harness

Harod

Harodite

Harosheth of the Gentiles

Harp

Harrow

Harsha

Hart

Harum

Haruphite

Haruz

Harvest

Hasadiah

Hasenuah

Hashabiah

Hashabniah

Hashbadana

Hashmonah

Hashub

Hashubah

Hashum

Hasrah

Hasupha

Hat

Hatach

Hathath

Hatipha

Hatita

Hatred

Hattush

Hauran

Haven

Havilah

Havoth-jair

Hawk

Hay

Hazael

Hazar-addar

Hazar-enan

Hazar-gaddah

Hazar-hatticon

Hazar-maveth

Hazar-shual

Hazar-susah

Hazel

Hazerim

Hazeroth

Hazezon-tamar

Hazo

Hazor

Hazor-hadattah

Head-bands

Head-dress

Heap

Heart

Hearth

He-ass

Heath

Heathen

Heaven

Heave offering

Heber

Hebrew

Hebrew language

Hebrew of the Hebrews

Hebrews

Hebrews, Epistle to

Hebron

Hegai

Heifer

Heir

Helah

Helam

Helbah

Helbon

Heldai

Heleb

Heled

Helek

Helem

Heleph

Helez

Heli

Helkai

Helkath

Helkath-hazzurim

Hell

Helmet

Helon

Help-meet

Helps

Hem

Heman

Hemath

Hemlock

Hen

Hena

Henadad

Henoch

Hepher

Hephzibah

Herb

Herd

Herdsman

Heres

Heresy

Hermas

Hermes

Hermogenes

Hermon

Hermonites, the

Herod Agrippa I.

Herod Antipas

Herod Archelaus

Herod Arippa II.

Herodians

Herodias

Herodion

Herod Philip I.

Herod Philip II.

Herod the Great

Heron

Heshbon

Heshmon

Heth

Hethlon

Hezekiah

Hezion

Hezir

Hezro

Hezron

Hiddai

Hiddekel

Hiel

Hierapolis

Higgaion

High place

High priest

Highway

Hilkiah

Hill

Hillel

Hill of Evil Counsel

Hind

Hinge

Hinnom

Hiram

Hireling

Hiss

Hittites

Hivites

Hizkiah

Hizkijah

Hobab

Hobah

Hodijah

Hoglah

Hoham

Hold

Holiness

Holy Ghost

Holy of holies

Holy place

Homer

Honey

Hood

Hoof

Hook

Hope

Hophni

Hophra

Hor

Horeb

Horem

Horites

Hormah

Horn

Hornet

Horonaim

Horonite

Horse

Horse-gate

Horse-leech

Horseman

Hosah

Hosanna

Hose

Hosea

Hosea, Prophecies of

Hoshea

Host

Hostage

Host of heaven

Hough

Hour

House

Hukkok

Hul

Huldah

Humiliation of Christ

Humility

Hunting

Hur

Hurai

Husband

Husbandman

Hushai

Husk

Hymn

Hypocrite

Hyssop

__________________________________________________________________

Ibhar

Ibleam

Ibzan

Ice

Ichabod

Iconium

Idalah

Iddo

Idol

Idolatry

Idumaea

Igal

Iim

Ije-abarim

Ijon

Ilai

Illyricum

Imagery

Imla

Immanuel

Immer

Immortality

Imputation

Incarnation

Incense

India

Inkhorn

Inn

Inspiration

Intercession of Christ

Intercession of the Spirit

Iphedeiah

Ira

Irad

Iram

Irha-heres

Iron

Irrigation

Isaac

Isaiah

Isaiah, The Book of

Iscah

Iscariot

Ishbak

Ishbi-benob

Ish-bosheth

Ishi

Ishmael

Ishmaiah

Ishmeelites

Ishtob

Island

Israel

Israel, Kingdom of

Issachar

Italian band

Italy

Ithamar

Ithrite

Ittai

Ituraea

Ivah

Ivory

Izhar

Izrahite

__________________________________________________________________

Jaakan

Jaakobah

Jaala

Jaalam

Jaanai

Jaare-oregim

Jaasau

Jaasiel

Jaaz-aniah

Jaazer

Jaaziah

Jaaziel

Jabal

Jabbok

Jabesh

Jabesh-Gilead

Jabez

Jabin

Jabneel

Jabneh

Jachan

Jachin

Jachin and Boaz

Jacinth

Jacob

Jacob's Well

Jaddua

Jadon

Jael

Jagur

Jah

Jahath

Jahaz

Jahaziel

Jahdai

Jahzeel

Jahzerah

Jailer

Jair

Jairus

Jakeh

Jakim

Jalon

Jambres

James

James, Epistle of

Jannes

Janoah

Janum

Japheth

Japhia

Japho

Jebusites

Jecoliah

Jedaiah

Jediael

Jedidiah

Jeduthun

Jegar-sahadutha

Jehaleleel

Jehdeiah

Jehiel

Jehizkiah

Jehoaddan

Jehoahaz

Jehoash

Jehohanan

Jehoiachin

Jehoiada

Jehoiakim

Jehoiarib

Jehonadab

Jehonathan

Jehoram

Jehoshaphat

Jehoshaphat, Valley of

Jehosheba

Jehovah

Jehovah-jireh

Jehovah-nissi

Jehovah-shalom

Jehovah-shammah

Jehovah-tsidkenu

Jehozabad

Jehozadak

Jehu

Jehucal

Jehudi

Jeiel

Jemima

Jephthah

Jephthah's vow

Jephunneh

Jerahmeel

Jeremiah

Jeremiah, Book of

Jericho

Jerimoth

Jeroboam

Jeroham

Jerubbaal

Jerubbesheth

Jeruel

Jerusalem

Jerusha

Jeshaiah

Jeshanah

Jesharelah

Jeshebeab

Jesher

Jeshimon

Jeshua

Jeshurun

Jesse

Jesus

Jether

Jetheth

Jethlah

Jethro

Jetur

Jeuel

Jeush

Jew

Jewess

Jezebel

Jeziel

Jezreel

Jezreel, Blood of

Jezreel, Day of

Jezreel, Ditch of

Jezreel, Fountain of

Jezreel, Portion of

Jezreel, Tower of

Jezreel, Valley of

Joab

Joah

Joahaz

Joanna

Joash

Job

Jobab

Job, Book of

Jochebed

Joel

Joelah

Joel, Book of

Joezer

Johanan

John

John, First Epistle of

John, Gospel of

John, Second Epistle of

John the Baptist

John, Third Epistle of

Joiada

Joiakim

Joiarib

Jokdeam

Jokim

Jokmeam

Jokneam

Jokshan

Joktan

Joktheel

Jonadab

Jonah

Jonah, Book of

Jonas

Jonathan

Jonath-elem-rechokim

Joppa

Joram

Jordan

Joseph

Joshua

Joshua, The Book of

Josiah

Jot

Jotham

Journey

Jozabad

Jozachar

Jubal

Jubilee

Juda

Judah

Judah, Kingdom of

Judah, Tribe of

Judah upon Jordan

Judas

Jude

Judea

Jude, Epistle of

Judge

Judges, Book of

Judgment hall

Judgment seat

Judgments of God

Judgment, The final

Judith

Julia

Julius

Junia

Juniper

Jupiter

Justice

Justice of God

Justification

Justus

Juttah

__________________________________________________________________

Kabzeel

Kadesh

Kadesh

Kadmiel

Kadmonites

Kanah

Kareah

Karkaa

Karkor

Kartah

Kartan

Kattath

Kedar

Kedemah

Kedemoth

Kedesh

Kedron

Kehelathah

Keilah

Kelita

Kemuel

Kenath

Kenaz

Kenites

Kenizzite

Kerchief

Keren-happuch

Kerioth

Kesitah

Kettle

Keturah

Key

Kezia

Keziz

Kibroth-hattaavah

Kibzaim

Kid

Kidron

Kinah

Kine

King

Kingdom of God

Kingly office of Christ

King's dale

Kings, The Books of

Kinsman

Kir

Kir-haraseth

Kirjath

Kirjathaim

Kirjath-arba

Kirjath-huzoth

Kirjath-jearim

Kirjath-sannah

Kirjath-sepher

Kir of Moab

Kish

Kishion

Kishon

Kiss

Kite

Kithlish

Kitron

Kittim

Knead

Kneading-trough

Knife

Knock

Knop

Koa

Kohath

Kohathites

Korah

Korahites

Kore

Korhites

Koz

__________________________________________________________________

Laban

Lachish

Ladder

Laish

Lama

Lamb

Lamech

Lamentation

Lamentations, Book of

Lamp

Landmark

Laodicea

Laodicea, Epistle from

Lapidoth

Lapping

Lapwing

Lasaea

Lasha

Latchet

Latin

Lattice

Laver

Law

Law of Moses

Lawyer

Lazarus

Leaf

League

Leah

Leannoth

Leasing

Leather

Leaven

Lebanon

Lebbaeus

Lebonah

Leek

Lees

Left hand

Left-handed

Legion

Lehi

Lemuel

Lentiles

Leopard

Leprosy

Letter

Leummim

Levi

Leviathan

Levirate Law

Levite

Leviticus

Levy

Lewdness

Libertine

Libnah

Libni

Libya

Lice

Lie

Lieutenant

Life

Light

Lightning

Lign-aloes

Ligure

Lily

Lime

Linen

Linen-yarn

Lines

Lintel

Lions

Lip

Litter

Liver

Living creatures

Lizard

Lo-ammi

Loan

Lock

Locust

Lo-debar

Lodge

Log

Lois

Loop

Lord

Lord's day

Lord's Prayer

Lord's Supper

Lo-ruhamah

Lot

Lotan

Love

Lubims

Lucas

Lucifer

Lucius

Lucre

Lud

Ludim

Luhith

Luke

Luke, Gospel according to

Lunatic

Lust

Luz

Lycaonia

Lycia

Lydda

Lydia

Lysanias

Lysias, Claudius

Lystra

__________________________________________________________________

Maachah

Maaleh-acrabbim

Maarath

Maaseiah

Maasiai

Maath

Maaziah

Maccabees

Maccabees, Books of the

Macedonia

Machaerus

Machbanai

Machir

Machpelah

Madai

Madmannah

Madmen

Madmenah

Madness

Madon

Magdala

Magdalene

Magic

Magicians

Magistrate

Magog

Magor-missabib

Mahalaleel

Mahalath

Mahalath Leannoth Maschil

Mahalath Maschil

Mahanaim

Mahaneh-dan

Mahath

Mahazioth

Maher-shalal-hash-baz

Mahlah

Mahlon

Mahol

Mail, Coat of

Main-sail

Makheloth

Makkedah

Maktesh

Malachi

Malachi, Prophecies of

Malcam

Malchiah

Malchi-shua

Malchus

Mallothi

Mallows

Malluch

Mammon

Mamre

Man

Manaen

Manasseh

Mandrakes

Maneh

Manger

Manna

Manoah

Man of sin

Manslayer

Mantle

Maoch

Maon

Mara

Marah

Maralah

Maranatha

Marble

Marcheshvan

Marcus

Mareshah

Mark

Market-place

Mark, Gospel according to

Maroth

Marriage

Marriage-feasts

Mars Hill

Martha

Martyr

Mary

Maschil

Mash

Mashal

Mason

Masrekah

Massa

Massah

Mattan

Mattanah

Mattaniah

Mattathias

Matthan

Matthat

Matthew

Matthew, Gospel according to

Matthias

Mattithiah

Mattock

Maul

Mazzaroth

Meadow

Meah

Meals

Mearah

Measure

Meat-offering

Mebunnai

Medad

Medan

Mede

Medeba

Media

Mediator

Meekness

Megiddo

Mehetabeel

Mehetabel

Mehujael

Mehuman

Mehunims

Me-jarkon

Mekonah

Melchi

Melchizedek

Melea

Melech

Melita

Melons

Melzar

Memphis

Memucan

Menahem

Mene

Meni

Meonenim

Mephaath

Mephibosheth

Merab

Meraiah

Meraioth

Merari

Merarites

Merathaim

Merchant

Mercurius

Mercy

Mercy-seat

Mered

Meremoth

Meribah

Merib-baal

Merodach

Merodach-baladan

Merom

Meronothite

Meroz

Mesha

Meshach

Meshech

Meshelemiah

Meshillemoth

Meshullam

Meshullemeth

Mesopotamia

Mess

Messenger

Messiah

Metheg-ammah

Methusael

Methuselah

Mezahab

Miamin

Mibhar

Mibsam

Mibzar

Micah

Micah, Book of

Micaiah

Micha

Michael

Michaiah

Michal

Michmash

Michmethah

Michri

Michtam

Middin

Midian

Midianite

Midwife

Migdal-Edar

Migdal-el

Migdal-gad

Migdol

Migron

Mikloth

Milaiai

Mildew

Mile

Miletus

Milk

Mill

Millennium

Millet

Millo

Mincing

Mine

Minister

Minni

Minnith

Minstrel

Mint

Miracle

Miriam

Misdeem

Misgab

Mishael

Mishal

Misham

Misheal

Mishma

Mishmannah

Misrephoth-maim

Mite

Mithcah

Mithredath

Mitre

Mitylene

Mixed multitude

Mizar

Mizpah

Mizpar

Mizraim

Mizzah

Mnason

Moab

Moabite

Moabite Stone

Moladah

Mole

Moloch

Money

Money-changer

Month

Moon

Mordecai

Moreh

Moreh, the Hill of

Moresheth-gath

Moriah

Mortar

Mosera

Moseroth

Moses

Mote

Moth

Mouldy

Mount

Mount of beatitudes

Mount of corruption

Mount of the Amalekites

Mount of the Amorites

Mount of the congregation

Mount of the valley

Mourn

Mouse

Mowing

Moza

Mozah

Mufflers

Mulberry

Mule

Murder

Murmuring

Murrain

Mushi

Music

Musician, Chief

Music, Instrumental

Mustard

Muth-labben

Muzzle

Myra

Myrrh

Myrtle

Mysia

Mystery

__________________________________________________________________

Naam

Naamah

Naaman

Naamathite

Naarah

Naarai

Naaran

Naarath

Nabal

Naboth

Nachon

Nadab

Nagge

Nahaliel

Nahallal

Naharai

Nahash

Nahath

Nahbi

Nahor

Nahshon

Nahum

Nahum, Book of

Nail

Nain

Naioth

Naked

Naomi

Naphish

Naphtali

Naphtali, Mount

Naphtali, Tribe of

Naphtuhim

Napkin

Narcissus

Nathan

Nathanael

Nativity of Christ

Naughty figs

Nazarene

Nazareth

Nazarite

Neah

Neapolis

Nebaioth

Neballat

Nebat

Nebo

Nebuchadnezzar

Nebuchadrezzar

Nebushasban

Nebuzaradan

Necho II

Neck

Necromancer

Nedabiah

Needle

Neginah

Neginoth

Nehelamite

Nehemiah

Nehemiah, Book of

Nehiloth

Nehushta

Nehushtan

Neiel

Nekeb

Nemuel

Nephilim

Nephtoah

Ner

Nereus

Nergal

Nergal-sharezer

Nero

Net

Nethaneel

Nethaniah

Nethinim

Netophah

Nettle

New Moon, Feast of

New Testament

Neziah

Nezib

Nibhaz

Nibshan

Nicanor

Nicodemus

Nicolaitanes

Nicolas

Nicopolis

Niger

Night-hawk

Nile

Nimrah

Nimrim, Waters of

Nimrod

Nimshi

Nineveh

Nisan

Nisroch

Nitre

No

Noadiah

Noah

Nob

Nobah

Nobleman

Nod

Nodab

Nogah

Noph

Nophah

North country

Northward

Nose-jewels

Numbering of the people

Numbers, Book of

Nun

Nuts

Nymphas

__________________________________________________________________

Oak

Oath

Obadiah

Obadiah, Book of

Obal

Obed

Obed-Edom

Obeisance

Obil

Oboth

Oded

Offence

Offering

Og

Ohad

Ohel

Oil

Oil-tree

Ointment

Old gate

Olive

Olive-tree

Olves, Mount of

Olympas

Omar

Omega

Omer

Omri

On

Onan

Onesimus

Onesiphorus

Onion

Ono

Onycha

Onyx

Open place

Ophel

Ophir

Ophni

Ophrah

Oracle

Oreb

Oreb, The rock of

Oren

Organ

Orion

Ornan

Orpah

Orphans

Osprey

Ossifrage

Ostrich

Othni

Othniel

Ouches

Oven

Owl

Ox

Ox goad

Ozem

Ozias

Ozni

__________________________________________________________________

Paarai

Padan

Padan-aram

Pagiel

Pahath-moab

Paint

Palace

Palestine

Pallu

Palmer-worm

Palm tree

Palm trees, The city of

Palsy

Palti

Paltiel

Paltite

Pamphylia

Pan

Pannag

Paper

Paphos

Parable

Paradise

Parah

Paran

Paran, Mount

Parbar

Parched ground

Parchment

Pardon

Parlour

Parmashta

Parmenas

Parshandatha

Parthians

Partridge

Paruah

Parvaim

Pasach

Pas-dammim

Pashur

Passage

Passion

Passover

Patara

Pathros

Patmos

Patriarch

Patrobas

Pau

Paul

Pavement

Pavilion

Peace offerings

Peacock

Pearl

Peculiar

Pedahel

Pedahzur

Pedaiah

Pekah

Pekahiah

Pekod

Pelaiah

Pelatiah

Peleg

Pelet

Peleth

Pelethites

Pelicans

Penny

Pentateuch

Pentecost

Penuel

Peor

Perazim, Mount

Peres

Perez

Perez-uzzah

Perfection

Perfumes

Perga

Pergamos

Perida

Perizzites

Persecution

Perseverance of the saints

Persia

Persis

Peruda

Peter

Peter, First Epistle of

Peter, Second Epistle of

Pethahiah

Pethor

Pethuel

Petra

Peulthai

Phalec

Phallu

Phalti

Phanuel

Pharaoh

Pharaoh's daughters

Pharez

Pharisees

Pharpar

Phebe

Phenice

Phenicia

Phicol

Philadelphia

Philemon

Philemon, Epistle to

Philetus

Philip

Philippi

Philippians, Epistle to

Philistia

Philistines

Phinehas

Phlegon

Phoenicia

Phrygia

Phut

Phygellus

Phylacteries

Physician

Pi-beseth

Pieces

Piety

Pigeon

Pi-hahiroth

Pilate, Pontius

Pillar

Pine tree

Pinnacle

Pipe

Piram

Pirathon

Pirathonite

Pisgah

Pisidia

Pison

Pit

Pitch

Pitcher

Pithom

Plague

Plain

Plain of Mamre

Plane tree

Pledge

Pleiades

Plough

Poetry

Poison

Pomegranate

Pommels

Pontius Pilate

Pontus

Pool

Pools of Solomon

Poor

Poplar

Porch, Solomon's

Porcius Festus

Porter

Post

Potiphar

Potipherah

Potsherd

Pottage

Potters field

Pottery

Pound

Praetorium

Prayer

Predestination

Presidents

Priest

Prince

Priscilla

Prison

Prophecy

Prophet

Propitiation

Proportion of faith

Proselyte

Proverb

Proverbs, Book of

Providence

Psalms

Psaltery

Ptolemais

Puah

Publican

Publius

Pudens

Pul

Pulpit

Pulse

Punishment

Purification

Pur, Purim

Purse

Puteoli

Put, Phut

Pygarg

__________________________________________________________________

Quails

Quarantania

Quarries

Quartus

Quaternion

Queen

Queen of heaven

Quicksands

Quiver

Quotations

__________________________________________________________________

Raamah

Raamiah

Raamses

Rabbah

Rabbi

Rabboni

Rabmag

Rabsaris

Rabshakeh

Raca

Rachab

Rachal

Rachel

Raguel

Rahab

Raham

Rain

Rainbow

Raisins

Rakkath

Rakkon

Ram

Rama

Ramathaim-zophim

Ramathite

Ramath-lehi

Ramath-mizpeh

Ramath of the south

Rameses

Ramoth

Ramoth-gilead

Ranges

Ransom

Rapha

Raphu

Raven

Razor

Reba

Rebekah

Rechab

Rechabites

Reconcilation

Recorder

Redeemer

Redemption

Red Sea

Red Sea, Passage of

Reed

Refiner

Refuge, Cities of

Regem-melech

Regeneration

Rehabiah

Rehob

Rehoboam

Rehoboth

Rehum

Rei

Reins

Rekem

Remaliah

Remeth

Remmon-methoar

Remphan

Rent

Repentance

Rephael

Rephaim

Rephaim, Valley of

Rephidim

Reprobate

Rereward

Resen

Rest

Resurrection of Christ

Resurrection of the dead

Reuben

Reuben, Tribe of

Reuel

Revelation

Revelation, Book of

Revelation of Christ

Rezeph

Rezin

Rezon

Rhegium

Rhesa

Rhoda

Rhodes

Riblah

Riddle

Righteousness

Rimmon

Rimmon-parez

Ring

Riphath

Rissah

Rithmah

River

River of Egypt

River of Gad

River of God

Rivers of Babylon

Rivers of Damascus

Rivers of Judah

Rizpah

Road

Robbery

Rock

Roe

Rogelim

Roll

Romamti-ezer

Romans, Epistle to the

Rome

Rose

Rosh

Rosin

Ruby

Rudder bands

Rue

Rufus

Ruhamah

Rumah

Rush

Ruth

Ruth The Book of

Rye

__________________________________________________________________

Sabachthani

Sabaoth

Sabbath

Sabbath day's journey

Sabbatical year

Sabeans

Sabtah

Sabtecha

Sachar

Sackbut

Sackcloth

Sacrifice

Sadducees

Sadoc

Saffron

Saint

Sala

Salamis

Salathiel

Salcah

Salem

Salim

Sallai

Sallu

Salmon

Salmon

Salmone

Salome

Salt

Salt Sea

Salt, The city of

Salt, Valley of

Salutation

Salvation

Samaria

Samaritan Pentateuch

Samaritans

Samgar-nebo

Samos

Samothracia

Samson

Samuel

Samuel, Books of

Sanballat

Sanctification

Sanctuary

Sandals

Sanhedrim

Sansannah

Saph

Saphir

Sapphira

Sapphire

Sarah

Sarai

Sardine stone

Sardis

Sardonyx

Sarepta

Sargon

Satan

Satyr

Saul

Saviour

Scapegoat

Scarlet

Sceptre

Sceva

Schism

Schoolmaster

Schools of the Prophets

Scorpions

Scourging

Scribes

Scrip

Scripture

Scythian

Seah

Seal

Sea of glass

Sea of Jazer

Seasons

Sea, The

Sea, The molten

Seba

Sebat

Secacah

Sechu

Sect

Secundus

Seer

Seethe

Seething pot

Segub

Seir

Seirath

Sela

Selah

Sela-hammahlekoth

Seleucia

Semei

Senaah

Senate

Seneh

Senir

Sennacherib

Seorim

Sephar

Sepharad

Sepharvaim

Septuagint

Sepulchre

Serah

Seraiah

Seraphim

Sered

Sergeants

Sergius Paulus

Sermon on the mount

Serpent

Serpent, Fiery

Serug

Servitor

Seth

Sethur

Seven

Seventy weeks

Shaalabbin

Shaaraim

Shaashgaz

Shabbethai

Shaddai

Shadow

Shadrach

Shalem

Shalim, Land of

Shalisha, Land of

Shallecheth, The gate of

Shallum

Shalman

Shamgar

Shamir

Shammah

Shammua

Shaphan

Shaphat

Shapher

Sharaim

Sharezer

Sharon, Saron

Shaveh-Kiriathaim

Shaveh, Valley of

Shavsha

Shealtiel

Shearing-house

Shear-Jashub

Sheba

Shebaniah

Shebarim

Shebna

Shebuel

Shecaniah

Shechem

Shechinah

Sheep

Sheep-fold

Sheep-gate

Sheep-market

Shekel

Shelah

Shelemiah

Shem

Shema

Shemaah

Shemaiah

Shemariah

Shemeber

Sheminith

Shemiramoth

Shemuel

Shen

Shenir

Sheol

Shepham

Shephatiah

Shepherd

Sherebiah

Sheresh

Sherezer

Sheriffs

Sheshach

Sheshai

Sheshbazzar

Sheth

Shethar

Shethar-boznai

Sheva

Shewbread

Shibboleth

Shibmah

Shield

Shiggaion

Shihon

Shihor

Shihor-Libnath

Shilhim

Shiloah, The waters of

Shiloh

Shilonite

Shimea

Shimeah

Shimei

Shimeon

Shimhi

Shimrath

Shimri

Shimrom

Shimron

Shimron-meron

Shimshai

Shinab

Shinar, The Land of

Shiphmite

Shiphrah

Shiphtan

Ships

Shishak I

Shittah-tree

Shittim

Shoa

Shobab

Shobach

Shobai

Shobal

Shobi

Shocho

Shoe

Shomer

Shophan

Shoshannim

Shoshannim-Eduth

Shrines, Silver

Shua

Shuah

Shual, The land of

Shuhite

Shulamite

Shunammite

Shunem

Shur

Shushan

Shushan-Eduth

Sibbecai

Sibmah

Sichem

Sickle

Siddim, Vale of

Sidon

Signet

Sihon

Sihor

Silas

Silk

Silla

Siloah, The pool of

Siloam, Pool of

Siloam, Tower of

Silver

Silverling

Simeon

Simeon, The tribe of

Simon

Simri

Sin

Sinai

Sinaiticus codex

Sinim, The land of

Sinite

Sin-offering

Sin, Wilderness of

Sion

Siphmoth

Sirah

Sirion

Sisera

Sitnah

Sitting

Sivan

Skin, Coats made of

Skull, The place of a

Slave

Slime

Sling

Smith

Smyrna

Snail

Snare

Snow

So

Soap

Socho

Sodom

Sodoma

Sodomites

Solemn meeting

Solomon

Solomon, Song of

Solomon's Porch

Songs

Son of God

Son of man

Soothsayer

Sop

Sopater

Sorcerer

Sorek

Sosipater

Sosthenes

South

Sovereignty

Spain

Sparrow

Spicery

Spices

Spider

Spies

Spikenard

Spirit

Spirit, Holy

Sponge

Spouse

Spring

Stachys

Stacte

Stargazers

Star, Morning

Stars

Stater

Stealing

Steel

Stephanas

Stephen

Stoics

Stomacher

Stone

Stones, Precious

Stoning

Stork

Strain at

Stranger

Straw

Stream of Egypt

Street

Stripes

Subscriptions

Suburbs

Succoth

Succoth-benoth

Sukkiims

Sun

Suph

Suphah

Supper

Surety

Susanchites

Susanna

Susi

Swallow

Swan

Swelling

Swine

Sword

Sycamine tree

Sycamore

Sychar

Sychem

Syene

Synagogue

Syntyche

Syracuse

Syria

Syriac

Syrophenician

__________________________________________________________________

Taanach

Taanath-shiloh

Tabbaoth

Tabbath

Tabeal

Tabeel

Taberah

Tabering

Tabernacle

Tabernacles, Feast of

Tabitha

Tables

Tablet

Tabor

Tabret

Tabrimon

Taches

Tachmonite

Tackling

Tadmor

Tahapanes

Tahpenes

Tahtim-hodshi

Tale

Talent

Talitha cumi

Talmai

Talmon

Tamar

Tamarisk

Tammuz

Tanhumeth

Tanis

Tappuah

Tarah

Tares

Target

Tarshish

Tarsus

Tartak

Tartan

Tatnai

Taverns, The three

Taxes

Taxing

Tebeth

Teil tree

Tekel

Tekoa, Tekoah

Tel-abib

Telaim

Telassar

Telem

Tel-haresha

Tel-melah

Tema

Teman

Temanite

Temeni

Temple

Temple, Herod's

Temple, Solomon's

Temple, the Second

Temptation

Tent

Tenth deal

Terah

Teraphim

Terebinth

Teresh

Tertius

Tertullus

Testament

Testimony

Testimony, Tabernacle of

Tetrarch

Thaddaeus

Thahash

Tharshish

Theatre

Thebez

Theft

Theocracy

Theophilus

Thessalonians, Epistles to the

Thessalonica

Theudas

Thick clay

Thieves, The two

Thistle

Thomas

Thorn

Thorn in the flesh

Thousands

Threshing

Threshold

Throne

Thummim

Thunder

Thyatira

Thyine wood

Tiberias

Tiberias, Sea of

Tiberius Caesar

Tibni

Tidal

Tiglath-Pileser I.

Tiglath-Pileser III.

Timaeus

Timbrel

Timnah

Timnath

Timnath-heres

Timnath-serah

Timnite

Timon

Timotheus

Timothy

Timothy, First Epistle to

Timothy, Second Epistle to

Tin

Tinkling ornaments

Tiphsah

Tiras

Tires

Tirhakah

Tirshatha

Tirza

Tishbite

Tisri

Tithe

Tittle

Titus

Titus, Epistle to

Tob-adonijah

Tobiah

Tobijah

Tob, The land of

Tochen

Togarmah

Tohu

Toi

Tola

Tolad

Tolaites

Toll

Tombs

Tongues, Confusion of

Tongues, Gift of

Tooth

Topaz

Tophel

Tophet

Torches

Torment

Tortoise

Tow

Tower of the furnaces

Towers

Trachonitis

Tradition

Trance

Transfiguration, the

Treasure cities

Treasure houses

Treasury

Tree of life

Tree of the knowledge of good and evil

Trespass offering

Tribe

Tribulation

Tribute

Trinity

Troas

Trogyllium

Trophimus

Trumpets

Trumpets, Feast of

Truth

Tryphena and Tryphosa

Tubal

Tubal-cain

Turtle, Turtle-dove

Tychicus

Type

Tyrannus

Tyre

Tyropoeon Valley

__________________________________________________________________

Ucal

Ulai

Ummah

Unction

Unicorn

Unni

Upharsin

Uphaz

Ur

Uriah

Uriel

Urijah

Urim

Usury

Uz

Uzal

Uz, The land of

Uzza

Uzzah

Uzzen-sherah

Uzzi

Uzziah

Uzziel

__________________________________________________________________

Vagabond

Vajezatha

Valley

Vashti

Vaticanus, Codex

Veil, vail

Version

Villages

Vine

Vinegar

Vine of Sodom

Viol

Viper

Virgin

Vision

Vows

Vulture

__________________________________________________________________

Wafers

Wages

Wagon

Wailing-place, Jews'

Wall

Wandering

War

Ward

Wars of the Lord, The Book of the

Washing

Watches

Watchings

Water of jealousy

Water of purification

Water of separation

Waterspouts

Wave offerings

Wax

Wean

Weasel

Weaving, weavers

Week

Weeks, Feast of

Weights

Well

Westward

Whale

Wheat

Wheel

White

Widows

Wife

Wilderness

Willows

Wimple

Window

Winds

Wine

Winefat

Wine-press

Winnow

Wise men

Wise, wisdom

Witch

Witchcraft

Witness

Witness of the Spirit

Wizard

Wolf

Woman

Wood

Wood-offering

Wool

Word of God

Word, The

Works, Covenant of

Works, Good

Worm

Wormwood

Worship

Worshipper

Wrestle

Writing

__________________________________________________________________

Yarn

Year

Yeshebi

Yoke

Yoke-fellow

__________________________________________________________________

Zaanaim

Zaanan

Zaanannim

Zaavan

Zabad

Zabbai

Zabbud

Zabdi

Zabdiel

Zabud

Zabulon

Zaccai

Zacchaeus

Zaccur

Zachariah

Zacharias

Zacher

Zadok

Zair

Zalmon

Zalmonah

Zalmunna

Zamzummims

Zanoah

Zaphnath-paaneah

Zarephath

Zaretan

Zareth-shahar

Zarthan

Zatthu

Zattu

Zaza

Zeal

Zealots

Zebadiah

Zebah

Zebaim

Zebedee

Zeboim

Zebudah

Zebul

Zebulonite

Zebulun

Zebulun, Lot of

Zebulun, Tribe of

Zechariah

Zedad

Zedekiah

Zeeb

Zelah

Zelek

Zelophehad

Zelotes

Zemaraim

Zemarite

Zemira

Zenas

Zephaniah

Zephath

Zephathah

Zerah

Zered

Zereda

Zeredathah

Zererath

Zeresh

Zeruah

Zerubbabel

Zeruiah

Zetham

Zethan

Zia

Ziba

Zibeon

Zibia

Zibiah

Zichri

Ziddim

Zidkijah

Zidon

Zif

Ziha

Ziklag

Zillah

Zilpah

Zilthai

Zimmah

Zimran

Zimri

Zin

Zina

Zion

Zior

Ziph

Ziphah

Ziphron

Zippor

Zipporah

Zithri

Ziz

Ziza

Zizah

Zoan

Zoar

Zobah

Zohar

Zoheleth

Zoheth

Zophah

The History of The Bible

Bible (Gr. βιβλία, books), the name applied by Chrysostom in the 4th century to the books of the Old and New Testaments, which had been called the "Scripture." The ancient plural has been transformed into a singular noun, in view of the recognized unity of the books of the Bible, which is thus called The Book by way of eminence. The Bible has two general divisions, the Old Testament and the New; the Greek διαθήkn meaning disposition by will, is used both in the Septuagint and in the Greek New Testament for the "covenant" or compact between God and man. The Old Testament was divided by the Jews into three parts, viz., the law, the prophets, and the sacred writings. The law comprised the five books of Moses. The prophets comprised the earlier prophets, so called - the books of Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings; and the later prophets - three major, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, and 12 minor, Hosea to Malachi. Under the sacred writings were included the poetical books, Psalms, Proverbs, Job; the "Five Rolls," Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther; also the books of Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and 1 and 2 Chronicles. The number of the books and their grouping have varied in different versions.

Our English Bible gives 39. Jerome counted the same books so as to equal the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet; Judges and Ruth, the two books of Samuel, two of Kings, two of Chronicles and the 12 minor prophets making five books. The later Jews of Palestine counted these 24. As to their order, the Masoretic arrangement, which is that of our present Hebrew Bibles, is very ancient. The Greek-speaking Jews, however, varied from those of Palestine, and their arrangement is preserved in the Septuagint, which is followed in the Vulgate and in our English Bibles; an order not according to chronological succession, but made with a view to grouping similar classes of composition together, the historical being placed first, the poetical next, and the prophetical last. The historical division opens in the book of Genesis with an account of the creation of all things, then takes up the history of the Hebrews as a matter of central interest, showing the separation of the family of Abraham from other nations and their prosperous settlement in Egypt. Exodus describes the escape of the Israelites from Egypt and their organization as a nation under the Mosaic law. Leviticus contains the more special laws of Israel, chiefly those relating to the public worship, festivals, and similar topics.

Numbers, with a supplement to the laws, narrates the weary march through the desert, and the opening of the contest for the land of Canaan. In Deuteronomy Moses, drawing near death, reminds the people of the experience they have gone through and the laws they have received, and exhorts them to obedience to God; then appoints a successor, and, taking a first and last look at the land not yet entered, dies. The book of Joshua describes the conquest and partition of Canaan, and the leader's farewell exhortation and death. In the next book, Judges, we read of anarchy and apostasy, and the consequent subjugation of the Israelites by their heathen neighbors, and the exploits of heroes raised up to deliver them. The books of Samuel give his history as prophet and judge, and the story of Saul and David. The books of Kings tell of David's death, the brilliant reign of Solomon, and the subsequent decline, the revolt of the ten tribes, the overthrow of the seceded kingdom of Israel and the fall of the kingdom of Judah into captivity, and the fate of the remnant left in Judea while their brethren were carried away captive. These books tell also of those prophets who testified for God in the face of wicked kings and a degenerate people.

The Chronicles are a supplementary work, and are accompanied by the book of Ruth, an episode in the time of the judges, narrating with exquisite grace the marriage of Ruth the Moabitess and Boaz the great-grandfather of David. The Old Testament history closes in the books of Ezra and Nehemiah, which describe the return of the Jewish nation from exile and the restoration of Jerusalem and the temple worship. The book of Esther records events of the Persian captivity. - While the historical books show the development of those religious ideas which underlie the Hebrew national life, the prophetic books show these ideas inspiring the people in their conflicts with unbelief and apostasy, and animating the nation with bright hopes of the future. In all literature there are no books like these, in severe morality, high religious tone, sublime conception, grand diction, and rich imagery. Covering a great extent of time, these prophetic writings vary in style, but they show the struggles of the nation's heart and its foreign relations in a way that lights up the historical books. - The poetical books express the same ideas with the prophetic, but in a more quiet didactic and lyric form.

The didactic portion of them consists of the Proverbs, a collection of sententious maxims and wise discourses; Ecclesiastes, an eloquent wail over the transientness of earthly things; and the book of Job, a philosophical poem upon Providence, wonderfully rich in thought and diction, and full of the doctrine of resignation to the mysterious will of God. The Psalms are a collection of devotional lyrics. Lamentations are elegiac patriotic verses. The Song of Solomon is an amatory idyll, which has been explained by many scholars as an allegory. - The New Testament gives the only original account of the origin and early spread of Christianity. It is composed of 27 books. Four contain the memoirs of Jesus; one (Acts) gives the actions of the apostles, especially of Peter and Paul; 21 are apostolical letters; and the collection closes with the Apocalypse. The Gospels of Matthew and John are held to be the work of the apostles whose names they bear. Mark was a disciple of Peter, and Luke a companion of Paul. The book of Acts is also ascribed to Luke. The Epistles are letters called forth by various exigencies, and contain incidental information, throwing much light upon the early constitution and spread of the Christian church, and the development of its doctrines.

The Apocalypse is the only book in the New Testament of a strictly prophetic character. It was written shortly after the death of Nero, and strengthened the hearts of Christians against a threatening persecution by giving hope of the approaching kingdom of Christ. - For 1,000 years learned men have been studying the authenticity and arrangement of the constituent parts of the Bible. The history of this work will be found under the title Canon. Far greater study, however, has been given to the original text of Scripture. The Hebrew text of the Old Testament as we have it has already passed through many revisions. Of the primitive text we have little positive information. The books were first written on skins or linen cloth or papyrus, and preserved in rolls. The letter used was the old Hebrew character, which is found on the coins of the Maccabees, and was probably of Phoenician origin. There were no accents nor vowel points, the consonants only being written, and the vowel sounds supplied by the usage of the living speech; and the words were generally run together in a continuous line. Not until the Hebrew became a dead language was its vowel system perfected, to take the place of the familiar usage which was passing away.

After the return from the Babylonish exile, the sacred books were subjected to a careful and critical examination. About the same time the written character of the ancient Hebrew was modified by the Aramaic chirography, until it took the square form, more nearly resembling the Palmyrene letters, which was adopted perhaps on account of its beauty. Simultaneously came another arrangement of the text, with a view to its public reading. Tradition had prescribed the manner in which the reader's voice should emphasize words and balance sentences, but it was long before that mode was declared by any written signs. The first step toward this was the separation of words from each other, and it was followed by the division into verses. This had been marked in poetry very early by lines or blank spaces measuring the rhythm. In prose it was introduced later for the convenience of the synagogue, and was established by the close of the period we are considering. Before this distribution into sentences, the necessity was felt of breaking up the text into sections of less or greater length.

In this division the book of the law consisted of (569 paragraphs or "pa-rashes," and these, in the absence of headings and running indices, were known and referred to by the subject that was most prominent in each; for example, parash "Balaam," parash "Bush," or "Deluge." The text, thus written and distributed, was most jealously guarded. In copying it nothing must be added, nothing taken away, nothing changed; letters, words, verses, sections were counted. Rules were made in regard to the way in which the MSS. were to be written; every letter that was larger or smaller, suspended or inverted, or otherwise unusual in its form, even if accidentally so written, was to be needfully copied. Another division into larger parashes or sections, adapted to the public readings on the Sabbath, was introduced at a later time. The next period in the history of the Old Testament text is the Masoretic, commonly reckoned from the 6th to the 11th century. The word masora means a "collection of traditions/' and the main object of the laborers in this field was to gather up and arrange the critical material of an older time before the existing traditions should fade out.

But the Masorites did more than this; they aimed at completing what had been commenced before; they would fix the reading of the text in all its parts, and their scrupulous care did much to finish and perfect it. They collated MSS., noticed critical and orthographical difficulties, and ventured upon conjectures of their own. Their notes were at' first written in separate books; afterward for convenience they were copied upon the margin of MSS. or even at the end of a book, a practice that led gradually to vast confusion. Attempts were even made to crowd the whole Masora upon the margin of MSS., and when the space was too small, as often it was, the annotations were appended to the text or omitted entirely Since the completion of the Masoretic period the labors of scholars have been spent in elucidating and perpetuating the Masoretic text. The MSS. of the Pentateuch were very carefully revised, and some of them are very ancient. Of the other books no MSS. date back as far as the Masoretic period: four or five belong to the 12th century; some 50 belong to the 13th; and for the following centuries the number increases.

Eminent Jewish scholars of the middle ages devoted themselves to the task of purifying the sacred text by the largest possible collation of MSS., and in their writings speak of famous copies now lost whose use they enjoyed. When the invention of printing had made easy the exact reproduction and extensive multiplication of copies, an attempt was made to compare carefully the best MSS. extant, to collate with them the Masora, and thus to bring out a true and pure Masoretic text; an undertaking too large to be accomplished at once, and therefore but imperfectly executed at that time. The books were produced singly. The earliest printed portion of the Hebrew Bible, the Psalter, was done in 1477, in small folio form, very carelessly, with many abbreviations, and not a few grave omissions. Later, about 1480, it was reprinted in 12mo, without date or place, and again in the same form with an index. The whole Pentateuch, with the points, the Chaldee paraphrase, and Rashi's commentary, was printed in 1482, in folio, at Bologna. In 1486 appeared in two folios, at Soncino, the prophets, early and later, with Kimchi's commentary.

The whole Hagiographa was printed in Naples in 1487. The entire Hebrew Bible was first printed at Soncino in 1488. It was made partly from MSS. neither very old, probably, nor very good, and partly from editions of separate books already published. It contained many errors. Only nine copies of this edition are extant. This was strictly followed by the Gerson edition printed at Brescia in 1494, from which Luther made his translation. It was the parent of the first rabbinical Bible of Bomberg, 1517 and 1518, and of Bomberg's manual editions from 1518 to 1521; of the editions of Robert Stephens (4to, 1539-'44), and of Sebastian Minister's (Basel, 2 vols. 4to, 1536). The next independent edition prepared from a fresh comparison of MSS. was the famous Complutensian Polyglot (Complutum, i. e., Alcala de Henares), the work of Cardinal Ximenes, assisted by the most eminent biblical scholars in Spain. No expense was spared to procure Hebrew MSS. from different countries. The Vatican and other libraries lent their treasures; and 14 years of preparatory labors were spent before the first volume was issued (1522). The text of the Complutensian Bible agrees closely with that of Bomberg's first edition of 1518. The third great original edition is the second of Bomberg's rabbinical Bible, printed in folio at Venice, 1525-'6. This embodies the labors of Rabbi Jacob ben Cha-jim, who revised the Masora word by word, arranged it, made an index, and availed himself systematically of its whole apparatus.

It was reprinted several times in the 1 6th and 17th centuries. After these three independent editions, all that follow contain a mixed text. The Antwerp Polyglot, published 1569-'72, at the expense of King Philip II. of Spain, and therefore called the royal Polyglot, was composed from the Complutensian and Bomberg's. Besides the texts in five volumes, four containing the Old and one the New Testament, three other volumes gave a valuable apparatus, critical, philological, antiquarian. The various editions of Plantin followed the Antwerp Polyglot, as did those of Christian Reineccius. It was the basis also of the Paris Polyglot (10 vols, folio, 1645), which gave the text in Hebrew, Samaritan, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, Greek, and Latin, containing for the first time in print the Samaritan Pentateuch. It was repeated again in the London Polyglot (6 vols, folio, 1657). Elias IIutter, in his first edition published at Hamburg in 1587, and three times reprinted, used the copies of Venice, Antwerp, and Paris. In 1611 the manual edition of Buxtorf was printed. Buxtorf undertook to improve upon Bomberg's Bible, and as far as he could conformed to the Masora, for whose text he had the highest respect, regarding it as the only perfect one.

The next important edition for which the oldest and best MSS. were collated was that of Joseph Athias, printed at Amsterdam, 1661 and 1667. Among the later editions that have followed this, the most noted from their new collation of MSS., careful selection of readings, and thorough correction of points, are those of Jablonski, Berlin, 1699; Van der Hooght, Amsterdam, 1705; J. H. Michaelis, Halle, 1720; Houbigant, Paris, 1753; Simon, Halle, 1752, 1767; Kennicott, Oxford, 1776,1780; August Halm, 1831; and G. Theile, 1849. Besides these editions, which aim at bringing the Masoretic text near its perfection, critical helps are found. in the Masora contained in the rabbinical Bibles of Bomberg and Buxtorf, and the various readings which are found in all the best editions. The toil and treasure expended upon this long series of editions, each of which was a triumph in its time, have not been wasted. The result on the whole is a text of these ancient and venerable books, not indeed perfect in every point and particle, but more excellent than might have been expected, a text that nearly corresponds with that of the books which constituted the oldest Hebrew canon. - The task of purifying the Greek of the New Testament and bringing it to the perfection of our latest and best editions was much less difficult, yet a work of no small magnitude.

Not a fragment from the hand of an evangelist or an apostle survived the early generations that used, the original MSS. and wore them out. The early Christians did not feel the importance of laying them sacredly aside. The greater their value, the more extensive was their circulation, and the briefer consequently their existence. The books of the New. Testament were written after the custom of the time upon papyrus, or upon parchment, finer and more durable, which was beginning to take its place, and were in the roll form. The writing itself, done with a reed and ink, was in uncial or large letters, and ran in continuous lines, with no spaces between the words, no capitals or stops. The heading of the books, "According to Matthew," "According to Luke," etc, was added later. Some epistles had their address marked upon them, but in others it was inferred from the contents. The title "catholic" ("general" in our English Bibles) was given to certain epistles in the 4th century. As copies of these ancient books multiplied, they naturally varied more or less from the originals and from each other; the copyists confounding similar letters or words, substituting a synonym for a given term, introducing something from a parallel passage or marginal gloss, or making other alterations unintentional or even intentional, as the copyist tried to harmonize seeming discrepancies or to explain what seemed obscure.

These variations, small and great, number not less than 120,000; yet they are mostly variations of spelling or inflection, often impossible to express in a translation. There are not more than 1,600 or 2,000 places where the true reading is at all in doubt, while the doubtful readings which affect the sense are much fewer still, and those of any dogmatic importance can be easily numbered. The MSS. of the New Testament have been classified according to certain literary or geographical affinities. They were divided into the eastern and the western, or according to another description, into an Alexandrine and a Latin, an Asiatic and a Byzantine text. The Alexandrine type of the Greek text was in use among the oriental Jewish Christians who used the Greek version of the Old Testament. The Latin type is found not only in the Latin copies, but in the Greek copies which the Latins used. These groups were not wholly distinct from one another, and it is difficult to fix upon the peculiar reading that belongs to each. The MSS. of the Byzantine class are most uniform.

Toward the close of the 4th century no single MS. was known that comprised the whole New Testament. At a considerably later period they were rare, and most of these contained also the Old Testament in Greek. The four gospels were commonly written in one collection, and the Pauline epistles in one. The catholic epistles were classed with the Acts, though sometimes these last two collections and the Pauline were united. MSS. of the Apocalypse were the rarest. The gospels were generally found in the order in which we have them, though in some copies they were transposed. After the Acts usually came the catholic epistles. The order in which the letters of Paul stood varied much. The place of the Apocalypse was fixed by Athanasius at the end of the collection, as it stands at present. By the 4th century papyrus had given place to parchment, and the form of the roll to that of the book. Breaks in the line and simple points were used. To meet the convenience of the public lecture, the books were measured off into pauses and sentences by lines, after the same manner with the poetical books of the Old Testament. It was not long, however, before other divisions of the text were adopted.

In the 8th century Ammonias in making his harmony of the gospels had broken up the text into 1,165 sections, and after the 5th century his arrangement was indicated upon the margin of nearly all the MSS. The gospels were divided into chapters from a very early period, but the present arrangement originated in the 18th century with Cardinal Hugo, who devised it while making a Latin concordance. Erasmus used it in the margin of his Latin translation, and it was repeated in the Complutensian Polyglot. The subdivision of the chapters into verses was introduced by Robert Stephens in 1551. Cursive or small letters were not generally substituted for the uncial till the 10th century. Uncial MSS. of the New Testament arc numerous when compared with the ancient MSS. of other works; and year by year new ones are being discovered. The ages of these to within half a century have been ascertained. To the 11th century belong two or three: the Sinaitic codex (A), now at St. Petersburg, obtained by Tischendorf from the convent of St. Catharine, Mt. Sinai, in 1859, and since published in facsimile at the expense of the emperor of Russia (1862); the Vatican codex (B), containing all the New Testament except the Apocalypse, the epistles to Timothy, Titus, and Philemon, and the last four and a half chapters of Hebrews. This MS. was published by Teschendorf at Leipzig in 1807 and by papal authority at Rome in 1868. To this century perhaps belongs a palimpsest in the British museum containing fragments of John xiii. and xvi., published by Tischendorf. To the 5th century belong seven MSS.: the Alexandrian codes (A), presented by the patriarch of Constantinople-to Charles I. in 1628, and preserved in the British museum, and published in 1780 and 1860; the Ephrem palimpsest (C), in the imperial library at, Paris, containing in 64-leaves fragments of the Septuagint, and in 145 two thirds of the New Testament, over which had been written the works of St. Ephrem the Syrian, deciphered and published by Tischendorf in 1843.; and five other fragmentary MSS. To the 6th century belong 18 MSS.; among them Beza's codex (D), a Greek-Latin Ms. of part of the New Testament presented by Bezain 1581 to the university of Cambridge; the Codex purpureus (X) written with silver letters on purple vellum; and other MSS. of great interest, From the 7th century we have only several fragments of MSS. To the 8th century are assigned 9 one of the most valuable being the MS. (I.) 62 in the imperial library at Paris used by Robert Stephens. The 9th century has left us 20 MSS., besides four which are assigned to the 9th or 10th. From the 10th century we have five.

These uncial MSS. (about 75) have been deciphered, some of them with great difficulty; most of them have been accurately collated, and the text of many has been published. Of them all, only one, the recently discovered Sinaitic MS., now has the New Testament complete, though three others originally had the whole, but now lack some parts. Four others have the gospels complete, and four nearly; and about 40 others have portions of the gospels, larger or smaller. The other New Testament books are found more or less complete in some, while in others they are wanting. Besides the 75 uncial MSS. above noticed, there are some 05 lectionaries, or select portions of the gospels or epistles for church services, written in uncial letters, and 1,215 MSS. of some portions of the New Testament and 248 lectionaries in cursive letters. - Most eminent scholars have aided in establishing the text of the New Testament: among the Greeks, Irenaeus, Clement, Origen, Athanasius, Eusebius, Epiphanius, the Cyrils, Chrysostom, and Theodoret; among the Latins, Cyprian, Tertullian, Ambrose, Augustine, and Rufinus. The name of Bede brings us nearer home. Alcuin endeavored to purify the Latin text, and Photius labored in the 9th century, Suidas in the 10th, and Theophylact, Oecumenius, and others in subsequent ages.

Yet 50 years after the invention of printing no attempt had been made to print the original text of the New Testament. The fifth volume of the Complutensian Polyglot contained the original Greek based on MSS. of no special value, so far as may be judged. This volume was printed first of the whole set in 1514, but was not issued until the rest were finished in 1522. Before this, in 1516, Erasmus had issued the first Greek and Latin edition of the New Testament at Basel, constructing his text from five MSS. there. A second edition, changed in some hundred passages, appeared in 1519, a third in 1522, and a fourth in 1527, further altered to conform to the Complutensian, and repeated in 1535 with little change. For 100 years the Complutensian and Erasmian texts were often reprinted with slight alterations. Famous editors of the text were Robert Stephens, a learned printer of Paris (1539-'51), and Theodore Beza (1565-'98). The Elzevirs at Leyden (1624-'41) and at Amsterdam (1656) gave what is known as the "received text," relying upon Stephens and Beza. Bishop Walton's London Polyglot of 1657, Bishop Fell's Greek Testament (Oxford, 1658) and Dr. John Mill's Greek New Testament (Oxford, 1707) gave various readings and versions from many ancient MSS. under the received text.

These were the precursors of modern critical editions. Bengel (Tubingen, 1734), Wetstein (Amsterdam, 1751), and Griesbach (Halle, 1744 and 1806) made great advances in critical perfection. The editions of Knapp, Tittmann, Hahn, and Theile are chiefly based on Griesbach's. Greenfield followed Mill, but gave Griesbach's principal variations. Scholz (Leipzig, 1830-'36) made a wide collation of MSS., and Lachmann a very critical study of a few MSS. The late Dean Alford and Dr. Tregelles in England, and Tischendorf in Germany, are among the most eminent laborers in our own day. Tischendorf's first edition (Leipzig, 1841) followed Griesbach and Lachmann, but subsequently he carried out a most elaborate plan of travel and investigation, and published its results in his second edition (Leipzig, 1849). Other editions have followed in 1850, 1854, and 1855-'9, the last giving valuable accounts of his- critical labors, and presenting the best text hitherto published. A new edition begun in 1864 is nearly completed (1873). Tregelles has published (1855-'70) an edition from collation and comparison of MSS. of all the Greek fathers down to the Nicene council. His edition is incomplete, being interrupted by the state of his health.

The various critical editions of the New Testament bear conclusive witness to the genuineness of the text in every matter of importance. There has been no material corruption in the sacred record. - The ancient translations of the Old and New Testaments are in some respects of great value. The oldest of these and the most celebrated is the Greek version of the Old Testament called the Septuagint (LXX.) from its 72 translators, or perhaps from the 72 members of the Sanhedrim who sanctioned it. It was commenced by Jews of Alexandria about 280 B. C, and was finished in the course of years evidently by different hands. The Pentateuch is pronounced by scholars the best portion of the work; other portions are unequal; here and there it is considered to betray an imperfect knowledge of the Hebrew language. It contains most of the books called the Apocrypha. The Greek Jews, in the declining state of the Hebrew tongue, made great use of the Septuagint, and even the Jews of Palestine held it in high esteem until the Christians in the second century quoted it against them. They then denied its agreement with the Hebrew, and it became odious to them.

In Jerome's day there were three differing yet authorized editions of the Septuagint in use: one in Palestine, one at Alexandria, and one in Constantinople. Hence the corruptions that mar the MSS. in our possession. The Septuagint was the parent of many translations in Latin, Syriac, Ethiopic, Coptic, Armenian, Georgian, Slavonic, and Arabic. Many oriental versions were made from the Hebrew, of uncertain date; among them the Targums in Chaldee, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Syriac translation called the Peshito or "simple," one of the oldest translations of the Bible, several in Arabic, and one in Persian. There were also other Greek versions, of which the most celebrated was that of Aquila, made about A. D. 135, and valuable on account of its anxious literalness.

Fragments of it are preserved in Origen's Hexapla. But after the Septuagint the most famous version from the Hebrew was the Latin version of Jerome, the basis of the present Vulgate. Jerome, who had previously undertaken a revision of the old Latin translation of the New Testament, called the Itala, revised the Psalter also from the Septuagint about 383. About 389 he began a new version from the Hebrew, and completed the work about 405. The work, though in parts hastily, was on the whole well done. The translator made use of the Greek versions that were before him, as well as of the Arabic and the Syriac, always, however, comparing them with the Hebrew. The translation, having to contend with a superstitious reverence for the Septuagint, met with a doubtful reception, and made its way slowly into favor, but in the course of 200 or 300 years it was highly regarded at Rome and in other places, but not so highly as to escape corruption from careless copyists, indiscreet revisers, ambitious critics, and reckless theologians. The old Vulgate (the Itala) and the new injured each other. Alcuin, early in the 9th century, bidden, and as some think aided by Charlemagne, revised and corrected Jerome's version by the Hebrew and Greek originals.

Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury in the 11th century, revised it again. The council of Trent (1546), having received a report from a commission that the text was very corrupt, so that only the pope could restore it, declared that "the old and Vulgate edition . . . shall be held as authentic, . . . and that no one, on any pretext whatever, may dare or presume to reject it." The council also decreed that the edition " should be printed as accurately as possible." As it had become necessary to prepare an authentic edition of the authorized version, two popes, Pius IV. and V., addressed themselves to this task; learned men were assembled, a printing press was erected in the Vatican, a pontiff looked over the printed sheets, and the work was published in 1590; but it proved to be so imperfect that Gregory XIV. called another assembly of scholars to make another revision. This time the duty was more thoroughly discharged, and the Biblia Sacra Vulg. Ed. Test. V. Pont. Max. jussu recog., etc, the basis of every subsequent edition, was issued in 1592. The famous Bellarmin, one of the translators, wrote the preface. - Translations of the New Testament were made very early into all the tongues then spoken by Christians. A few words upon some of the more modern versions will be in place here.